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(Tib., ''/Wifw," LJ 


CHEIROGNOMY, the science of declaring the 
characters, aptitudes, and mental conditions 
of men by a glance at the formations of 
their hands, came suddenly into existence, without 
any known precedent. Adrien Desbarrolles, the 
cheiromant, whose death has created only recently 
so much stir among cheirosophists, not only in 
Paris, but all over the world, tells us in his book 
" Lts Mysteres de la Main " [p. 107], that one day 
he asked d'Arpentigny how he had discovered his 
system. " By a Divine inspiration/' quoth he. 

However this may be, we know how our author 
tabulated his system, and from what materials. 
M. Gourdon de Genouillac has told us how his 
attention was first drawn thereto in Spain. 
M. Desbarrolles has told us how he completed 
his investigations, and how he formulated his 
observations so as to be able to act upon his 
experience. It appears that when he was still 
quite young and living in the country, he was in 
the habit of going to the parties of a rich land- 
owner who lived near him. This gentleman being 
imbued with a strong taste for exact sciences in 
general and mechanics in particular, his assemblies 


were mainly composed of geometricians and 
mechanicians. His wife, on the other hand, was 
passionately fond of art, and received none but 
artists ; the natural result was, that each of them 
received on different days, and d'Arpentigny, being 
neither a mechanician nor an artist, went to the 
receptions of both. Having himself hands which 
were very beautiful \ytde Appendix A., p. 417], he 
continually contrasted the hands of the people 
by whom he was surrounded with his own, and 
it gradually occurred to him that the fingers of 
the arithmeticians and ironworkers were knotty, 
whilst those of the artists were smooth ^ [vide 
IT 1 10]. Having made this observation, he com- 
menced to develop it, examining as many hands 
as he came across, with the invariable result that 
he found the hands of manual labourers to be 
prominent-jointed, whilst those of artists were 
smooth. He studied and observed for thirty 
years before he considered that he had sufficiently 
established his system to render it capable of 
reliable practice. He did not try to account for 
his science as I have done in the Introductory 
Arguments to this volume, and to ** A Manual of 
Cheirosophy; '* all he said was, " Here are facts ; 
here are indications which are invariably connected 
with certain characteristics ; these things speak 
for themselves." 

There is a great tendency in the present day 
to dress up old dogmata in new forms and cry 
" Ecco ! a new science ! " a constantly recurring 
state of things that reminds one of the grim, 
gigantic helmet in Dryden's ** Battle of the Books j^ 
in the farthest corner of which was found a tiny 
head the size of a walnut ; but in this science I 


do not think there are to be found — as there are in 
the newer cheiromancy, — traces of a long-disused 
cultus, "an old idea,*' as Longfellow says in 
^* Hyperion y* "folded in a new garment, which looks 
you in the face and pretends not to know you, 
though you have been familiar friends from child- 
hood." In vain has Desbarrolles endeavoured to 
surround this branch of the science with a proto- 
plasm of gnostic mysticism by devoting several 
pages [275-282] of his book to a process of what 
he calls "enriching the system of M. d'Arpen- 
tigny by means of the Kabbala." When, how- 
ever, he tabulates the cheirognomical indications 
of the seven cardinal sins, he becomes interesting, 
and when in his larger and more recent volume, 
**St4ite et Fin " (Paris : 1879), he gives a few pages 
on how to put the science rapidly into practice 
[p. 90], he becomes most valuable, and I can 
warmly recommend a perusal of those pages to 
all who are interested in the subject-matter of 
this volume. 

It will be noticed, as M. Desbarrolles has 
remarked [i^ide p. 420], that our author, being of 
Bacon's opinion that " it is good to vary and 
intermingle speech of the present occasion with 
arguments, tales with reasons, asking of questions 
with telling of opinions, and jest with earnest," 
betrays a continual tendency to fly off at a tangent 
and talk delightfully and interestingly about some- 
thing else concerning which he has somewhat to 
say, with the natural result that he frequently 
loses and frequently repeats himself. 1 have 
endeavoured, by appending an extremely full 
index, to reduce as far as possible the irritation 
resulting from this state of things, which the 

philosophically-minded reader will naturally evind 
rather than to say with Omar Khayyam — 

" They who by genius and by powor of brain 
The rank of man'a enlighlenecs attain, 

Not even Ihey emerge from this dark night, 
But tell their dreama, and lall asleep again I" 


a verse whose original terminates this work on 
P- 439- 

Again, in alluding to living and dead celebrities 
as illustrations of certain types of hands, he has 
often thought it sufficient merely Id mention a 
name, or a place, or an event, assuming that it is 
already familiar to his readers. All of us, how- 
ever, not being on a par with M. d'Arpentigny in 
the matter of erudition or of scholarship, I have 
deemed it expedient to verify all, and in some 
cases to correct, his allusions, and to give for the 
benefit of my readers references to works where 
they may, if they choose, pursue the suggestions 
of our author. The result of this has been an 
enormous mass of notes, carefully selected from 
a much larger quantity which I have collected 
during the past five years with a view to their 
ultimate utilisation in this form. It may strike 
the reader at the first glance that I have some- 
what overdone this matter, but a few moments' 
perusal of these pages will, I think, convince him 
[or her] that in amplifying my completion of the 
labours of M. d'Arpentigny I have added interest 
as well as biographical and bibliographical value 
to his work. 

There be some," said Don Quijote to Sancho, 
1 weary themselves in knowing and verifying 
which, after knowing and verifying, are not 


worth a farthing to the mind orthe memory." I trust 
I have avoided such a reproach as this, and I hope 
that I am not like Orbaneja, the painter of Ubeda, 
who, when he had painted a cock, found it 
necessary to write underneath it, " This is a cockJ* 
I had rather be considered [to follow up Don 
Quijote], " some sage enchanter, from which kind 
of people nothing is hid on which they wish to 
write." To such gibes I would answer as the 
Knight of the Rueful Visage did to Sancho, when 
the latter said to him, " I say of a verity that your 
worship is the devil himself, for there is nothing 
you do not know;" — "Tis necessary to know 
everything," answered Don Quijote, " in the office 
which I profess." Seriously, I have been obliged 
in my notes to follow the style of M. d'Arpentigny, 
who seems to have studied like Imlac in Johnson's 
** RasselaSy" considering that " he who knows 
most will have most power of diversifying his 
scenes and of gratifying his reader with remote 
allusions and unexpected instruction." 

This volume is, as it were, illustrative to '*A 
Manual of Cheirosophy** I have established 
throughout a series of cross references to that 
volume, so that those of my readers who already 
possess it will find as it were a still more amplified 
commentary to this text therein. It is for this 
reason that I have carefully avoided in any way 
repeating any of the indications which are laid 
down in that volume, excepting so far as the first 
section of the ** Manual^ owes its origin to the 
work of M. d' Arpentigny. 

This book might, therefore, be entitled " A 
Manual of Biographical Cheirosophy," or, '• The 
Natural History of Hands." Professor Drum- 


mond, in the work which I have had occasion 
several times to quote during the composition 
of the pages which follow, has very justly 
remarked that biography is practically a branch 
of natural history ; it is in this light that 1 
have treated it in this new volume of the great 
book of Nature, and I hope that I might, like 
Lavater, inscribe upon the title-page of my book 
that it is " destined to promote the knowledge 
and the love of mankind." 

In conclusion, I wish to record my thanks to 
the very large number of the readers of "A 
Manual of Cheirosopky" who have written me 
letters expressing their interest in, and sympathy 
with, my work. I should like to have printed some 
extracts from some of the letters I have received 
from some of the most eminent thinkers and 
scientists of the day, but I feel that they were 
not sent to me with this object, and 1 merely 
consign this new volume to the tender hands 
which received my last so kindly, saying to it in 
the words of Herrick : — 

" Make haste away, and let one be 
A friendly patron unto thpe, 
Lest rapt from hence, I sec thee lie 
Torn for (he use of pastery ; 
Or see thy injured leaves strive well 
To make loose gowns for mackerel ; 
Or see the grocers in a triec, 
Hake hoods of thee to serve out spice 1 " 



THE accomplished author whose name we 
find inscribed upon the title-page of this 
book was a man of a strongly-marked 

A man of refinement in every sense of the 
expression, he became, almost unconsciously, a 
man of science ; gifted with an ardent desire for 
knowledge, and singularly adapted by the nature 
of his highly-impressionable organisation for the 
rapid assimilation and comprehension of things, 
he was readily attracted by the revelations of 
a Science, the dicta of which struck his mind 
forcibly, and concerning which he determined, 
with the singleness of purpose which was with 
him a leading characteristic, to become the leading 

Before proceeding further, however, let us 
briefly review the life of this attractive man, who, 
as the poet Barth^lemy has said, " was equally 
expert with the pen and with the sword." By 
this means will be demonstrated to the reader the 
chain of circumstances which led him to become 
the high priest of the Science of Cheirognomy. 

Bom on March 13th, 1798, at Yvetot, Casimir 
Stanislas d'Arpentigny, destined from his earliest 
years for a military career, entered the military 


college of St. Cyr, where he began immediately to 
attract attention to himself, not only on account 
of his rapid progress in mastering the curriculum, 
but by reason, particularly, of the malicious 
humour which inspired his biting epigrams, against 
the stinging sarcasms of which no one in the 
institution was proof, not even the commander-in- 
chief, who woke one day to the fact that he had 
been lampooned after a fashion so drastic and 
effectual, that he felt himself bound to punish the 
offender with a severity which sufficiently revealed 
the depth of the wound which had been inflicted 
upon his self-esteem. 

D'Arpentigny, who was on the point of being 
gazetted to a sub-lieutenancy, was ignpminiously 
expelled. He had, however, the consolation of 
knowing that he would be amply revenged by his 
epigram, which became popular in every barrack 
throughout France. Still, baulked of the epaulette 
which he was, as it were, in the act of grasping, 
it was clear to him that he must use every en- 
deavour to regain his right thereto, and nerved by 
this consideration he enlisted in the 29th regiment 
of the line. Three years later he obtained his 
commission, and, having been taken prisoner at 
Dantzic, he returned to France in 1 8 14, and was 
placed upon the retired list 

Gazetted to the 66th regiment in 181 5, he was 
again disbanded in the ordinary course of events, 
and re-entered the service in 18 18. In 1820 he 
served as lieutenant in Spain, and on his return 
was made a member of the royal body-guard 
[Compagnie de Croy]. With the revolution of 
1830, the throne being overtum^H its supporters 
were scattered, and DV >tered the 


40th regiment with the rank of captain ; he was 
decorated with the Cross of the Legion of Honour 
in 1833, and served until his retirement in 1844, 
after an honourable service of thirty years' dura- 

At the end of his military career his literary one 

We saw him taking part in the Peninsular War ; 
it was during this campaign that his chcirognomi- 
cal studies had their origin. One day whilst the 
young officer was walking along one of the high 
roads of Andalusia he was accosted by a giiaHa, 
who offered to read for him his fortune by the 
inspection of his hands. This girl, a perfect 
specimen of the pure Moorish type, was extremely 
beautiful, and D'Arpentigny, willingly submitting 
to her powers of persuasion, laughingly extended 
his hand and listened to the string of experimental 
ratiocinations which the gipsy poured forth with a 
complimentary eloquence and euphemism, which 
was in a direct ratio to the liberality of the lieu- 
tenant, who, as he pursued his walk, began to find 
much food for thought in this form of divination 
by the lines of the hand, and in some of the 
quaintly-suggestive terms of which the fortune- 
teller had made use, which had forcibly attracted 
his attention.^ He reflected that allowing Cheiro- 

' Our author mi^ht have compared himself to the 
chevalier Duguesclin, to whom a nun [a converted 
Jewess] predicted that he would be honoured above all 
men in the kingdom of France. "We are told that 
astronomv confirmed the predictions of cheiromancy, 
and that l)uguesclin, in consequence, alw<iys kept a wise 
divining -sibyl at his side through all his enterprises'* 
[ridt H. Martin's " Histoire de Frame'* (Paris : 1878). 
vol. v., p. 2^4 ; and G. dc Berville, ** Histoire de Ber* 
tramddu Guesclin " (Paris : 1767)]. 


mancy, as practised by gipsies and ignorant 
mountebanks, to be merely an innocent fraud 
cultivated and perpetrated with a view to the 
extraction of coppers from the wayfarer, it was 
none the less significant that in practising their 
pretended " science/' these people merely repeated 
phrases which they had learnt from their fathers, 
who, in turn, had learnt them from their fore- 

Running through the chaotic nonsense which 
the gipsy recited, the listener had been struck by 
the recurrence of certain expressions which seemed 
to him to be echoes of a forgotten language, — of a 
language whereof the essential character retained 
much of its ancient force. Reflecting thus, D'Ar- 
pentigny set himself thoroughly to sift the matter 
to the bottom, and he left no stone unturned to 
discover the truth, which he wished to prove to 
be clearly and palpably evident. For twenty 
years he devoted himself with enthusiasm and 
energy to this arduous task, for, as is usually the 
case under similar circumstances, in proportion as 
his ideas advanced like pioneers before his studies, 
losing themselves in the profound obscurities of 
the road, so did the horizon enlarge itself, and 
so did new openings and obstacles in the way 
present themselves. He examined the writings 
of Avicenna and of Fraetichius, and by their 
means he corroborated the opinions of Antiochus, 
Tibertus, and Taisnier; he dived into Plato and 
Aristotle, he interrogated Ptolemy, and sought 
inspiration from AverroCs;* in short, he mas- 
tered the literature of the subject, learnt all that 

* Vtde notes '•^'•>, p. 169-71. 


was to be learnt from others, and then, having 
stored his mind with the observations of his 
predecessors, he came to the conclusion that 
nothing but doubt could result from his studies 
until he had certified his knowledge by actual 

It was then that he commenced to compare the 
hands of all those in whose company he was 
thrown, and that he commenced to note the most 
infinitesimal details of their conformations, that 
he analysed their aspects, and that he, for the 
first time, formulated an exact system based upon 
logic and upon reason.*^ And after having minutely 
examined the obscurest arcana of the Mysteries 
of the Hand, from which, day by day, his intelli- 
gent perspicacity rent the veil of doubt, he finally 
resolved to publish his book ; — a book which is 
clear and precise, and which possesses the groat 
advantage of being easily obtainable by all classes 
of readers ; which calls things clearly by their 
right names, and which does not aim at the 

There is no childish and pretentious fmse-en" 
seine; it is simply and neatly expressed, con- 
cise, and — a quality which in no wise detracts 
from its value as a philosophical work — it is 
written with that fascinating charm, which carries 
away the reader by the spontaneity of its treat- 
ment, the power of its expression, and the wealth 
of its ideas. If further recommendation were 
clesired let us see what the most eminent literary 
of the day have thought of this ingenious 

• Vide on this point p. 7 in the Preface to this 


and unique volume ; here, for instance, we have a 
letter which the author of " Elvire " * addressed to 
the author of " La Science de la Main/' when the 
work first made its appearance : — 

*' I have read your work with great interest^ for 
your style would recommend to my consideration 
the most hypothetical science. Even if there be 
not complete theoretical certainty in the system, 
there is a singular charm in your exposition 
thereof. I have delayed writing this to you, 
because I did not know your address, but many 
mutual friends will have conveyed to you these 
compliments and my regrets that you should have 
had to wait so long for them. If there is, indeed, 
revelatio 1 in the hand, believe, I pray you, in mine 
when it acknowledges all the pleasure which you 
have given me» We were comrades in the Royal 
Body-guard, and I congratulate myself that we 

* I presume that it was not without reason that 
M. de Genouillac names **jS/vtre** in this place — 
** Elvire " being one of the obscurest of De Lamartine's 
unfinished works. It may be found in vol. 1. of the 
** (Euvres de Lamar tine " [** Meditations po^tiques 
avec Commentaires '*] (Paris : 1849, /'. Didot^ 14 vols.), 
on p. 109 of which the author says : — *' This AidditatioH 
is merely a fragment of a much larger piece which I 
composed a long while before I wrote the real * Mid na- 
tions,* It consisted of some love verses addressed to 
a youn^ Neapolitan gid whose death I have related in 
* Les Confidences* Her name was Graziella. These 
verses formed part of a collection in two volumes of the 
poems of my earliest youth, which I burnt itl 1821. My 
friends had preserved a few of them, and restored to me 
this one, when I printed my * Miditations,* I separated 
these verses and wrote the name • Elvire * above them 
instead of that of * Graziella.* It is obvious that 
they are not bom of the same inspir'^*«'^« " A most 
interesting commentary to my min ' 


continue to be so in the study of natural 

" Recevez, Monsieur, etc,, etc., Lamartine. 

" TgiAyutu, 1857." 

Jules Janin* also pays a tribute of respect to 
the author in a few amiable lines as follows : — 

" Take care ! You give me a book ! if I were 
not of a considerate turn of mind I could over- 
whelm you with it ; especially as you have con- 
structed a theory which is charming, ingenious, 
probable, well expressed, and curious. I shall 
profit by it on the spot. When I have read your 
book with the care that it deserves, I hope you 
Mrill allow me to talk to my readers about it in 
the Journal des Debats, It will give me great 
pleasure to testify publicly my appreciation of 
your civilities to me ; meanwhile, under all circum- 
stances, and in all places, believe me to be very 

absolutely. Yours, 

•' J. Janin." 

I do not propose in this place to publish all the 
sympathetic testimonials which were sent to M. 
d'Arpentigny on the publication of this volume.* 

» Member of the Acadimie Fran^aise and editor of 
the ''Journal des Debats" author of ^' Bar nave"* 
(Paris: i860), "Ztf Brctagne" (1844). '' Les Cata- 
combes"' (1^39). ** Che/s d (Eur res Dramatiques du 
xviii' Si'Me*^ {iHyq), '* Le Litre" (1870), and of a 
vast quantity of novels and novelettes. 

* I omit as superfluous a long letter in the same style, 
written under date 23rd March, 1858, by J. M. Oargaud, 
the historian, author of ** Histoired Elizabeth d Angle- 
ierre ' (Paris : 1866) ; '' Histoire de Lady Jane Grey " 
(1863); '' Histoire de Marie Stuarr (1850); '' Histoire 
^ Omer Cromwell* (1867). etc., etc. 


. . . The above letters give a good idea of the 
impression which was made upon the public by 
its appearance, which was heralded with delight 
by the world, and by the friends of the author, 
who were a host in themselves, for he was on 
terms of friendship with the whole of the Parisian 
aristocracy, whether of birth or of talent. 

His profoundly witty and incisive pen took a 
pleasure in recalling the numberless recollections 
of his military life, and he has left his pages 
sparkling with strokes of wit and sarcasm. When 
I knew him — it was towards the end of his life, — 
he was a fine old man, full of energy and health, 
whose lips scarcely ever opened without letting 
fall flashes of exquisite satire. His whims often 
wounded, and his caustic humour often over- 
whelmed with sharply-pointed missiles, even his 
best friends, who were, however, perfectly willing 
to stand fire, reflecting that no one was exempt 
from the thick hail of his witticisms, — and besides 
they appreciated thq wit which supplied the 

He was an accomplished talker, and he con- 
versed with a gaiety which was absolutely juvenile. 
He had made a minute study of men, with the 
result that he came to the positive conclusion 
that women are infinitely superior to them ; it is 
not surprising, therefore, that he was extremely 
fond of women, and that they entirely reciprocated 
the sentiment. The noblest and most influential 
dames of Parisian society made it their study 
to surround the old age of this incorrigible cynic 
[who never abdicated his right to tyrannise over 
them] with delicate and touching attentions. 

One evening he went peacefully and quietly to 


sleep, and in the morning they found him sunk 
in the perfect slumber from which there is no 
awakening on this side of the grave. And his 
lips had closed, wreathed as was their wont in a 
cynic smile. 

\^From the French of'\ 

H. GouRDON de Genouillac 

Byon CttyOy. 


Lffve^ like a gypsy ^ lately came^ 

And did me much importune 
To see my hand, that by the same 

He might foretell my fortune. 

He saw my palm ; ami then^ said he, 

* I tell thee, by this score here. 
That thou, within few months^ shall be 

The youthful Prince d'Atnour here.* 

I smiled, and bade him once more prove, 

And by some cross-line show it, 
TTiat I could nier be Prince of Love, 

Though here the princely poet J*'^ 

Herrick, ** Hesperides. 






MENT 29 


SuB-stCTioN I.— The Classification of Hands . 95 


Sub-section II.^Thb Significations found in 

THE Palm of the Hand . . 101 

III.— The Significations found in 

THE Fingers of the Hand . 105 

IV.— The Thumb .... 138 

V.—Habd and Soft Hands • I53 



SERVATIONS .... 167 

Sub-section VI.— A few Words on the Science 

OF Cheiromancy . . . 169 

VII. — Reflections, Explanations, and 

Digressions . . . -175 

Sub-section VIII. — Elementary Hands . . 199 


Sub-section IX. — Spatulate Hands . .221 

X. — [The like\ National Character- 
istics AND Hands . . . 230 

XI. — [ 7^ liki\ Catholics and Protes- 
tants, Lyricism and Mysticism 245 

XII.— [ The like] English Hands . . 252 

Xlll.—iThe like] The Hands of the 

North Americans . . . 262 

XIV.— [ The like] The Veneration of all 

People for Pointed Fingers . 267 

XV ,— [The like] Roman Hands . . 269 


Sub-section XVI.— Artistic Hands . . . 287 
XVll.-^The like] The Artistic Hands 

OF THE Sixteenth Century . 303 





Sub-section XVIII.— Usiful Hands . , . 319 

XI>J. — [ 7^ /fitf] Chinese Hands . 341 

Sub-section XX. — Philosophic Hands 

Sub-section XXL— Psychic Hands 


Sub-section XXII.— Mixed Hands 

XXlU.—[Tk€ liki] Artistico 


. 347 

. 349 

. 361 

. 363 

. 383 

. 385 


. 390 


Sub-section XXIV.— A few Words upon the 

Hands of Women . 401 

APPENDIX A.— The Hand of M. le Capitaine 

C. S. I)*Arpentigny . . 417 

APPENDIX B.— Bibliotheca CHEiRosi>PHicA . .421 


. 435 




I. Osteology. The Bones of the Hand— 


Fig. I. Transverse section of bone . . • 72 
„ 2. Earthy matter of bone. Longitudinal 

section 74 

II. Myology. The Muscles op the Dorsal 

Surface of the Hand . . facing 76 

Fig. 3. Voluntary muscular fibre . . . -77 

III. The Like, of the Palmar Surface facing 78 

Fig. 4. Vertical section of the skin . . .80 

5. Section of skin showing the deeper layers 81 

6. Surface of the skin, showing the sweat pores 82 

IV. The Elementary Hand . . . facing 199 
V. The Spatulate Hand . . . ,,221 

VI. The Conic Hand .... ,,287 

VII. The Square Hand .... ,, 319 

VIII. The Knotty Hand .... „ 349 

IX. The Pointed Hand .... „ 363 

X. The Artistico-Elementarv Hand . „ 385 

XI. A Female Hand ,,401 


Head-pieces.— The Seven Ages of Hands. The Cheiro- 
stemon. The Legend op the Monk Ricardus. 
Hand-shaped Roots. 

KoMmitnlr Vntnel p^tr^Iec, tntit. et Irelt. 

anttoouctotp O<»,ettation ano 

"Noil ego tifntoMe benor stttTtagta yleliis."— Horace. 

" Say that thou pour'st them wheat. 

And they wQl acorns eat : 
'Twere simple fury still thyself to waste 

On such as have no taste I 
To offer them a surfeit of pure breads 

Whose appetites are dead I 

No, give them grains their fill. 

Husks, draff to drink and swill : 
If they love lees, and leave the lusty wine. 
Envy them not, their palate's with the swine 1 ' 

Ben jonson. 



The philosopher to whom we are indebted Tor the 
above quotation spoke with truth when he described 
the hand as the member of the members — the 
Zfrjofim wfia £pyavuv.^ From the earliest ages, and 
in all nations, homage has been paid to its importance 
by teachers in Ifaeir writings, by priests in their 
ceremonies, and by the common people in their 
superstitions ; and this will not, I think, be wondered 
at when we reflect upon the part which is played by 
our hands upon the theatre of our existence, when 
we consider that there exists scarcely a single inci- 
dent of our lives in which the hand is not the prime 
■gent, the apparatus whereby we practically live, 
move, and have our being. It will not, 1 think, be 
taken amiss if as an introduction to this volume I 
devote a few moments to the consideration of, and 
the tabtilation of a few notes upon, the superstitions 

• nEFI taXS HOPIOK A'., i'. 


and customs which have grouped themselves round 
this all-important member.® 
2. When we consider the absolute perfection of the 

OT of the j^gj^j^ whose entire structure, as Galen remarks,* 
is such that it could not be improved by any con- 
ceivable alteration, we cannot but realise the value 
of any study which draws our attention more closely 
:. Bell, to it, and we are impelled to ask with Sir Charles 
Bell,^® " Is it nothing to have our minds awakened 
to the perception of the numerous proofs of design 
which present themselves' in the study of the hand, 
to be brought to the conviction that everything in 
its structure is orderly and systematic, and that the 
most perfect mechanism, the most minute and curious 
apparatus, and sensibilities the most delicate and 
appropriate, are all combined in operation that we 
may move it?" 
f 3. It is not in any way strange that in days of old, as 

fthrbody. Steevens has observed, all sudden pains of the body 
which could not be naturally accounted for, were 
assumed to be presages of something that was shortly 
to happen, — an idea which we find expressed in the 
autus. Miles Gloriosus of Plautus, in the line : — 

** Timeo quod rerum gesserim hie ita dorsus totus pnirit ! *' 

How much more, therefore, should men have attached 
importance to sudden sensations of their all- 
important hands. Who has not heard of the 
ing palm. " itching palm," which seems originally to have been 
regarded as a sign of coming fortune rather thani as 

■ The following remarks upon " Hand Superstitions 
and Customs form the substance of a lecture 
delivered on the 4th December, 1885, before the '.* Settb 
OF Odd Volumes." 

• «« De Usu Partiutn Corporis Humaniy^ book i. 

»• " The Hand, its Mechanism and Vital Endotih 
ments* {L^xidon: 1832). 


it is to-day, a sign of avarice ? " and Shakespeare's Shakespeare. 
lines, ** By the pricking of my thumbs, something 
wicked this way comes" [Macbe/h, iw,, i.] have 
become a proverb. 

This pricking of the thumbs as a warning of ^ ^• 

, ^ ^i • ij Pricking of the 

commg danger constantly recurs in old romances : thumh. 
perhaps one of the best known is the story of the 
Irish hero Fingal, whose Gargantuan master, having Fiugai. 
devoted many years to the attempt^ at length caught 
a fish, the properties of which were, that whoso 
should first taste thereof should immediately be 
endowed with the gift of foresight. This finny 
phaenomenon was handed to Fingal to be cooked ; and 
during this operation, he having turned away himself, 
and in so doing having forgotten to turn the fish, a 
blister rose upon its side. Fingal, terrified at the 
prospective consequences of his inattention, pressed 
down the blister with his thumb : in so doing, the 
scorched fish adhered thereto and burnt it, whereupon 
our hero not unnaturally put his thumb into his 
mouth. The mischief [or rather the good — from 
Fingal's point of view] was instantaneous, kt was 
the first to taste the fish, and consequently^ was the 
depositary .of the coveted power ; he fled from the 
scene of his dereliction, and, of course, the giant 
followed vowing vengeance, but in vain, for whenever 
he approached his victim the pricking tif the latter's 
thumb warned him of the coming danger, and 

" John Melton, •• AstroiogasUr, or the Figure 
Caster** (London: 1620J: — "When the palme of the 
right hande itcheth it is a shrewde si^^e he shall 
recei\-c money.** This would seem to have originated 
to the East, judging by a custom quoted by G. Atkin- 
soQ io his •* Customs and Manners o^ the Women of 
Persia^** translated from a Persian MS. (London: 18^2), 
which reads: '* If the palm of the hand itches, rub it 
on Uie head of a boy whose father and mother are still 
Uving, and a present of money ^ill be the consequence.** 


[IF 4] ^ ^ 

Fingal pursued his way continually forewarned, and 

by consequence continually forearmed. 

15- Successive generations of authors have called 

' attention to the paramount importance of the hands 

in the human oeconomy ; with them man fashions all 

the implements and accessories which give him his 

vast superiority over every other created thing, 

Galen. " and lastly, by means of the hand man bequeaths to 

posterity the intellectual treasures of his own Divine 

imagination, and hence we who are living at this day 

are enabled to hold converse with Plato and Aristotle 

and all the venerable sages of antiquity ; " ^* and 

indeed we need only reflect for a single moment to 

congratulate ourselves upon the ipse scn'psitof the most 

famous men that the world has known, from the 

apostles and prophets even to the robber who said to 

Don Quijote. Don Quijote, " Know that I am Gines de Pasamonte, 
whose life is written with these pickers and 
stealers "^3 [Duffield's translation (London: 1881), 
vol. i., p. 292]. The writings of the wise, said 

Chas. Lamb. Charles Lamb, are the only riches our posterity cannot 
squander : and we might almost say in support of 
the theory of the descent of man from the ape, that 
man hangs monkey-like, by his hands, to the branches 
of the tree of knowledge. 
16. Cervantes, we are told, in the battle of Lepanto in 

both°hands°'^ ^S7^t ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ hand so much injured that he never 

Cenrantcs. recovered its use ; I never remember this without 

wondering, almost with that sickening feeling that comes 

over one when a great danger has gone by, whether 

his immortal works would ever have been written with 

>2 Galen, o^. «'/., lib. i. 

•3 " Sepa que yo soy Gin 6s de Pasamonte, cuya vida 
estd escrita por esio^ pu/gares.^' — " Don Quijote^ part 
i., cap. xxii. As to the expression '* pickers and 
stealers y^ compare Ham let ^ Act IIL, sc. 2 : •* So do I 
still by i}^^s^ pickers and stealer s,^^ 



his left hand ; whether, like Nelson, he would have 
overcome the loss of the right hand, or whether at 
this moment Don Quixote and Sancho Panza would 
have been sleeping in the Walhalla of unborn heroes 
of romaunt, waiting still to be galvanised into life by 
the touch of the magic quill of some latter-day genius. 
Whether Caius Mucius Scsevola really went through 
the traditionary performance of burning off his own 
right hand for having mistaken Lars Porsena's secre- 
tary for that " by-the-nine-gods-swearing " potentate 
himself, is, I think, highly problematical ; at all events, 
we know that the cutting off of hands has been a 
universal and dreaded punishment from the days of 
Horatius in Rome until within a couple of centuries in 
England. I have recorded elsewhere the instance of 
the Roman poltroon of the time of Augustus Csesar, 
who cat oflf the thumbs of his sons, lest they should 
be sent to fight [whence the word " poltroon "=^//«r 
tnmcahts], and the gentle Norman barons would seem 
to have been impressed with the importance of this 
particular digit when they hung up their enemies 
thereby, — an operation which did not escape the 
observation of the chivalrous Spaniard who invented 
the instrument of persuasion known as the thumb 

Next after the thumb, the most important finger 
has always been the third, which, as I have elsewhere 
pointed out,'* was always alluded to as " mtdicttm " 
by the ancients The iiAsfruHs saliva was always 
applied to the infant's forehead, as a preventive 
against the evil eye, with the third finger. 

As late as the sixteenth century the thumbs of forgers 
and seditious writers were cut off by the common 
hangman, and much later than that the punishment 
for drawing a sword in a court of justice or assaulting 

** ytde ** A Manual, etc.'^ f 37, and note 112, 
p. 189. 



Mucius Scsevola. 


Norman auJ 
Spanikh tortoacft. 


Th. Iliini 

Cotuag cf 

handt antt 

thumbft in 




an officer of the Crown, or alderman of the City of 
ircby. London, was amputation of the hand. In Lord Chief 
Justice Ireby's " Notes to Dyer's Reports " I recently 
found the following delightfully quaint account of 
the narrow escape of Sir Thomas Richardson, Chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas, alluded to by Pepys 
under date September 8th, 1667 : — " Richardson, 
Chief Justice de C. Banc., al Assizes at Salisbury 
in Summer 1631, fuit assault per prisoner la con- 
demne pur felony ; que puis son condemnation ject 
un brick-bat a le dit Justice, qui narrowly mist ; et 
pur ces immediately fuit indictment drawn, per Noy 
envers le prisoner, et son dexter manus ampute, 
and fix at gibbet, sur que luy meme immediatement 
hange in presence de Court." Coustard de Massi, 
in his " History of Duellingy^^ tells us that among the 
canons of duelling it was forbidden to the spectators 
to sit, even on the ground, during a duel, on pain 
of the loss of a hand. 
^ 8a. I have elsewhere alluded to the Eastern punishment 

^* 'e^^i*" ^^^ of cutting off hands \yide% 257 and note, and compare 
^^ A Manual of Cheirosophy^^ 1[ 22] ; we find it con- 
tinually alluded to in the Qur'^n in passages like that 
which occurs in the seventh chapter, and Mr. Sale [note 
^■*, p. 184] gives many very interesting notes on the 
1[5>- The assassins of Cicero, when they killed him at 

in oratoV Caieta in 43 b.c, paid a rare tribute of homage to the 
Cicero. powcrs of the hand in oratory, when they cut ofl' his 
hands as well as his head and sent them to Rome to 
be hung up in the Forum ; for what is more striking 
tlian the action of the hands in speaking, — a function of 
J. Huiwer. thc member which inspired Bulwer's curious opuscu- 

'* Vide *' History of Duelling in all Countries,*' 
translated from the French of ^^. Coustard de Massi, 
with introduction and concluding chapter by '* Sir 
Lucius O'Trigger ** (London : n.d,), p. 22. 








for vnall 


luni " Chirologia,' " and which called forth the 
glorious panegyric of Quintilian, " Nam ceterae partes 
loquentem adjuvant, hac [prope est ut dicam] ipse 
loquuntur. An non his poscimus ? pollicemur? 
vocamus ? dimittimus ? minamur ? supplicamus ? 
ir.r.X./'^^ which has been imitated by Montaigne in 
that celebrated passage of the "Apologie de Raimond 
Sibond" ** Quoy des mains 7 nous requerona, nous 
promettons, appelons, congedions, menaceons, prions, 
etc., etc." *• 

The preference that is felt for a medium-sized or 
delicately-modelled hand over that hard, rough, and 
red paw which, as Sir Philip Sydney remarks, denotes 
** rude health, a warm heart, and distance from the 
metropolis," is, I think, universal in these latter days, 
when we prefer delicacy of mind shown by the former 
to the brute force indicated by the latter, though it 
was the latter that inspired Don Quijote with such Pz>on Quijoic. 
respect in the Cave of Montetinos, when on the 
sepulchre of Durandarte he beheld that warrior 
extended '* with his hand [which was somewhat hairy 
and of much muscle — a sign of great strength in its 
owner] laid across the side of his heart'' ^* The 
rust and elegant Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, and Sman-haoded 
the Sultan Mahmoud II., renowned for his ghastly 
cruelties, had both of them small and delicate hands. 
We are told by Leigh Hunt in terms of sarcastic bad 
taste ^ that Lord Byron was similarly gifted, and 
successive historians have recorded that Queen Queen EiuabMh. 
Elizabeth prided herself to the like effect Sir ilcnry 

•" J. BULWEK, •• Chirohgia ; or the Naturall Lan^ 
l^uage of the Hand * * (London : 1 644). 

" M. F. QuiNcnUANl '* De Institutione Oratoria 
Libn Duodecimo lib. zi., c.iii. 

^ **Essais de Montaigne'' (Paris: 1854}, vol. ii., p. 282, 
book it., ch. 12. 


Lord Byroo. 

" ** D&m QdijoieC* parte ii., cap. 21. 
" r«^iiote'^, p. 127. 





White hands 


Ellis '' quotes a letter from a Venetian minister, who, 
describing our virgin sovereign, says, " E sopra V tutto 
bella mano de la quale fa professione " [and above all 
the beautiful hand which she exposed to our vieuf]. The 
celebrated Pope Leo X. had equally fine hands,^ as 
may be seen by his picture in the Pitti Palace at 
Florence — hands which have been duly celebrated 
by Gradenigo in Cogliera's ** Nuova Raccolta degli 
Opuscoli '* (Venice : 1 7 1 9). 

A certain mystical loveliness has always been 
attached to white hands : the Persians do not translate 
in the verse Exod. iv. 6 " leprous^ as white as snow'" 
(R.V.y, but take the '* White hand of Moses" [a symbol 
of beauty and purity with them] to be a synonym for 
the white May-blossom which always blooms with 
them at their New Year (which begins with the 
vernal equinox). This, therefore, is the interpreta- 
tion of Omar-i-Khayy^m's exquisite verse : — 

" Now the New Year reviving old desires. 

The thoughtful soul to solitude retires, 
Where the white hand of Moses on the bough 

Puts out, and Jesus from the ground suspires." ^ 

The white hand has always been looked upon as 

>• ** Original Letters illustrative of English 
History *' (London : 1846). 

** William Roscoe calls special attention to the 
whiteness and elegance of the hands of Leo X. in his 
^ Life and PonMicate of Leo ^. " (London: 1846, 
vol. ii.i p. 377). vide also note ^, p. 242. 

" *' The Rubaiydt of Omar-i-Khayydm, etc.'' (Lon- 
don : 1879], quatrain iv. '* Les Quatraifis de Khhyam,"' 
traduits au Persan par J. B. Nicolas (Paris : 1867), 
1 86th quatrain. 

Orientalists will note the signification of the phrase, 

X^j O^ cT^ 


the emblem of innocence, just as the red hand (red- 
handed) has always been a synonym for guilt ; thus 
in Massinger's Great Duke of Florence (act ii., Masunger. 
sc. 3) Sanazarro says : '' Let this, the emblem of 
your innocence, give me assurance ; " to which Lidia 
replies, '* My hand, joined to yours without this super- 
stition, confirms it.** In the East the white hand is 
symbolical of open-handed and unasked generosity, the 
black hand being per contra the synonym for avarice 
and niggardliness. Thus we have it in the Arabian Arabian Nighu 
Nights, where Yahya says to the chamberlain in the 
story of the Caliph al Maamun and the Scholar : — " I 
owe thee a heavy debt of gratitude, and every gift the 
white hand can give," etc.^** As an emblem of beauty 
we find it in such expressions as " rosy-fingered 
morn," of which no more beautiful use has been made 
than in the Ecloghe dt MuHo Justino Politiano " ^ in justino 
the lines :~ ' ^^'*^ 

" Eran ne la stagion che Taurea Aurora 
Con la rosata mano I'aurate porte 
Apre del ddo al rinascente giorno ! *' 

Among the ancient Eg>'ptians the hand was the ^ 19. 
symbol of strength ; among the Romans it was t^ EgypUan* 

ano RoQianm 

that of fidelity ; and yet further back, how the 
mystic intensity of the warning to Belshazzar must 
have been tenfold increased by " the fingers of a 
man's hand," which the maddened monarch imagined 
that he saw writing its awful message in letters of 
living flame. Bacon has compared the will of the Bm»o. 

** On the subject of s^'earinc^ by the hand vide note 
""t P- i79f 210^ " ^ Manual^ etc,^^ IF 21. It is one 
of the commonest forms of oath in old English plays, as, 
for instance, in Ben Jonson's Alchemist^ where Kas- 
thl says [ai!t iv., sc. 2] : *' By this hand you are not 
my sister, if you refuse ! '* 

* Burton's translation \vide note ^^^ p. 112], vol. iv., 

p. 18$. 

* Venice 1555 ; Eel. 2, Delle Marchesane. 

Ilf '•! 



people to the hundred hands of Briarelis,*^ but it is 
not necessary in this place to advert to the hand as 
a symbol of power ['* Manual " If 15, etc.]. We find 
the same mofi/ in the expression *' At a deal* hand," 
signifying expense,^ and "At an even hand," denoting 
K 18. Perhaps some of the most beautiful symbolisms con- 

..«J1„;..^ nected with the hand are found in the use made of 
the member in the ceremonies of the Church, in the 
invocation of the blessing, in making the sign of the 
cross, and in the laying on of hands. We have the 
priestly blessing with the whole hand, and the epis- 
copal blessing with the thumb and two fingers only 
extended, in the manner in which we see them 
arranged in the charms which are sold in Naples for 
the repulse of the evil eye;" and we find it laid 
down by the great authority Durand ^^ that the sign 
of the cross is to be made with these three digits. 

" '* The poets fai^e, that the rest of the gods would 
have bound Jupiter ; which he hearing of, by the Coun- 
sell of Pallas, sent for Briareus with his hundred hands, 
to come in to his Aid. An Embleme no doubt, to 
shewe, how safe it is for Monarchs, to make sure of the 
goodwill of Common People." — Bacon, " Of Seditions 
and Troubles,^' 

"^ Ibid,, '* Of Despatch:' 

* Ibid,, *• Of Envy:' and " Of Expencer 

* Vide ** A Mani/at of Cheirosophy'" (London: 
1S85), p. 32 ; and vide note *", p. 183. 

" GULIELMUS DURANDUS, '' Rationale Divinorum 
Officiorum'" (Venice: 1589), p. 140, verso, lib. v. 
** Quid sit Oflacmm," cap. i., sect. 12.* 

'*' '* Est autem signum crucis tribus digitis exprimendum, quia 
sub invocatione Trinitatis imi)rin)itur. Dc qua propheta ait : 
Qui appendit tribus digitis molem terret [£s. 40]. Pollex tamen 
supereminet ; quoniam totam (idem nostram ad Deum unum ct 
trinum referimus el mox post ipsani invocationem Trinitatis 
]X)test dici versus ille. . . . Secundo ad notandum, quod Christus 
de Judneis tratisivit ad Gentes. Tertio, quia Christus a dextra, id 
est, a pat re venicns, diabolum, qui p^ 'ignificatur, 

in cruce peremit" 


[f «3l 

Eugene Schuyler, in his *' Peter the Great^ »' recounts 
that the orthodox make the sign of the cross with the 
thumb and two fingers, whereas the benediction is 
given with the first, second, and fourth fingers, the 
thumb meanwhile holding down the third. Havanski, 
in his interview \y%de loc. n/.] with the Dissenter 
Sergius, calls attention to the fact that he makes the 
sign of the cross in the orthodox manner, as opposed 
to the Dissenters, who signed with the first and second 
fingers only. 

The most precious relic of the Knights of St. John ^ 14. 
of Malta was a mummied hand, said to have been Kmghuof 
that of St John the Baptist, which had been given to 
the Grand Master d' Aubusson by the Sultan Bajazet. 
We are told that a dragon, who resided at Antioch, 
once displayed the want of foresight to cat a frag- 
ment of this relic, and was punished for his ill-advised 
temerity by the most unpleasant after-effects ; we are 
told that the said dragon swelled visibly to a prepos- 
terous size, and presently exploded with terrific 
violence. Whatever may be the credence rightfully 
attaching to this account, wc know that this hand 
was carried through the Island in solemn procession 
once a year, and if the fingers opened, the harvests of 
the following season were plentiful and the year was 
prosperous; if, however, this miracle did not take place, 
the worst results were to be anticipated. At the dis- 
persion of the order in 1 798 by the French, it was 
taken away by the Grand Master, and subsequently 
restored to its original shrine. 

The most interesting custom which has obtained in ^ i^, 
this country with regard to the laying on of hands Toochini for 
has been, I think, that of touching for the King's Evil. 
Most interesting accounts of this ceremony may be 

* ScrHmer's Magazine ^ vol. xix., 1880, chap, xi., 
p. 910. 





Queen Anne. 


found in various volumes of the Gentieman^s Maga- 
zine, notably in that for 1747 (p. 13), that for 1751, 
(p. 414), and that for 1829, pt ii. (p. 499), the last con- 
taining a full and interesting account of the ceremony. 
The custom is of the highest antiquity. Suetonius 
and Tacitus both record an instance of a blind man at 
Alexandria, who importuned the Emperor Vespasian 
to anoint his cheeks and eyes with the royal saliva. 
Vespasian having after some demur acceded to his 
request, an instantaneous cure was effected, and 
another supplicant, who had lost the use of his hands, 
appearing at the same time, the Emperor touched him 
also with the same beneficent result^ I believe the 
last instance of this having taken place was m 1 7 1 2, 
when Dr. Johnson was " touched " by Queen Anne. 
Herrick, in his Hespericfes, has a charming little poem 
on the subject which closes with these lines : — 

** O lay that hand on me, 
Adored Csesar ! and my faith is such 
I shall be healed, if that my King but touch. 
The evil is not yours ; my sorrow sings, 
Mine is the evil, but the cure the King*s.^ 

Similar cures would seem to have been performed 
in the seventeenth century, by one Valentine 
Greatraks (or Greatrakes), who acquired an extremely 
wide renown for the cures he performed by merely 
"stroking" p>ersons afflicted with disease, — a power 
which, if the accounts of the thousands who flocked 
to him to be cured be true, he must have found 

* This account is given fully by Godwin in " Zwes of 
the Necromancers^' (London : 1834, p. 155^ and Hume 
also has borne testimony to its veracity and probability 
in section x. of part iii. of his *' Essays »' • 

♦ ** Ex plebe Alexandrina quidam, oculorum tabe notiLs, genua 
ejus advolvitur, * remedium csecitatis * exooscens gemitu ; monitu 
SerapidLs dei, quem dedita superstitK *xfte alios coHt : 

precabaturque principem ' ut genas *s dignaretur 



extremely irksome.** I have before me a little 
work, entitled "A Brief Account of Mr, Valentine 
GreatrakSf etc,, etc, " (London : 1666), which gives the 
history and progress of these phenomena, which would 
appear to be merely an early instance of curative 
mesmerism or of " faith-healing." 

The custom of biting the thumb as a provocative of ^ 16. 
strife is familiar to us all in the opening scene of ^^'jhumb!*™* 
Romeo and Juiiet ; it seems to have originated in 
France, where the practice was to bite a fragment 
from the thumb nail, and draw it scornfully from be- 
tween the teeth, this being the most deadly insult 
that could be ofiered by one man to another, at least 
so it is laid down at p. 44 of a most fascinatingly 
quaint little work, entitled " The Rules of Civility** 
translated from the French (London: 1685). Con- 
nected with this custom it is interesting to note 
the Arabic rite of biting the hands as an exhibition of Anbk cattoaw. 
penitence, which we find cited in the Arabian Nights, 
the Qur'An, and elsewhere. Thus, for instance, in 
"The Story of Abu al Husn and his Slave-Girl" 
[Burton's translation {vide note *", p. 112), vol. v., 

** I have ^ven an account of this gentleman's cures 
in my " Discourse of Mesmerism ^ and of Thought- 
Reading;* in Pcttitt^s ''Early English Almanack** 
for 1886. 

re sp c iga e oris excremcnto. Alios manuum aeger, eodem dec 
moctore, ' ut pede ac vestigio Caesaris calcaretar/ orabat. Ves- 
pasianiu prime inriderc, adspenum : atque illis instantibos mode 
bunani vanitatis metuere, mode obsecratione ipsonmi et vocibos 
adulantiiiin in spem indod : postremo existimari a medids jubett 
an talis caedtas ac debilitas ope honuma saperabiles forent. Media 
vane dis^eirere : ** Huic non exesam vim luminis, et redituram, 
si peHenntur obfftantia : illi elapsos in prawm artos, si salubris 
vis adhibeatar, posse integrari.** Id fortasse cordi dds, et divino 
ministerio princtpero electaro, etc^, etc. Statim conversa ad 
asum mamu, ac carco reluxit dies. Utniroque, qui intcrfuere, 
none qnoqiie memorant, posttiuam nullum mendado pretium.** 
—Tacitus, " Hisicriarum;' lib. iv^ c. 81. Vide also the notes 
to Uik paiMige in T. J. Oberiins ** Tacitus'' (London: 1825), 
voL liL, p. 3i3t ancl compare Suetonius, lib. viii., cap. 7. 

rif »6j 




"Taking a 




Bon Gaultier. 



p. 191], in which we are told " all his goods went from 
him, and he bit his hands in bitter penitence ; " and 
again in the Qur'in, where we find the phrase, " The 
biting was fallen on their hands," which is generally 
translated, " they repented." ** 

The custom which obtains among vulgar little boys, 
known as "taking a sight,** is, we are told, of in- 
comparable antiquity. I have seen it stated (but I 
forget where) that the practice was known as a 
method of pantomimic derision among the ancient 
Assyrians. Now, if this is the case, I would submit 
that some of the curious and apparently strained 
positions of the figures on the Assyrian bas-reliefs 
are fully explained I Many years ago 1 used to think 
that the attitude of the exulting Assyrian warrior, 
with his hands extended one before the other on a 
level with his face, was strangely suggestive of the 
rude small boy, but if the explanation hinted at be 
the right one, why, history repeats itself — et voild tout ! 
We know, many of us, Rabelais' description of the 
meeting of Panurge and Thaumaste,^^ where we are 
told " Panurge suddenly raised in the air his right 
hand, and placed the thumb against the nostril on 
that side, holding his four fingers extended, and neatly 
arranged in a line parallel to the end of his nose, 
entirely closing the left eye, whilst he made the other 
wink with a profound depression of his eyebrows and 
eyelids," and we have the other historic instance of 
the Lovelorn Youth erstwhile "coffee-milling care 
and sorrow, with a nose-adapted thumb." '^ 

After all, the hand-custom most familiar to all of 
us is that of hand-shaking, a custom tu which I have 

" j-^jJ J ^r» > chap, vii., 148. 

*• Rabelais, ^'Pantagrue/,'* chap. xix. 

•» Sir T. Martin and W. K. Aytoun, ** Bon 
Gaultier Ballads,*"— *'T\iQ Lay of the Lovelorn" 
(London : 1845, ist edn ^ 


elsewhere alluded,*^ and which arose in "the good 
old days," when one could never be sure that one's 
dearest friend had not got a weapon concealed in his 
hand wherewith to take a mean advantage when one's 
back was turned. It requires no more than a passing 
allusion here ; we have all experienced with regret 
the timid handshake of the sex which has for some 
unknown reason been termed ** the weaker/' and the 
eighty-one ton scrunch of the boisterous friend who 
cracks pebbles in his fists^ and keeps in training for 
the performance by practising on the hands of his 
shrinking acquaintances (though in the two cases the 
causes of the regret are not identical). Also, as W. 
S. Gilbert says, " the people who in shaking hands, 
shake hands with you like thai" and lastly the 
haughty person of whom a poet, whose name I forget, 
said, — 

'* With fingertips he condescends 
To touch the fingers of his friends. 
As if be feared their palms might brand 
Some moral stigma on his hand/* 

SO that in time one actually begins to regret " the 
good old days,** when it was not considered bad taste 
to slaughter people whose idiosyncrasies did not har- 
monise with one's own sense of the fitness of things. 

A word, before I conclude these remarks upon .Y^'* 
Hand customs and superstitions, on the subject of ,„pJJ^J^ ,^^ 
linger nails, concerning which almost as many ctutoou. 
superstitions and customs exist, as there are concern- 
ing •the whole hand. Innumerable are the sayings 
and superstitions as to spots in the nails, "gifts" as Spototnthe 
our nurses were wont to call them, or the varied con- 
tingencies expressed by the couplet, — 

" A letter, n friend, a foe ; 
A lover, a journey to go." 

^**A Manual of Cheirosophy" C London : 1885), 





Cutting the 

A writer in that delightful repository of quaint in- 
British Apollo, formation, " The British Apollo " (1708, voL i., No. 17), 
says : — " Those little spots are from white glittering 
particles which are mixed with the red in the blood, 
and happen to remain there some time. The reason 
of their being called gifls is as wise an one as those 
of letters, winding sheets, etc., in a candle." Setting 
aside, however, as comparatively irrelevant, the 
ancient science of Onychomancy, or divination by 
the finger nails, we may note that the older 
cheiromants attached the greatest possible importance 
to these spots, concerning which they had a regular 
code of interpretations. 1 have gone into the question 
at length on p. 1 30 of " A Manual of Cheirosophy!* 

As to the cutting of nails the old wives are simply 
replete with dicta and dogmata, beginning with the 
old rhyme, " Cut them on Monday, cut them for 
health ; cut them on Tuesday, cut them for wealth, 
etc., etc. ; " but one and all are agreed on one vital 
point, and that is that " a man had better never been 
born, than have his nails on a Sunday shorn ;" and 
again in the same strain, " Better thou wert never 
born, than on a Friday pare thy horn." Holiday, in 
his *^ Marriage of the Arts'' (London : 16 18), declaims 
against such absurd superstitions ; and Lodge, in his 
** Wifs Miserie^' (London: 1596), derides a young 
man for that "he will not paire his nails White- 
Monday to be fortunate in his love." One feels that 
Tomkis "hit out pretty freely all round him" when 
he says in *' Albumaaar" (London: 161 5), 

** He puis you not a haire, nor paires a naile, 
Nor stirs a foot without due figuring 
The Horoscope." 

Nevertheless, superstitions concerning the paring of 
The Romans, nails are of great antiquity. The Romans never per- 
formed this operation save ' « Nundinae, 






which took place every ninth day, and the attention 
paid to such minor details as this is shown by the 
line of AusoniuSy 

•* Ungues Mercuric, borbam Jove, Cypride crines."* 

In iiazlitt's edition of Brand's " Popular Antiquities 
of Great Britain " (London: 1870) there is an account 
of an old woman in Dorsetshire, who always pared 
her children's nails over the leaves of the family Bible, 
in order that they might grow up honest ; and it is said 
to be with this object in view that for the first year of 
their lives children's nails are directed to be bitten off, 
and not on any account cut. And this notwithstanding 
the fact that Aristotle has clearly laid down, many 
centuries ago,**^ the obvious truth that " Nature has 
provided us with nails, not, as among the brutes, for 
purposes of offence and defence, but merely as a pro- 
tection to the delicate tips of the fingers/' 

I might no doubt, had I time and si>ace, say 
much upon Graphology or the science of detecting 
character from the handwriting. That the hand- 
writing has certain marked characteristics in every 
individual, and that these characteristics, properly 
examined and interpreted according to given rules 
and method, will tell us much concerning the indi- 
vidual character of the writer, is an established fact, 
and the tabulation of these rules, and of this method, 
is now complete in the works of such acknowledged 
authorities as Rosa Baughan,^^ TAbb^ Flandrin, and 
Adolphe Henze.^ Adrien Desbarrolles, in his major 

• •* Eclogarium^^* 373. Hie versus sine auctore est. 
•• IIBn ZOON MOPION, A., i'. 

• Rosa Baughan, " Character indicated by Hand- 
writings* and edit. (London: 1886), revised and enlarged 
from a more elementary work on the subject. 

• Adolph Henze, •' Handbuch der Schriftgies- 
serein eic.;^* in the ^*Neuer Schaupiatz der Kunste^^ 
Ed. 138, 1834; ^^ Die Chirogrammatomantie, oder 



lite like. 



Rosa Baaghan. 






work, '' Les Mysteres de la Main : Revelations completes, 
suite et fin " (Paris : 1879), has devoted some a 20 
pages to this branch of the science of the hand, 
besides being the author of a standard work on the 
subject,** so that Graphology, or, as it is sometimes 
called, '^ Gramma tomancy,*' boasts a literature of its 
own that it is not my intention to supplement in this 
place. *' The more 1 compare different handwritings," 

i^vater. says Lavater in his ^' Physiognomische Fragmente but 
Befdrderung der Menschenkenntniss" etc. (Leipzic : 
1775-78), "the more am I convinced that hand- 
writing is the expression of the character of him who 
writes. Each nation has its national character of 
writing, as the physiognomy of each people expresses 
the most salient points of character in the nation ;" 
and I may quote the remark of Rosa Baughan 
[op, cit., p. 2], " That the handwriting really reflects 
the personality of the writer is evident from the feet 
that it alters and develops with the intelligence, that 
it becomes firm when the character strengthens, weak 
and feeble when the person who writes is ill or 
agitated, and erratic when he is under the influence 
of great joy, grief, or any other passion." 

If^Y Handwriting is not, of course, in the present day 

— indeed, since the introduction of printing — of the 
vital importance that it was before the invention 
of the printing press, and the exquisitely-written 
manuscript is now, excepting on rare occasions, a 
thing of the past. Any remarks of mine on the early 
history of writing must necessarily be out of place 
here, but the curious in such matters should consult 

Lehre den Charakter, etc.^ der Menscken aus der 
Handsckrift zu erkenneti, etc'^ (Leipzic: 1862}; 
''Das Handschriften Lesebuch*' (Leipzic; 1854), 
etc., etc. 

•^ An. Desbarrolles and Jean Hippolytb, ^' Les 
Afysth-es de V Ecriture ; A rt dejuger Us ffommes s$tr 
leurs Autographes '* (Paris : n.d.). ' 

Origin of hand 




the works of Astle and of Humphreys.** Still, a 
great interest must necessarily attach to fine pen 
work ; to the elaborate script of Cocker, the originator 
of the expression " according to Cocker " ; ** whilst 
we should many of us like to see a specimen of the 
work of " Ricardus, Scriptor Anglicus,'' whose legend 
Miss Horsley has illustrated in the heading to this 
introduction.** Whilst, again, who is there of us 
who has not profoundly objurgated the name of the 
friend who, like Hamlet, doth 

** hold it, as our statists do, 
A baseness to write fiur, and laboured mnch 
How to forget [his] learning '* — [Act v., sc. 2], 

the incorrigible ** kakographist,'' who is at once the 
bane of his correspondents, and the chief thorn in the 
uneasy chair of the hard- worked editor. Perhaps 
the most complete compendium of facts relating to 
this subject is contained in a recent publication of the 
*'S€iie of Odd ValuHus'' entitled, ''Pens, Ink, and 
Paptr^ a discourse upon the Caiigraphic Art with 

" Astle. " The Origin and Progress of Writing** 
(London : i8oa). Humphreys, ** Origin and Progress 
of the Art of Writing** (London : 1855). 

• Edward Cocker [b. 1631, d. 167^], author of 
** Plumes Ttiumphus, or the Pen* s Triumph'* '657; 
•• Pen*s Transcendencies^' 1657 ; ** The ArttsCs Ghry, 
or the Penman's Treasure,** 1659; ^* J^nna Volans,*' 
1664 ; *• Vulgar Arithmetic : ACCORD! N(t ToCocKER, * 
167^, and a quantity of other works on the same 

* This English monk, by name " Richard/* was a 
writer of such perfection and elegance that, his tomb 
having been opened twenty years after his death, 
his right hand was found fresh and perfect as it had 
heen in life, though the rest of his bodv was reduced to 
dust, A full account occurs in *' llhtstrium Mtra- 
culosum et Historiarum Memorabilium Lib, XJI^ 
ante anmos fere cccc d Casarw Heisterbackunsi** 

g Cologne : 1591}, lib. xii., cap. xlvii. ,* and Miss 
orsley has illustrated the passage at the point above 



Scriptor Angii- 



). W. Kettle. 





pro and con^ 

Curiosa;' etc., by D. W. Kettle (London : Odd Volume 
OpusculufHf No. X., 1885), which contains here-anent 
" marvellous riches in a little roome," 

Nor is it necessary for me to enter here into the 
art of cheiromancy, — a subject which 1 have discussed 
at its fullest length in the volume to which this is 
supplementary, ** A Manual of Cheirosophy '* (1885). 
Of course, the tendency to seek for indications of the 
destiny upon different parts of the body is universal 
and of incomparable antiquity ['' Manual,*' ^ 58], and 
though some nations have looked for interpretable 
signs in the sutures of the skull, and others [the 
Persians, for example],*^ have looked for them upon 
the forehead, like Subtle in Ben Jonson's '* Alchemist,'*^ 
by far the most universal and antique form of divina- 
tion has been by the hand : and notwithstanding the 

named.* Another most interesting story of a hand 
which never putrefied is that one concerning the hand of 
King Oswald [a.d. 644], which, on account of his many 
good works, was blest by the Bishop Aidanus, and 
thereby rendered incorruptible. It may be found at 
folio 169, lib. i., of ** F/ores Historiarufn^ MatthcBus 
Westmonasteriensis monachuSf'* 1567. 

*' Vide, for instance, the couplet in the 31 ith *' Rubai " 
of Omar-i-Khayy4m (Whinfield's translation, 1883), — 

" 'Who wrote upon my forehead all my good 
And all my evil deeds ? In truth, not I. " 

« Subtle, " By a rule, captain, 

In metoposcopy. which I do work by ; 
A certain star in the forehead, which you see not." 
Ben Jonson, Thi Alchemist^ act. i., sc. z. 

* '* In Arnisberg monasterio ordinis Praemonstratensis, sicut 
audivi a quodam sacerdote ejusdem congregationis, scriptor 
quidam erat Ricardus nomine, Anglicus natione ; hie plurimos 
libros in eodem coenobio manu propria pnestotansia coelis. Hie 
cum fuisset defunctus et in loco notabili sepultus, post viginti 
annos, tumba ejus aperta, manus ejus dextra tarn integra et tam 
vivida est reperta, ac si recenter de corpore animate fiiisset 
prsecisa ; reliqua caro in pulverem redacta rait. In testimonium 
tanti miraculi manus eadein usque hodie in monasterio re- 
servatur/' etc. 



diatribes of such authors as Mason** and Gaule,*® we 

can trace a strong inclination in favour of the science, 

not only among doctors, but among all classes of men 

who have made their fellow-creatures their study, 

from John of Gaddesden •* and Ben Jonson ** to 

Coleridge*' anfl Ivan Tourgueneff.** Among the 

Arabs, indeed, the physicians attach an immense Arabian 

importance to the condition of the hands ; it is thus phy^cians. 

^ Mason drasticallv ridicules the science of palmis- 
' try, *' where men's fortunes are told by looking on 
the palmes of the hande," in his ** Aftatomte of 
Sarcerte'* (London : 161 2), p. 90. 

*• John Gaule, ** Uwrfiavrtia : /Ae Mag-astromancer 
or the Magicall'Astroiogicali'Diviner posed and 
puxzied'* (London : 1652), p. 187. 

•• John of Gaddesden was, according to Freind, who 
gives a history of him in his ** History of Physick, 
from the Time of Galen to the Beginning of the 
Sixteenth Century''* (London: 1726, vol. ii., p. 2'j'])^ 
a doctor of physick, the author of the famous '' Rosa 
^if^//ra,*' who flourished at Merton College, Oxford, and 
subsequently at court, at the beginning of the fourteenth 
century. He acquaints us [p. 284J with "his fi;Teat skill 
in Physiognomy, and did design, if God would give him 
life and leisure, to write a treatise of Cheiromancy ; 
but, to our unspeakable grief, this excellent comment 
upon Fortune-telling \% lost.** 

■ Ben Jonson seems [in Voipone : or the Fox, act i. 

sc. i] to consider that in articulo mortis the hand 

is the last part in which any feeling remains; when 

Mosca says to Cor\'ino : — 

•' Best shcH- ii, sir ; 
Put it in his hand— 'tis only there 
He apprehends : he has his feeling yet ! " 

" ** A loose, slack, not well-dressed youth met Mr. 

and myself in a lane near Highgatc. knew him, 

and spoke. It was Keats. He was introduced to me, 
and stayed a minute or so. After he had left us 
a little way, he came back, and said : * lA't me carry 
away the memory, Coleridge, of having pressed your 

hand! ' * There is death in that hand,* I said to , 

when Keats was gone ; yet this was, 1 belicvt\ before 
the consumption showed itself distinctly.'* — CoU-ridgf's 
•• Table Talk," August 14th, 1832. 

•• I refer to the passage in '• Monsieur Francois : 


that we have it in the ** Alf Laylah wa Laylah " [Bur- 
ton's trans., vo). v., p. 220], where the learned 
damsel says : — " A physician who is a man of under- 
standing looketh into the state of the body, and is 
guided by the feel of the hands, according as they 
are firm or flabby, hot or cold, moist or dry." 

The reverence, therefore, which is paid to the 
hand being, as we have seen, practically universal, 
it is not surprising that the Cheirostemon [Xcifxxrrc/uunf] 
should have been worshipped as a sacred tree by the 
Indians. Of this extraordinary vegetable phenomenon 
only a single specimen existed, at Toluca, in Mexico, 
until 1 801, because the Indians used to gather all the 
flowers as soon as they appeared, to prevent its 
propagation. In 1801, however, certain scientists 
obtained the fertilisation of a flower and propagated 
the tree at Toluca. It is described by early Spanish 
historians of the conquest of Mexico, by whom it was 
called Arbol de Manitro — the Indians called it the 
Hand-tree. Augustin de Vetancourt ** describes it as 
" bearing in the months of September and October a 
red flower, having the appearance of a hand, formed 
with such perfection as to the palm, the joints, the 
phalanges, and the fingers, that the most expert 
sculptor could not reproduce it so exactly. When it 
is green it is closed like a fist, and as it becomes red 
it expands and remains half open." Miss Horsley 
has reproduced a drawing of it, given by Humboldt,*** 
as a heading to Sub-section II., p. loi,**^ and I must con- 

Souvenir de 1843,*' where M. Francois calls Tour- 
gueneffs attention to the breaking of the Line of 
Life in his hand, and predicts his own violent death, 
which subsequently comes about. 

* Augustin de Vetancourt, " Teatro Mexicano'' 
(Mexico : 1698), fol. 

*• ** Voyage de Humboldt, Plantes Equinoxiales^^ 
(Paris: 1808), vol. i., p. 85. 

** Besides the cheirostemon Miss Horsley has given 


fess that de V^tancourt seems to have been carried 
away by his artistic imagination in his description. 

Now, with regard to the study of the hand, it is ^M. 
difficult, if not impossible, to say where it originated. ofTheiroslSpSr^ 
M. F^tis — in tracing the origin of the violin,*'* — has, 
in more than one place, remarked that there is nothing 
in the West that has not come there from the Blast, — 
a remark in support of which Colonel Tcheng-ki-Tong icheng-ki-Toog. 
has brought forward some very interesting evidence.^ 
That this science was studied very many centuries 
ago in the Blast we have abundant proofs, from the 
writings of Philip Baldseus, who tells us of the Baidwi*. 
daughter of a rajah who was told all her fortune by 
a Brahmin by an inspection of the lines of her palm ^ 

me as headings to Sections I. and VI. representations of 
two somewhat similar vegetable phenomena, taken from 
p. 2S of the first issue of Messrs. Cassell's publication 
•• The World tifWondersr The radish [p. 169] grew 
in a sandy soil at Haarlem, and was painted nrom 
the life by Jacob Penoy, whose friend Zuckerbecker 
presented the picture to Crlandorys in 1672. From 
this picture an engraving was taken by Kirby, from 
which Messrs. Cassell's copy was taken. The parsnep 
[p. 95] was bought of a market woman in the usual way, 
and IS said to have represented the back of a hand 
so p^ectly that it could not be surpassed by any 
painter. The article from which I quote gives many 
most interesting instances of a like nature. 

•• Vide El). Heron-Allen, '^Vw/in Makhi/^; as tf 
was and is** (T^ondon c 2nd edition, 1885), p. ^"j. 

• '• Of sucn nature are the exact sciences which no 
Western nation can boast of having created ; such are 
the alphabetic characters which have served to delineate 
sounds; the fine arts whose masterpieces date from 
remotest antiquity; modem lan^ruages themselves, 
whose roots are derived from <i common origin, the 
Sanskrit ; the properties of magnetism, imported from 
the East, and the foundation of the navigator' !» art; 
and such, lastly, the various desi^riptions of literary 
composition, — all of which, without a single exception » 
were created in the ancient world." — •• 7'Ar Chinese 
painted hy Thetnseh^s, * * p . 184. 

* " Es begab sich dasz ermetdter RagfSi sich einsmahls 


[notwithstanding the express prohibition contained 
in the laws of Manu I], down to Godwin, who tells 

\poiionius of us •* that Apollonius of Tyana " travelled to Babylon 

and Susa in pursuit of knowledge, and even among 

the Brahmins of India, and Appears particularly to 

have addicted himself to the study of magic." 

IF 27. Whatever reliance we can place upon either of 

"dlviMUon.*' these authorities, we have only to reflect for a moment 
upon the universal love of any knowledge which 
savours of divination, which appears to be deeply 
implanted in the human mind. The tendency of the 
human intellect is to be for ever progressing, — the 
fruit which is out of reach appears ever to us to be 
sweetest, and the first result of an intimate knowledge 
of what things are apparent and exoteric, is a burning 

vor seinen Einwohnem sehen liesz u. nachdem er ver- 
standen dasz unter andem ein erfahmer Braman ange- 
kommen, liesz er denselben fiir sich fordem u. sagte : — 
* Narret' (denn also war sein Nahm) * siehe doch meiner 
Tochter in die Hande u. verkundige mir ob sie gluck- 
selig Oder ungliickselig, arm oder reich sein, viel oder 
wenig Kinder bebahren werde, ob sie kurtz oder lange 
werde leben ; sag mir alles frey rund heraus u. nim kem 
Blat vors Maul.' Diese Manier in die Hande zu sehen 
is unter den Heyden sehr gebraulich, da von der 
hochgelehrte Vossius, 1. 2., ''Idol.,'' c. 47, * Chiro- 
mantes etiam manus partes singulis subjecere planetis/ 
etc., etc. Der Braman wie er ihr in die Hand sahe hub 
an und sagte : ' Herr Konig, nach aller Anzeigung der 
Linien allein so stehets darauf dasz von ihr sieben 
Kinder soUen gebohren werden, nahmlich 6 Sohne u. 
eine Tochter, von welchen der letzte dich nicht allein 
deiner Krohn in Reichs, aondem auch des Haupts in 
Lebens berauben wird u. sich also dann auf deinen 
Stuhl sitzen.' " (And so it turned out, this being the 
eighth transformation of " Vistnum,'* beginning of the 
third period of time.) '* IVahrhaftigeAusfuhrliche 
Beschreibufig der Ost-Indischen Austen Malabar, 
etc.'' Philippus Baldaeus (Amsterdam : 1672), cap. v., 

••• \Vm. Godwin, "Lives of the Necromancers*^ 
(London : 1834), p. 158. 




desire to become acquainted, to extend our knowledge 
in the direction of things that are hidden and esoteric. 
How many are there of us who in all sincerity might 
say with Democritus, that "he had rather be the Democriius. 
possessor of one of the cardinal secrets of nature, than 
of the diadem of Persia." Bearing, therefore, these 
things in mind, we need no longer express surprise 
at the necessity which appears to exist, that we 
should give credence to some cardinal error, abandon- 
ing very oflen the one, only, as Fontenelle said,'* to 
fall into another. 

The time is rapidly passing away when " wise men 
are ignorant of many things which in time to come 
every common student shall know," ^ and every day 
sciences, such as the one at present under discussion, 
are establishing themselves more and more firmly, as 
physical and exact; and did Omar-i-Khayydm live in 
the present day, he would no longer have occasion to 
say, as he did in the eleventh century : — 

" These fools by dint of ignorance most crass, 
l*hink they in wisdom all mankind surpa^ ; 

And glibly do they damn as inridel 
Whoever is not like themselves — an ass ! " •• 


Ignorance ol 



Another great danger which at one time threatened 
the science is now passing away ; I allude to the ill- 
directed enthusiasm of the ignorant, who, greedy of 
the marvellous, take up the science [which they are 
not qualified to understand], and pretend to believe in 
and to understand it, merely as an implement of 

«* ** lis subiront la loy commune et s*ils sont exempts 
d'une erreur ils donneront dans quelque autre." — FoN- 
TEKELLE, ** Entretitns sur la Plural iti tits Alondes " 
(Amsterdam : 1701), Ent. iv. 

• Roger Bacon, *' De Vii(ore Artis et Xatura.** 
\*^The Mirror of A Ichemy. A Iso a most excellent and 
learned discourse of the admirable Force and Effi- 
citncie of Art and Nature * * (London : 1 597 )\ 

** \\limfield*s translation, p. 106, z*ide note **, p. 70. 



histrionii' efFcrt, I am reminded in siicli i 
of a Chinese proverh which leils of a company of 
blind men who started to climb a mountain to admire 
the view, which they all described and exttilled long 
before ihey reached the tup. 

Of the value of the study nf such a science as this 
one, I hardly think there can he two opinions among 
people who have any right to an opiiiion at all. " By 
cultivation of tlie abatracl-concrete sciences," says 
Herbert Spencer,'"' " there is produced a further habit 
of thought not otherwise produced, which is essential 
to right thinking in general. . , . Familiarity with the 
various orders of physical [and chemical] phenomena 
gives distinctness and strength to the doctrine of 
eoHse and effect." ^ And this remark applies not only 
to a sqence so fixed and physical as the one under 
discussion, but even, I contend, to ila most legendary 
and traditional branches, even going so far as ihe 
gipsy cheiromancy, by which the coppers of the 
servant girl arc diverted by the eloquence of the 
itinerant sorceress and peddler. " If we would know 
man in all his subtleties, " says Godwin in the preface 
to his "Lives of the Necromancers," " we must deviate 
into the world of miracles and sorcery. To know 
Ihe things that are not, and cannot be, but have been 
imagined and believed, is the most curious chapter in 
the annals of man. To observe the actual results of 
these imaginary phenomena, and the crimes and 
cruelties they have caused us to cominit, is o 

tractive studies in which wc can possibly 8 

Of course, the training which is necessary i 

precursor to the study of a science such as this 

' somewhat special, must be in some way conducive j 

■ Herbbrt Spencbr. ■' The Sfitdy of Snciology% 
(London: nth edn., 1B84). p. .^iS. ^ 

■■ Compnre " Manual," ill! 65, 66, 6q, and 89. 


a habit of analytical thought. Difterent people will 
study the question from different standpoints. " There 
are acquired mental aptitudes for seeing things under • 

particular aspects as there are acquired bodily apti- Spencer. 
tudes for going through evolutions after particular 
ways. And there are intellectual perversities pro- 
duced by certain modes of treating the mind, as there 
are incurable awkwardnesses due to certain physical 
activities daily repeated *' [Herbert Spencer, op. 
^^•f P- 314]- -A certain sense of relation is requisite 
to the student who would study the science, a sense 
which develops itself as the subject unfolds itself, — 
*" viresque acquirit eundo^ 

It may perhaps be argued that were the science ^88. 
really entitled to the encomia which 1 have bestowed ^*'"*«$»yl***^ 
upon it, it would long ago have been investigated and 
brought to perfection ; but in answer to such an argu- 
ment as this I may cite a hundred reasons for its non- 
development, of which, however, a few will suffice. As 
long ago as 550 b.c., Confucius remarked that " the Kung-fn-ixu. 
study of the supernatural is injurious indeed ; '* and 
throughout the intervening centuries there has always 
existed a strong prejudice against any study that can 
give to the student such advantages as are to be 
derived from this one. Besides this it has been very per- 
tinently remarked that a continued habit of self-analysis 
hat a strong tendency to lead one to self-deception : Seir^feception. 
the arguments which arrive at p>ersuading others 
have passed that point, and have become exaggerated 
and deceptive in our own cases, and from a know- 
ledge of what we are, to a conviction that we are 
what we are not, is with a feeble mind a very easy 
and inappreciable transition. 

Such causes as this, therefore, have warred against ^SS. 
the full development of our science, but now that ^y^ 
mankind has reached a century in which a calm and 
self-restrained habit of mind has become a leading 

llf 33] 





characteristic, I feel every confidence in submitting 
to the world the principia contained in the science, 
saying with the author of " Hermippus Redivivus" ^ 
" These are my principles which I submit to the 
strictest examination ; if they can be demonstrated to 
be false or precarious, I shall be sorry for myself and 
for mankind, since undoubtedly they carry in them a 
strong appearance of truth, and of the most pleasing 
kind of truth — that which attributes glory to God by 
displaying His goodwill to man." 

I have endeavoured in the pages which follow to 
give a satisfactory explanation of the scientific bases 
of the science, [in defiance of Longfellow's opinion 
that explanations of a beautiful theory are superero- 
gatory,^] an explanation more complete and minute, 
and in some measure supplemental to those which 
I have given in the Introductory Argument to "A 
Manual of Cheirosophy,'* I have thought it far better 
to adopt this course, relying on a certain amount of 
probability of success, than to shelter myself behind 
the arguments which I have advanced in % 97 of that 
introductory argument, contenting myself in this 
connection with merely quoting Henry Drummond's 
authority for saying that a science without mystery, 

•' [^OHUl Qo^A\JS^J!i'], ** Hermippus Redivivus ; or, 
the Sage*s Triumph over Old Age and the Grave** 
(London: 1744], p. 14. Recently reprinted by Mr. Ed- 
mund Goldsmia (Edinburgh : 1885). 

• **And why should one always explain? Some 
feelings are quite untranslatable. No language has 
yet been found for them. They gleam upon us beauti- 
fully through the dim twilight of fancy, and yet, when 
we bring them close to us, and hold them up to the 
light of reason, lose their beauty all at once ; as glow- 
worms, which glimmer with such a spiritual li^t in 
the shadows of evening, when brought in where the 
candles are lighted, arc found to be only worms like so 
many others.'*— H. W. Longfellow, ''Hyperion,'* 
bk. iii., chap. 6 (Boston : 18^' "* 253). 



!>., a fully-explained science, is not only unknown, 
but non-existent.** [yt'de note ^^, p. 91.] 

"Mystery," says Bain [vide note •*, p. 66], "is 
correlated to explanation ; it means something intel- 
ligible enough as a fact, but not accounted for, not 
reduced to any law, principle, or reason. The ebb 
and flow of the tides, the motions of the planets, 
satellites, and comets, were understood as facts at 
all times ; but they were regarded as mysteries until 
Newton brought them under the laws of motion and 
gravity. Elarthquakes and volcanoes are still mys- 
terious ; their explanation is not yet fully made out. 
The immediate derivation 0/ muscular power and of 
animal heat is unknown, which renders these phaeno- 
mena mysterious." And such is the case with the 
science which we have before us. 

This being the case, though I have said in another 
place [" Manual^ ^ 93] that the tabulation and mar- 
shalling of facts alone will not by itself be sufficient 
for the establishment of this science upon a firm basis, 
still a proper observation of the facts of a case will 
very generally conduce to a great extent to an appre- 
ciation of its principles. " In the earlier centuries," 
says Drummond, in the opening paragraph of his 
•* Saturat Law, etc,," " before the birth of science, 
phenomena were studied alone. The world then was 
a chaos, a collection of single, isolated, and indepen- 
dent facts. Deeper thinkers saw, indeed, that relations 
must subsist between these facts, but the reign of 
law was never more to the ancients than a far-off 
vision." So it has been in the case of chcirosophy ; 
the ** palmistry " of the ancients was merely the 
interpretation of certain isolated facts arising from 
fortuitous concatenations of circumstances, but the 

• Hknky Drummond, ** Natural Law in the 
spiritual Wt/rld'' (London: 15th edn.. 1885), pp. 28 
and 88. 



Myjitery in 




Tabulation of 
facu and 



cheirosophy of to-day is something more ; it is the 
tabulation of certain received principles, upon certain 
rules approved by physical science, in obedience to a 
recognised system which has received the support of 
reason and of experience. Only, instead of treating 
our data as isolated truths, useful only by way of 
illustration and support, we are careful to verify our 
facts as we go, liite Fontenelle's " true philosophers, 
who are like elephants, who as they go never put their 
second foot to the ground until their first be well 
fixed." " 

And after all, the more drastic the investigation to 
which such truths are submitted, the more clearly will 
their verity become apparent. " It is the great beauty 
of truth that the more we examine it, the more dif- 
ferent lights in which we place it, the more pains we 
take in turning and twisting it, the more we perceive 
its excellence and the better the mind is satisfied about 
it " [" HennippMs Reiiivivus," p. 45] ; but the method 
of investigation pursued niust be the right one, for, as 
Coleridge very justly remarked, to set up for a states- 
man upon historical knowledge only, is about as wise 
as to set up for a musician by the purchase of some 
score of flutes, fiddles, and horns. In order to make 
music you must know how to play; in order to make 
your facts speak truth you must know what the truth 
is which ought to be proved — the ideal truth, — the 
truth which was consciously or unconsciously, strongly 
or weakly, wisely or blindly, intended at all times." 
As for those persons who despise and ridicule the 
' science, I have said enough concerning them else- 

" " En fait de d^couvertes nouvelles, il ne faut pas 
trop se presser de raisonner, quoy qu'dn en alt toujours 
assei d en vie, et les vraia philosophes aont comme les 
elephans, qui en marchant ne posenl jamais le second 
pied 4 terre, que le premier n'y soit blen aifennfi." — 
FONTENELLE, Op. cit., vi™" soir. D. no. 

" "Table Talk " oS S. T. Cc il 14th. 1833. 



where [" Maniial^ %% 71, 78] ; we must bear in mind 
Fontenelle's very just remark to the effect that ** every 
species despises what it wants *' \Op, cit^ vi"** soir], 
and it is of very little consequence that single sceptics 
make light of a science the importance of which is 
acknowledged by a vast body of their fellow-men,'* 
for we can class them all with the Pococurante, of 
whom Candide said to himself, " What a surprising Voitaire. 
man, what a genius is this Pococurante I Nothing can 
please him ! ** ^* 

Under the same, or almost the same, category we ^ 39. 
may class those who declaim against the wickedness w»ckedn«» of 

the science* 

of the science [** Manual" ^^ 81 — 84], people who 

— to quote Candide once more— are like the father 

of Zenoida, who v/as wont to say, "III betide those 

wretched scribblers, who attempt to pry into the 

hidden ways of Providence" \^* Candide" part II., 

ch. xiii.]. It is true that among the younger and 

abler minds of to-day there exists, as Drummond has Drummond. 

said in the Preface to his ** Natural Law, etc." a '* most 

serious difficulty in accepting or retaining the ordinary 

forms of belief. Especially is this true of those whose 

culture is scientific. And the reason is palpable. No 

man can study modern science without a change 

coming over his view of truth. What impresses him 

about nature is its solidity. He is there standing 

" ** There is no people, rude or learned, amone whom ' ' 
l^uch things as this] "are not related and believed. 
This opinion which prevails as far as human nature is 
diffused could become universal only by its truth ; those 
that have never heard of one another would not have 
agreed in tales which nothing but experience can make 
credible. That it is doubted by single cavillers, can 
very little weaken the >^eneral evidence, and some who 
deny it with their tongues confess it with their fears.*'— 
Samuel Johnson, ** Rasseias, Prince of Abyssinia" 
chap. zxi. 

•• Voltaire, ^* Candide, ou r Optimisme** Ed. Ori- 
ginale: n^/it/ (Paris : 1869}, chap. xxv. 


19] ■ 

upon actual things, among fixed laws. And the 
integrity of the scientific method so seizes him that 
all other forms of truth b^n to appear comparatively 
unstable." But this form of the free-thought of 
youth and ability is a very dtfierent thing to that 
legcL against which Schlegel so drastically inveighs in the 
opening pages of his "Philosophy of Life." A habit 
of thought engendered by a minute observation of 
the fixity of the laws of nature, so far from being 
pernicious or even undesirable, is calculated to 
advance us on rapid sails across what Professor Sir 
Richard Owen has called "the bowidless ocean of 
unknoum tnUh." '* 
U). And of the actual fixity of these laws it is not 

j^ necessary for me, in this place, to bring forward 
authorities. "The pursuers of exact science to its 
Sdou. coy retreats," says Sir Walter Scott, " were sure to 
be the first to discover that the most remarkable 
pha^nomena of nature are regulated by certain fixed 
laws, and cannot rationally be referred to super- 
natural agency, the suftering cause to which super- 
stition attributes all that is beyond her own narrow 
iwin. power of explanation ; " ''^ and Godwin has commenced 
\i\s" Lives of Ihe NecrofHancers" viil^i the words, "The 
improvements that have been effected in natural 
philosophy have by degrees convinced the enlightened 
part of mankind that the material universe is every- 
where subject to laws, fixed in their weight, measure, 
and duration, capable of the most exact calculation, 
and which in no cast admit of variation and exception," 
And it is upon this fixity of natural laws which 
ji smnh. Newman Smyth has described as the expression of 

" Sir Richard Owen, " On the Nature of 
Limbs" (London: 1849), p. 83. Vide "Manual, 
H 90' 

" "Letters on Demonohgy and Witchcraft" 
letter vi. 

■ ihsi ou 


II « 


" the Divine vemcity of nature " 
of cheinwophy has Its foundatiun. 

Tlie tNK)k« which contain the principia of this 
>nci>c« arc legion. The volumes catalogued in the 
" BMiolfufa Cifiromantiat," Appendix B, at the- end 
»f this liook, dealing of course as they do principally 
with cheiromancy "pur [itutisfai] simplt," contain a 
great moss i>r data which arc of very little value to 
the ehcn\MophisL ll is not enough to buy a book 
niKMi the icicncc, nr half a dozen books, and devour 
them with unreffccling n\-idity, — a pruccsn which must 
inevitably result in tntellcriual indigestion. We 
must bear in mind Hacon's excellent advice, in his 
essay " Of Sltidits" to the effect that " sonie bookea 
■re 10 be read oncly in parts ; others to be read, but 
not curiously ; and aomt /rn> to be read wholly aiid 
with d)ligct)ce and aiteotion," and so on. Of course, 
the vast majority of l>ooks hereon arc old and fre- 
quently obsolete, and great care is required in sclect- 
init and rrjccling the data which they give. Still, 
both Sampson and Don Juan pointed out to Don tjwi g 
Qaijotc that there is no book 30 bad that it docs not 
contain uimt good thing," and a coinpanitlvcly sliort 
study omJ practice of the science of chcirosophy will 
direct the student in his researches in this matter. 

For it does not suffice merely to read books on tlie 
•ubfccti it must be continoally practised, that the 
pondpia laid down in tbe manual may be impressed 
upon the mind by their verification in actual experi- _ 

cnr^e. " I'enanal experiment," said Coleridge [" TaUt dtnUs*. 
TM," 0<:t»t»er 8tb, 1830], " is necessary In order to 
A'lTP Light" 

• NRWMAK SlUTIl. ■' OU t'AiIki I 
(New York: 18,-9) (London ilklj). p. *. 

" " No hay libri> tan>— .lifo cl bachtller— qtie tio 

Inwa atgo bueno." -"/V/i liJ.v.y-'/r." piSfte ii., cap. j. 

"Coo tndo cui 'dijo r1 Uon juan — sera bicn leetla, 

hay hbm tan malo. que no irojp algvt 

—/a., pane li^ cap. 59. 


6j the science of the hand. 

correct our own observation of the experiments which 
nature herself makes for ub — 1 mean the pheenomena 
of the universe. But then observation is, in turn, 
vranted to direct and substantiate the course of ex- 
periment. Experiments alone cannot advance know- 
ledge without observation ; they amuse for a time, 
and then pass off the scene and leave no trace behind 
them." Verb. sap. 

The student must, of course, be prepared, in this 
" as in every other science, to find occasional baflling 
inconsistencies." I have laid down elsewhere the 
preparatory notes for the treatment of such contin- 
gencies ; — a young science possesses no more the 
perfection of the established science, than the human 
infant possesses that of the human adult, and the 
student will speedily learn to derive as much infor- 
mation from his failures as from his successes — just 
as in learning a language nothing impresses a phrase 
so firmly on the mind as to forget it suddenly, and to 
be obliged to dissect and rc-acquire it. 

And finally you must be prepared to take, as it 
were, the rough with the smooth, to learn twth the 
1 evil and the good which centres herein, for without 
the contrast of evil you cannot appreciate the good. 
It is continually argued to me that it is not good to 
know one's fellow-men as accurately and completely 
as one is enabled to do by means of this science ; that 
people arc, as a rule, much more charming as they 
seem, than as they arc. If such thoughts as this 
disturb you, lay down these volumes, gentle- 
hearted reader, for the science of cheirosophy is 
not for you I 

I may perhaps incur the charge of undue insistence, 
in advancing these arguments in favour of this science, 
as an introduction to this volume, but without wish- 

=■ Viiie^i • '-.•', p. 282. 



ing it to be said in the words of Ben Jonson's Sir 
Epicure Mammon, that ''if I take you in hand, sir, 
with an argument, V\\ bray you in a -mortar/'^* I am 
anxious to escape the censure bestowed upon Fonte- 
nelie by his marchioness, who complained of his 
convincing her only with his weaker arguments, and 
keeping his stronger ones in the background.^ 

I wish to avoid as much as possible the very easily ^46. 
fallen-into sin of advancing biassed or favourably **•*««• 
exaggerated arguments in favour of my own case, and 
I wish to say everything which has to be said upon 
the subject, indifferently to its effect upon the reader's 
mind ; not, like the Delphic pythoness,^^ to divide what 
it is judicious to say from what it is prudent to omit ; 
to dwell upon one thing, and slur over another, as 
suits the purpose in hand; but that 1 may deal 
honestly with my subject and with the student, saying, 
as Drummond has said in the preface to his *' Natural Drttrnmond. 
Law" : — " And if with undue enthusiasm 1 seem to 
magnify the principle at stake, the exaggeration — like 
the extreme amplification of the moon's disc when 
near the horizon — must be charged to that almost 

•■ The Alchemist^ act ii., sc. i. 

" •* Je vous .iy pourtant pas dit la meillcure raison 
qui le prouvc, repliquay-je. Ah ! s*6cria-t-eHe, c'est 
unc trahison de m' avoir fait croirc tes choses sans 
ro'en apporter que de foibles prouves. Vous nc me 
jugiez done pas digne de croire sur de bonnes raisons i 

Je nc vous prouvois les choses — r6pondis-je — qu*avec 
e petits raisonnements doux, et accomodez a vostrc 
usage ; en eussav-je employ^ d*aussi solides et d'aussi 
robustes que si j avots eu k attaqucr un Docteur ? Qui, 
dit-elle, prenez moy presentement pour un Docteur, 
et voy(»ns cette nouvellc preuve du mouvement de la 
Terrc.** Fontenellb, op. cii., vi soir.— Placing, 
therefore, my reader in the place of the maruuise, 1 
propose to treat him as a doctor whom I labour to 

« Vide Horace, •• /V Arte Poehcn:' vers. 148 
ei seq. 



necessary aberration of light which distorts every new 

idea, while it is yet slowly climbing to its zenith," 

t*'' Again, reflecting that arguments may onen ruin the 

fecu. cause they desire to advance, by perplexing when they 

do not convince, I shall prefer to state the facts, the 

truth of the case, without comment, rather than to cover 

the light of the science with a bushel of argument,** 

Dm oof ^""^ lastly, I desire not to incur the charge of 

nsording only recording only successes and not failures of the system, 

nidcHM^ g^ jjjgj jjj^ student may not paraphrase to me the words 

of the Roman to whom were pointed out the votive 

tablets of those who, "in consequence of their prayers 

to Neptune," had moI been drowned in shipwreck, 

as a proof of the efficacy of such prayers, and who 

somewhat significantly replied, " Yes ; but where are 

the votive tablets of those who kavt been drowned?" 

T^4B. 1 would call particular attention to the now gene- 

diMnd"m"iik rally accepted fact that man is formed almost wholly 

environmeni. by.hls environment,*' that his oi^anisation, like that 

of the animals, conforms to the necessities of his life. 

Perhaps the data upon which such a dictum as this 

may be amply supported, have never, in a condensed 

form, been put before the world more clearly than 

by the author of a now somewhat obsolete but most 

" " Some in their discourse desire rather commenda- 
tion of Wil, in being able to hold all arguments, than of 
Judgment in discerning what is true : As if it were a 
praise to know what might ht: said, and not what should 
be thought."— Bacon, " 0/ Discourse." 

*■ " The Influence of Environment may be investi- 
gated in two main aspects. First, one might discuss 
the modem and very interesting question as to the 
power of Environment to induce what is known to 
recent science as variation. A change in the surround- 
ings of any animal, it is now well known, can so react 
upon It as to cause it to change. By the attempt, con- 
" ' " s or unconscious, to adjust itself t - -'- - - - 

is,a truephj-siolf 
within the organism. 



interesting opuscuium, " The Hand, Phrenologically 
Considered^ (London : 1848), chap. iii. of which is 
mainly devoted to a clear and progressive essay on 
the subject, entitled " Appendages to the Trunk, a 
Key to the entire Organisation and Habits of Animals" 
[pp. 22-43]. This essay terminates with the words: — 
" From this cursory examination of the animal world 
we may gather the important conclusion, that from 
the structure of an extremity we may obtain a com- 
plete insight into the entire organisation of an animal ; 
and thus the paws furnished with sharp retractile 
claws of the lion, indicate at once to a naturalist its 
strong teeth, its powerful jaws, and its muscular 
strength of limb ; while from the cleft foot of the cow 
the complicated structure of its stomach, the definite 
peculiarities of its jaws, and its vegetable diet may 
with equal certainty be predicated " [p. 48]. A mass 
of interesting information, germane to this matter 
also, may be found in the chapter on " Relations," 
contained in Paley*s " Natural Theology** At present P*iey. 
the point to be established is this, that man is formed 
by his environment, his actions, and his manner of 
life ; and that, therefore, by a discriminating examina- 
tion of the man himself that environment, those 

experiment so changed the Environment of a sea-gull 
by keeping it in captivity that it could only secure a 
flTsun diet. The effect was to modify the stomach of 
Uie bird, normally adapted to a fish diet, until in time it 
came to resemble in structure the gizzard of an ordi- 
nary grain-feeder, such as the pigeon." — Drummond, 
** Natural Law in the Spiritual W^/^r/r/," chapter on 
*• Environment/' p. 255. Professor Drummond goes on 
to cite several other most interesting similar instances. 
VkU also Karl Semper {^*J)ie Xaturlichen Existent- 
Btdingungen der Tkiere^ 1880] *' The Natural Condi- 
tions of Existence as they affect Animal Life** (Lon- 
don: 1881), and C. Darwin, '*Jhe Variation of 
Animals and Plants under Domestication ** (London ; 
1868, and edn., 1875). 



actions, and that manner of life may, with practical 
certainty, be inferred "I am a part of all that I have 
met" ["OrfvMO'"]. 

It may also be said contrariwise, that the mind is 
"^^ formed by the body as much as the body by the 
-t- mind ; i.«., that a deformity of the body will very 
oncn result in a perversion of the mind, and that 
certain physical peculiarities will produce certain 
individualised habits of thought and action, The 
matter is entirely one of reciprocity, — a reciprocity 
which, so far from confusing us, renders our science 
more and more clear as we find more and more 
points of connection between mind and' body." 
" According to the definition of the physiologist 
Mailer, the temperaments are peculiar permanent 
conditions, or modes of mutual reaction of the mind 
and organism, and they arc chiefly dependent on the 
relation which subsists between the strivings or 
emotions of the mind and the excitable structure of 
the body. Even if we may be disposed to contend 
that they are not absolutely dependent on any par- 
ticular constitution of the body, it must still be 
conceded that they are at least associaltd with 
certain pecuHa'rities of outward organisation, by 
which they may be speedily recognised, so that the 
physical structure, the mental tendency, and the 
character of ideas are always intimately connected." ** 
"There is no example," says Bain \vide note **], 
bAy "of two agents so closely united as mind and 

" Dr. Alexander Bain's work, " Mind and Body, the 
Theories of their Relation " (London: 7th edit., 1883I, 
is probably well known to many of my readers, as deal- 
ing eihaustively with the many theorit's which Uiave 
been advanced in explanation with this relation. 

"' " 2Vie Hand Phreiwlogically Considered" (Lon- 
don : i8j8),p.(j, fftfc also Hfrbert Spencer's " i'(W(^ 
of Suiio/i'gy '(l.ondon : 1873), chap. xiiL, "Discipline" 
[nth edit., 1884, p. 324]. 




body, without some mutual interference or adapta- 
tion. . . . On a theme so peculiar and so difficult 
the only surmise admissible beforehand would be 
that the two distinct natures could not subsist in their 
present intimate alliance and yet be wholly indi£ferent 
to one another ; that they would be found to have 
some kind of mutual co-operation ; that the on-goings 
of the one would be often a clue to the on-goings of 
the other. . . . We can begin at the outworks, at 
the organs of sense and motion^ with which the nervous 
system communicates ; we can study their operations 
during life, as well as examine their intimate struc- 
ture ; we can experimentally vary the circumstances 
of their operation ; we can find how they act upon 
the brain, and how the brain reacts upon them. 
Using all this knowledge as a key, we may possibly 
unlock the secrets of the anatomical structure; wc 
may compel the cells and fibres to disclose their 
meaning and purpose." **• 

1 will close this section of my argument with this 
retrospective remark of Milne-Edwards, "That the ^jj'^i;;^^^ 
faculties of the mammaiia are the more elevated in extrunitin. 
proportion as their members are the better constructed 
for prehension and for touch," **' — an axiom the truth 
of which I think most of what has gone before 
has sufficiently established, an axiom which entirely 
clinches the data referred to in ^49 and note ^, p. 64. 

It may perhaps be argued that these data may have 
been tabulated in error ; that the reai nature of man 

Intelligeiicc And 

** " The form and posture of the human body, and its 
various organs of perception, have an obvious reference 
to man's rational nature ; and are beautifully fitted to 
encourage and facilitate his intellectual improvement." 
— Dl'GALD Stewart, ** Outlines of Aioral Philo- 
sophy** (Edinburgh : 2nd edit., 1801), p. 68, sect, xi., 

* H. Milnk-Edwakds, *' A Manual 0/ Zoology" 
(London : 2nd edit., 1863), K 306— 343- 


DUclosiire of 

man's rod 



very seldom appears upon the surface; and thai the 
deductions which are set down in the following pages 
maybe founded upon misapprehension. I have only 
to say that, carefully watched, all men must at some 
time or another allow their true natures to appear, 
" for Nature," as Bacon said [" Of Nafurt in Men "], 
" will lay buried a great time and yet revive upon 
occasion or temptation;" anA agam\" Of Negociating"\ 
"Men discover themselves in trust, in passion, at 
unawares, and of necessities, when they would have 
somewhat done, and cannot finde an apt pretext ; " 
and it is by watching for such occasions as these 
that we attain to the verification of our principia, my 
task being principally to state those principia clearly 
and correctly. By inapplicable phraseology many 
a question has been darkened and mystified to the 
point of despair. In the history of philosophy we find 
numerous instances of contradictions being brought 
about by inappropriate language, and in no case more 
fatally than in the tabulation of the data upon which 
to found such sciences as this one. 

Of the value of this science it is not necessary for 
me in this place to say any more than I have already 
'"had occasion to say [•'Manual," %% 85-6]. Alas! 
that, as Sir Walter Scott found it necessary to say," 
truth should not be natural to man ; were it so, one of 
the great arguments in our favour would be annulled ; 
and again, one's first impressions being practically 

" "Tht melancholy truth that 'the human heart is 
deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked,' Is 
by nothing proved so strongly as by the imperfect sense 
displayed by children of the sanctity of truth. . . . The 
child has no natural love of truth, as is experienced by 
all who have the least acquaintance with early youth. 
If they are charged with a fauh while they can hardly 
speak, the first words they stammer forth are a false- 
hood to excuse it." — "tetters on Dcinotwlngy and 
Witchcraft," letter vii 


[T S4] 

indelible,** is it not of vital importance that they 
should be correct, so that wc may ncn start in our 
intercourse with our fellow-men at the prime dis- 
advantage of having formed a mistaken idea of their 
characters and modes of thought? It is these two 
great advantages that I claim to confer upon you by 
the inculcation of the principles of this Science of 
Chcirosophy ; it is this that 1 desire to impress upon 
thinking minds; it Is this superiority that I claim to 
be existent in the Hands as the outward indicators 
of the inner characteristics of man. 

Before proceeding to consider the principles and IM- 
practice of the science of cheirognomy, I think it is "'JI^. ' 
necessary that we should clearly understand what we 
are working upon, we should know thoroughly the 
anatomical construction of the hand, and that we 
should be in a position to say upon what develop- 
ment of what particular muscles and bones par- 
ticular forms of hands depend. 

1 have already [^ 52] quoted Milne-Edwards' ^M. 
remark upon the progression of intellect in a direct ^^ ^™S 
ratio to the articulation of the extremities of animals, >»»■. 
a remark which finds a curious parallel in the second 
subsection of M. d'Arpentigny's M'oric [^ 99]. How 
obviously may we carry the observation further, and 
at length, contemplating the perfectly -articulated 
hattds of Man, say with the Persian tent-maker : — 
" Han 11 the whole Creation *i Mimmaiy, 
The predou Apple of great Wisdom s Eyt, 

Tbe drdc of ExiucDce is a King 
Whereof the S^et is (lununity. 

Ten Power*, and nine Sphetei, eight Heaveni made He, 
And Planet! >cveD, of six sides we see. 

Five Seniei, and four Elemenu, three Souls, 
Two WoeM»-bnt only ONE, Oh Mas ! like thee 1 ■' - 
* As FoDtenetle remarks on the sixth evening of the 
" Smtrttiems " 1 have already auotcA, fiasitm. 
" "llU RuUiyAi of Omtar-t-Khayydm;' Ruha\^ 


1 ST. But though a Power of which we can know nolhing 

ti^aoamctl in the present finite condition of our intellects has 
brought us to this state of perfection, still we must 
not lose sight of the great principle continually laid 
down, to which I have before [^ 49] referred, i.t., 
that man is formed to a great extent by his en- 
vironment; and the pre-natal conditions of his 
existence are only a further development of this 
same principle. The development of any organism 
in any direction is dependent upon, its environment. 
A living cell cut off from all air will die. A seed- 
germ apart from moisture and an appropriate tem- 
perature will make the ground its grave for centuries. 
Human nature likewise is subject to similar con- 
ditions. It can only develop in presence of Its 
^88. In the human embryo the hand is the first member 

memofiiwhami. which in any way suggests its final development. 
In th* embryo of a month, though the hand resembles 
a fin more than anything else, it is still distinctly 
apparent, and the illustration given of a stage three 
weeks later on [p. 126 of vol. i of the eighth 
edilion of Quain's " Elemenis of Anatomy " (London : 
1876)] represents this elementary development very 
clearly and well. The hand is perfect at birth, save 
that the palm is always out of proportion with the 
fingers, itself an interesting factor in the establish- 
ment of the science, regard being had to the remarks 
of our author in ^ 94. It is at about the age of 
' fourteen, both in men and women, that the hand 
assumes the piermanent form as the indicator of the 
characteristics which will follow a subject through 
life. " [Vide f f 65 to 67.] 

340 and lio of Whinfield's translation [note ", 

lines of the palm in 
ition to the following 



It is nuw that the art of the cheiromant comes 
inio requisition. " I can never see any difference in ^ 
hands; 1 cannot tcU whether my hands are big or 
small; I cannot tell whether my thumb is lai^e or 
not; I do not know whether my fingers bear the 
right proportion to my palm." Such things as thia 
are said to me every day, and it is of course only 
after a small amount of observation that the student 
is able to determine these points for himself, to 
distinguish differences which are imperceptible to 
the unpractised eye, just as the banker's clerk detects 
a forged banknote after it has deceived peraons more 
clever intellectually, but less practised in this par- 
ticular direction than he. The whole matter turns 
first upon the question of comparison or discrimina- 
tion, then of agreement, and finally of memory. 
" When wc ha\'e anything new to learn," says Bain 
[note ", p. 66], " as a new piece of music or a new 
proposition in Euclid, wc fall back on our previously 
combined combinations, musical or geometrical, so 
far as they apply, and merely tack certain of them 
together in correspondence with the new case. The 
method of acquiring by patchwork sets in early and 
predominates increasingly " [p. 87]. This then is 
the mannei in which the science of chcirosophy is 
In be acquired. 

paragraph which occurs on page 314 of vol. ii. of 
Quain's " Aaatomy " .- — " The free surface of the 
corium " [or homy layer of the skin] " is marked in 
various places with larger or smaller furrows, which also 
affect the supeijaccnt cuticle. The larger of them arc 
•ecn opposite the flexures of the joints, as those so well 
known m the palm of the hand, and at the jointure 
of the finyerH, The finer furrows intersect each other 
at various angles, and may be seen almost all over the 
•UTface. These furrmxi are not merfly the coHse- 
gmeiKt of the frfijueni fuldin^ nf the skin by the 
mctioH of muscles or the bending of joints, for tk^ 
exist im the embryo." 


r^BO. Of what eiements, therefore, are the hands of man 

composed ? Of bones, muscles, and nerves, the 
whole being \-ivified by a complete and complex 
arterial and venous system. 

I ^81. To begin with the basis of the fabric — the bone ; 

let us consider what is its composition, and how does 
it play its part in the human ceconomy. "Bone," 
says Holden,*' "is composed of a basis of animal 
matter impregnated with 'hone earth ' or phosphate 
of lime." The first ingredient makes it tenacious and 

TRAhsvEESE Section of Bonk [AoJiks] 

elastic ; the second gives it the requiiite hardness, 
the animal part formmg abcut one third and the 
earthy two thuds The general construction ot long 
and round broad and flat and short and irregular 
bones need not occupy us but the microscopic 
structure is if interest to us in our present study. 
Fig. 1 represents a transverse section of a bone. 
[All bones present the same charailenstiLS and I 
have chosen a section frim the ndius as its peculiari- 
ties arc perfectly shtwn ] The big blatk spots are 

•" LtJTHER HoiXi%s. •■ ffumiftOstm/o^"(Xj>ndon: 
4th edit., 1879). pp. i. 14. 15, " -ri'^V 


[1 '■] 
sections of the canals [called Haversian canals], 
which transmit bloodvessels to the substance of 
the bone. The small dark spots are minute reser- 
voirs, called "bone corpuscles," "bone cells," or 
" lacuntr." The Haversian canals vary considerably 
in size and shape : they are generally round or oval, 
and whilst those nearest to the circumference of the 
bone are small, towards the centre they grow gradu- 
ally larger, at length opening into the hollow which 
occupies the centre' of the bone, and is filW with the 
marrow. Round the Haversian canals are disposed 
the " laeuiur " in concentric rings, known as " laminrr," 
whi^ are formed of concentric layers of bone, which 
have been developed within the Haversian canal. 
The laCHtur are microscopic tubes, connected spider- 
like with one another by means of tinier tubes still, 
called " eamalietdi." All these bunches, as it were, of 
canaliculi anastomose, i.e., are connected with one 
another, so that by these means a constant connection 
is kept up between the Haversian canal and its con- 
centric layers of bone, by means whereof the nutrient 
juices arc continually distributed to every part of the 
bone. Each Haversian canal, ivith its layers of 
bone, iacuna, and canaliadi, is called a " Haversian 
system," each system being to a great extent in- 
dependent of the others. Besides these there are 
the triangular spaces between the systems [caused 
by their circularity], which, being filled up with bone 
layers and lantna similar to the Haversian systems, 
are known as Haversian interspaces. Fig. 2 repre- 
sents a longitudinal section of a similar bone. 

Between the articulations of the bone and the car- 


(ilage there exists another species of bone containing AnimiubiiBt 
no Haversian canals ; the lacuna are larger than in the 
subjacent bone, and have no cama/ktiii ; the result of 
this ia, that, not being vascular, it is much less porous 
than common bone, and consequently forms a much 


stronger and unyielding surface for the support of die 
cartilage. With this bone, however, which is called 
articular bont, we need not deal in this place, as it 
does not concern the present discussion. It is not 
necessary either for us to enter into the structure and 
development of embryonic bone, as we are dealing 
with the fully-developed hand exclusively \yidt 
thereon Holden, op. cit., p. 23]. 

The skeleton of the hand [Plate 1., FroHlispitc€\ 
consists of twenty-seven bones,'^ ' The first eight are 

Fig, 2.— Earthy Mattbr ok Bone, 
Longitudinal section showing the Hovcraian canals, 

the little boucs of the carpus; the five succeeding 
bones constitute the metacarpus ; these support the 
bones of the fingers. Each finger has three bones, 
termod, in order from the wrist, the first, second, and 
third or ungual phalanx. The thumb has only two 

It may be seen that the eight bones ot the carpus 
are arranged in two rows of four each, so as to form 
a broad base for the support of the hand. The 
reason of this mass of small bones is dual : it is to 

" Holden's " Osteology" pp. 148-157. 


ponmit extended motion, and also to confer elasticity ; 
for each articular surface [vide ^ 62] is covered 
with cartilage, which, by preventing jarring, reduces 
the risk of fracture or dislocation to a minimum. 
This beautifully-constructed and flexible " buffer " [as 
it were] is called the " carp>al arch ; " all these bones 
articulate with one another by plane surfaces con- 
nected by strong ligaments, and the second row 
support, in like manner, the bones of the metacarpus, 
giving them by their varied shapes and positions 
different degrees of mobility, the thumb being the 
most, and the third finger the least, movable of the 
digits, on account of the arrangements of the carpus 
which give them motion. The carpus, which is 
entirely cartilaginous at birth, docs not become fully 
ossified and perfect as we see it in Plate I., until the 
end of the twelfth year [vide ^58]. No muscles 
are attached to the back of the wrist, but the palmar 
surface of the carpus gives rise to the main muscles 
of the fingers. 

The metacarpus consists of the five bones that ^65. 
support the phalanges of the thumb and fingers. '^^ m««aipai 
The shafts of these bones are slightly hollow as seen 
from the palmar surface, the bases of the bones 
articulating, not only with the carpus, but laterally 
with one another. The metacarpal bone of the 
thumb is distinguished by a characteristic saddle- 
shaped surface at its base. There are no less than 
nine muscles to work the thumb, and its great mobility 
depends upon this saddle-shaped joint at its base. 
Each of the metacarpal bones have certain distinguish- 
ing characteristics by which they are known to the 
osteologist It is interesting also for us to note that 
every metacarpal bone has an epiphysis [i.e., a mass of 
bone ossified from a separate centre of ossification] 
mt the lower end, and sometimes at the upper ; these 
mppcmr at different *ages up to the fourth year, but 


none of them join on to the shafts of the bones until 
about the twentieth year, so that the skeleton of the 
hand cannot be said to be perfect and complete until 
that age. 

Each finger consists of three bones, termed the 
phalangea The two of the thumb correspond to the 
first and third of the fingers. The shafts of the 
phalanges are concave on their palmar surface [like 
the metacarpal bones] for the convenient play of the 
flexor tendons, and on each side of the flat or concave 
surface there is a ridge for the attachment of the 
fibrous sheath which keeps the tendons in place. As 
in the metacarpus, the perfect ossification, and the 
attachment of the epiphyses of these t>ones, is not com- ' 
plete until about the twentieth year. 

Besides the above bones we often find small bones 
'^ bedded in the tendons of the joints of the thumb, 
called sesamoid bones, , These give greater leverage 
and strength to the joints, and where you can see or 
feel them in a hand, they are always a great sign of 

It would, of course, be beyond the limits of a work 
like the present to enter into anything like a complete 
survey of the muscles of the hand and the principal 
muscles of the arm which are connected with them, 
but, seeing that on the development of these muscles 
quite as much as upon the development of the t>ones 
the shapes of the hand depend, a few passing re- 
marks will not, I think, be out of place. For any 
more complete survey the reader should refer to such 
works as Quain's " Anatomy," etc.** 

Every muscle constitutes a separate organ, com- 
posed chiefly of a mass of contractile fibrous tissue, 
with other tissues and parts which may be called 


acoamtry. MuKuUr fibres [vide Fig- 3] are con- 
nected together in bundles or /tucicuti, and llicsc 
fuckuli arc «guin embedded in, sriH Linilcd by, a 
quoDlity uf connective tiiisue, the whole "muscle" 
I being tuunlly mcJosrd in a sheath of the saine 
I nuieml. Muiy of tlic inuiicles ure connected at their 
less tjipering extremities with tendons by 
I whkh Ihey arc attached tu the bunes or hard pj)rts, 
I and tendinous bands, a* a rule, run into the auhatiuicc, 
I tu- aver the surface of a muscle. Blwdvcsselii arc 

A. Eyepictt.. 
Pn. 3.— Vdluktasv Muscvuk f'taiit. 

laffHy dtsiribuicd thmugh the substance ufa muscle, 
carryiBK the nintertali iicocKuiry Tor its nnurishmcnt 
'nd dMngcM, and there arc also lymphatic vef«c)* 
Nerves are nunifled thruujiU every niuwle, by whicb 
the muicular oontrartixn* arc called it\nh, and a low 
dcgrcr af actuibility ia uiuferra) upon the miMcutor 
I auhttanre. 

fif cuune, quite impuMible, as U wuuld be ^n 
K Inappfxipriuic, to git-c in (hi* place a full accudiil nT *''' ^^ ' 
■ tbc varimts muacles a( the haiuL Tbcy are aa fully 
by Ptales II. uiul 111., and 

or [he 


[1 70] 

they are there described. I wish merely to call 
particular attention in Plate II. to the great strength 
and variety of the tendons which supfwrt the muscles 
of the thumb and first finger, and in Plate III. to the 
enormous substance and importance of the muscles 
of the thumb and of the palm proper, which send off 
the most important digital muscles, an arrangement 
made especially clear to us by the differentiation in 
the two cuts of the superficial and of the deep-seated 
muscles. A glance at these two plates will be of more 
value to the student in cheirosophy than many pages 
of description. 
■CTl. The arteries and venous system of the hand must 

|^^"J^ necessarily interest us, as it varies continually in 
(hi hand, various individuals, and, as I have elsewhere pointed 
out [" Manual," Hlf 38 and 72], this very variation pos- 
sesses of itself a very significant meaning for us. I 
have given a short account of the main arteries of the 
hand in " A Manual of Chtirosophy ; " 3 fully detailed 
account may be found on pp. 410-419 of Quain's work 
already cited, containing practically all that is known 
concerning the various constituent parts of the super- 
ficial and deep palmar arches. 
^TS. Nothing can be more interesting or significant to 

the student than the study of the nervous system of 
the hands,' — -a subject which I have discussed at length 
in my former volume, and to which it is not, therefore, 
necessary for me to do more than merely refer here. 
On the structure and arrangement of nerve fibres, 
cells, and centres. Bain \yide note **, p. 66] has given 
us some most interesting data on pp. 28-32 of his work 
already cited. "There are," says he, "some signi- 
ficant facts regarding the arrangement of the nerve 
elements. It is to be noted, first, that the nerve fibres 
proceed from the nerve centres to the extremities of 
the body without a break, and without imiting or 
fusing with one another-; so that each unfoilin^ 

•^Tl III -Jfpn(*» 


delivers its separate message. Without this the 
greatness nr their number would not give variety of 
com muni cat ion. The chief use of the two coatings 
or envelopes appears to be to secure the isolatittti of 
the central axis. 

"Remark, next, that the plan of communicating from 
one part of the body to another — as from the skin „ 
of the hand to the muscles of the arm — >is not by a 
direct route from one spot to the other, but by a 
nervous centre. Every nerve fibre rising from the 
surlace of the body, or from the eye or ear, goes first 
of all to the spinal cord or to some part of the brain, 
and any influence exerted on the movements by 
stimulating these fibres passes out from some nervous 
centre. As in the circulation of letters by post there 
is no direct communication between one street and 
another, but every letter passes first to the central 
ofBce ; so the transmission of influence from one 
member of the body to another is exclusively through 
a centre, or [with a few exceptions] through some 
part of the nervous substance contained in the head 
or backbone. 

" Every nerve ends in a corpuscle, and from the 
same corpuscle arises some other fibre or fibres, 
cither proceeding back to the body direct, or proceed- 
in); to other corpuscles, whence new fibres arise with 
the same alternative. The corpuscles arc thus the 
medium of connection of ingoing with outgoing 
nerves, and hence of communication between the 
outlying parts of the body. They are the crossings 
or grand junctions, where each part can multiply its 
connection with the remaining parts. Thtrt is not a 
mmscit of th* body that coulii not be rtachfd tiimtiy or 
imdirtelly tyaprtssurt on t/ie tifi of Ikt fortfingtr; and 
this ramified connection is effected through the nerve 
cells or corpuscles." We arc, therefore, in examining 
and dealing with the hands, concerned with the most 



highly sensitive, the culminating point of this great 
system by which practically our whole lives are 

The hand is principally supplied by the two great 
nerves of the arm, the ulnar and the mtdian, the 
latter doing most of the work. Branches of the 
median nerve mainly supply the thumb, the 6rs[ and 


Fig. 4.— Section of Skin [Oi'agmmmalir]. 
(_i/ighly magiii/itd.y 

second, and one side of the third lingers; the other 
side of the third and the little tioger are supplied 
mainly by branches of the ulnar. The dorsal surface 
of the hand is mainly supplied by the museulospirat 
and the nidial ncr\'es, principally by the latter, the 
action of the former being confined principally to the 
thumb and forefinger [vidr further on this point 
of neurology "Manual," %^ 37, 39—41]. This 
short sketch has, 1 think, been sufficient to give us 

K^ ^^ 



™ ■ Bcneral idea of ihc manner in which the nervous ^^H 
connection of the hiind with the brain is carried out ; ^H 
B tt fbllnwR, therefore, merely to consider the culminat- ^^H 
^^^ tn|t point of this nervous system, the skin, which ^^H 
^^1 p\*y* BO important a part in thr analumy of the sense ^^H 
^H of toadi [vi A »]ao" Manual," ^\^ 4o-5i]. ^^| 
^B The skin is divided into the eulis vtra [the true ^'^H 
^H *Un] sod Ihc rulicU [Uie epidermis or scurf sicin]. ''^^^H 
^H These arc shown diagrammatically by Pigs. 4 and 5. ^H 
^^1 The strurturc af the Luticlc is best ^howii by Fig. 4, ^^H 

■ /^.^ 1 



^H and is IS follow*'. — Itiso^mpo<iedof celts agglutfaatcd ^^H 
^^1 mitelhirr In irrvgaiar layers, the lower ones of which, ^^H 
^H as may be seen in Che (igurr, ate amuixed vcrtirally, ^^M 
^H the eclb, M they aiiproarh the surface, bcv^nunK ^^M 
^B more and more Haltene*! till at \^ they 1oa« their ^M 
^H diuinctive cellular fonnntion. and become the rial ^^^ 
^H bamy soles of tlie si-arf skin or cutis ven. This i* ^^| 
^^M clB«tly Rhown in Fig. 4 ; al the Uum- we has-e the ^^H 
^H deep layer of venk&l cells, above that the dUtinctive ^^M 


The cutis vera or Irue skin is best seen in Fig. 5, 
and consists of a fibrous mass lerniinating in papilUe 
[of a pair of which Fig, 4 gives a magnified view], 
upon which the cuticle is moulded, and on the 
surface of which is spread an i n fin itesim ally fine 
network of bloodvessels, generally running up into 
the papillK, as in Fig. 4. The sensibility of the skin, 
its connection with the brain [vide "A Manua/"~\ is 
due to the presence of nerve terminations, of which 
the largest arc termeil ^e/njn« corpuscles [Fig. 5], and 

the smaller, which are found in the papilla:, touek 
eotpusclfs or end Ittilbs [Fig. 4]. 

The sweat glands, of which 2,500 are to be found 
' in every square inch of the skin of the palm, arc 
shown in both figures, consisting of tubules coiled up 
in balls in the cutis vera, and proceeding by spiral 
ducts to the surface, where tiiey can be seen with 
a strong magnilier, arranged in rows upon the 
curvilinear ridges [formed by the papillie of the 
cutis], as shown in Fig. f>. 

The nails are merely a thickening of the outer horny 
layer or cuticle, growing from matrices formed by folds 


Li 79l 

of that cuticle. They arc formed from above as well 
as from below at the root, so that the nail is con- 
tinually pushed forward by the new growth at the 
base. It is interesting to note that, if the nails are 
neglected for years, they will grow as thick as they 
are broad, and curl over towards the digit like a 

Here, therefore, we have the complete physiology ^80. 
of the hand so far as it is necessary for us to be con- corapSSd 
versant with it, — a physiology upon which we can base 
that sense of touch which, as Sir Walter Scott has 
said, it is impossible to deceive,*^ a quality which is 
peculiar to it of all the senses of man, and a quality 
which we find more highly developed in white- 
skinned races than in any other;* — that sense of 
touch which affords us perhaps the best evidence of 

• •• The sense of touch seems less liable to perver- 
sion than either that of sight or smell, nor are there 
many cases in which it can become accessory to such 
false intelli>^ence as the eye and ear, collecting as they 
do their objects from a greater distance, and by less 
accurate inquiry, are but too ready to obey.** — '* Letters 
on Demonology and Witchcrafts letter i. 

" ** As regards the darker-coloured races, we know 
that they differ somewhat from the white in the texture 
of their skin : it is coarse in its structure, provided with 
a larger number of sebaceous glands, and covered by a 
thicker layer of cuticle, so that the sentient termina- 
tions of the nerves being less exposed, its general sensi- 
bility must be considerably less than the skin of white 
people."— £•• The Hand Phrenological ly Considered^ 
p. 56.] Attention has been drawn by Dr. Wm. Ogle to 
the fact that pigment occurs in the olfactory regions. 
and he traces to this fact an increase in the acuteness 
of smell. Dr. Ogle* attributes the acuteness of the 
smell of the negroes to their greater abundance of pig- 
ment. Albinos and white animals neither see nor smell 
so delicately as creatures that arc dark-coloured [Rain. 
op, cit„ p. 35]. 

• " Amcsmia** liy Dr. Wm. Ogle, in AfeJinhCAtrmr^ifa/ 
r, vol. liii. 


3lnttoDucrory IRemarlis 

rilOei £BATTOH. 

KNOW THYSELF. — Beautiful and wise maxim 
which ihc generality of men find it more easy to ' 
applaud and admire than to put into praaice ! 

In lunia, where the earth yields almost of her own 
accord all that is necessary to man, and where, by 
reason of the warm climate, a greater part of the needs 
which are indigenous to our latitudes are unknown, 
they were able to carve this maxim " upon the portico 
of their temple as a precept which every one in the 

" " Know thyself." This maxim was engraved in 
letters of gold upon the front of the Temple at Delphi ; 
it was a dictum of the philosopher Socrates, accord- 
ing to the very interesting note at p. 1076 of Valpy's 
I arwrum '/uz-ena/ {London: 1820) ; and, having been 
given as a maxim to Ctuesus b^' the Uclphic Pythoness, 
W&s inscribed, as above mentioned, on the front of the 
tenqile.' It is this circumstauce which is referred to by 
Juvenal, when he says. "The maxim ' Know thyself 
descended from heaveD;"tand it is also recorded by 
XcDophon as a saying of Socrates, whom he causes to 
•ay (in the Memorabiiium, bk. ii., cap. s), " Tell me 
then, O Euthyderaus, were you ever in Delphi ? " 
" Certainly," replies Euthydemus, " twice." " Via you 
remember seeing ' Know thyself ' inscribed upon the 

* "Chikoii el Socralis prxceplum taiufium oticulum e corio 
delapHim pne foriUu tcniJi lielphid aureis litleris scripium 
fait.' -Valin'(">RrH/' (London: 1830, p. 1076). 

t "Eaewdoccndit frvA nsvrA*. - Juvenal, "Sa/ire" li.. 



• and 

best interests of his or her own happiness is bound to 
put into practice : but in our own inclement lands, 
where we can get nothing from the soil excepting by 
the sweat of our brows, where the energies of our 
bodies and of our minds exhaust themselves in an 
endless struggle against the eternal aggressions of cold 
and damp, we have no time to devote ourselves to 
this beautiful esoteric study, recommended to us so 
long ago. At the same time it is in our foggy west, 
and it is since our population, augmenting itself in an 
ever-increasing ratio, has made manual labour more 
and more incumbent upon us, and more and more 
painfully exacting to us, that there have arisen amongst 
us the theories destined to reveal to us by the simple 
examination of a few physical signs the secrets of our 
inclinations and of our mental capacities. 

Who has not read the works of Gall, the phreno- 
logist, and of his enthusiastic disciples ? ^ But their 

altar?" etc.* Crcesus was a great benefactor of the 
Temple at Delphi ; he recounts the reception of this 
oracle "Know thyself" to Cyrus, relating that the 
oracle said to him, " If thou knowest thyself, O Croesus, 
thou shalt live happily, "t Compare also Cicero, ** Ttis- 
cn/anunij'^ i., n. 52, and ii., n. 63 ; Pliny, vii., 32 ; and 
Persius, " Satire " iv., last line. 

^ Franz Joseph Gall was bom in Tiefenbninn, Baden, 
on the 9th March, 1758. He began lecturing on cranio- 
logy in Vienna in 1796 ; but after six years of constant 
labour to inculcate his new theories was stopped by the 
Government in 1802. He lectured in various cities in 
company with Spurzheim, from 1807 ^^^ ^813, when he 
retired from public life. ; he died in the year i8a8. 

* Kaj 6 2)(tf/ir/)drTTf, E^itf /not, ^07/, cD Ei'^i;5cfi6, ti% A6X0<M)f ijj^, 
iru)iroT€ d<f>iKov ; /caj 5ts 76, vrj At', i<f>7j. KaBifiaBts odr xpds 
ry vav nov yeypafifiii^ov t6 rXfiGI 2EATT0N ; ''E7«7e. JUre- 
pov otv oudeu (Toi Tov ypdfifiaTos ifi^XrictUf ^ irpoaicx^^ *"' *«« 
iir€x^^PV<^^^ ffCLvrbp (rriffKOireTv Sons eitis ; Md Ac ov dijfra i^^, 
Ka.1 ykp Si} vayir rov to ye <^p-rjv clS^vai' ax^^^ 7^/) Ar dXX« 
Ti vSfiVf ti ye fnjd* ^fiavrbv iyiyvttxTKov. Xenophon, AHO- 

t 'S.avrbv yiyvilxTKiaVy eudaifxutVf KpoTae^ irepdireis. — Xenophon, 
KTPor nAIAEIAS B«/3X. 2'. 


[1 I*! ^H 

^^Hhidy is difficult, and ihcir coiidusiuiis frcqucnily ran- ^^| 

. Who has nol read ihc works of Lavaler i— •■"■ 


■ — "^irir/hHim. his most eminent pupil, was 

■ 1804 lie Jtiined Gall as dis«i-c[or and 

1 11^ 1808 {14th Marcli) ihcy prfscntcd 

_ , . LliL-it science to the Institiit de Krancc, 

Moooiiiie\Tio\DX-*iat)ii.-'AnatamKet Physio- 

)fjttme Afrtfux en gltiH^at ft du Ceeveau ch 
tr, «vc lUi o^ertiatians xur la fiossibiliU dr 

ht pluitturs dispnsUiuHS inUl/ecluellfi el 
Xerkommtttdtt animaux par la confignra- 
■rj/«u" (Paris: iBio-iy). In i«ii. on the 
Bfl'JOfcCall. Spurzheim camr to London, and 

■HfaBriJK'u'Cs on cnniology, which attracted 

^^^KcTiticUm. both hoatile and ftiendly. 

^^^^B^rvc-uffnised the ifflpurtance uf the 

^^^^Hdivered a mott interesting address 

FSsTjcMR* in i8ji. which was primed under 
JtefiectwHi en (^U and Spurtkeims System 
'gHamy ami Phrenology" (London : tKii). In 

™iiim'!-.(- hifhlv .ir>|ifi?ciaiei> the theory, but eon- 


<> laid down bf its cxpoDcntK. 


tilt 'i"'*^ Miire, wniien by 

^Mi^tty . 

... entitled -rAi-cyawMrf; 

■ iraUJ- [London: 181;). 

1) which sought lo 
^as in London. J. 

:ymuat System of 

^nu pi\ 

ii-t^ii-.i, ,-\.imui.i:u.H .,f me Xtfvous Systtm 

tm pm€ralmmii of tift Hratn in partuitJar ' ' (Uhdon : ^^H 


workaiiichwastem&callyaltackcdbythcpreu ^^H 
Stefrli ,'f the Serf Annt-my and PkysiologJ ^^H 


»/ rt/ /< 

v..,r...- .-,/>.. <:.,U and ^H 





Kteat ^H 



■ ' 

. ..--ur.rlUs de ^H 


^rvAtioHS sir la ^^H 


rs. Its ptsuJtans. ^H 

et inUlltttuelUs ^H 
no 1/ lit' .>n<m.tu\ pir ia fnmfigttration dt ^^H 
tmiiildrttHrUtt"{,VM\»: iRi^.&vuU.}. Thi> ^^H 

rff, *.-«.. 



deal concerning the attractions and repulsio 
the intellectual aptitudes of each individual. 

For, just as animals have organisations confor* 
^ able to their several instincts ; just as the beaver and 
ke> the ant, who are endowed with the instincts, in ihe 
one case of building, and in the other of burrowing in 
wood, have at the same time been furnished with the 
instruments, in the one case for building, and in the 
other for burrowing ; just as we find that among the 
animals of a particular family, whose instincts are 
identical, the organisation is also identical, whilst 
among animals of the same species [such as, for in- 
stance, dogs or spiders], whose instincts are partially 
different, the organisation is also comniensuraiely 
different,— so, 1 opine, God in giving us men different 
instincts, ha3 logically given us hands of diver^fied 
formations."* The hand of a poet cannot resemble that 

'" Thisislhetenourof the long preamble which intro- 
duces Galen's great work. " ClaudiiGaleni Per^anteni, 
secundum Htppocratetn Medicorum Princifia, OpHS 
de Usu Partium Corporis Humani, magna cura ad 
exemplaris Graci veritate-m castigatum universo ho- 
fHifium generi apprime necessartum Nkalao Regie 
Calabro inUrprete" (Paris: 1528), in which he points 
', out that : "The hands are themselves the implements of 
I the arts, as are the lyre to music, and the tongs to the 
1 smith. And just as the musician was not instructed by 
I the lyre, nor the smith by his forceps, but each of Ihcm is 
skilled in producing works which he could not produce 
without these accessories, no one can do the work he is 
' bora to do without the necessary tools for doing it, . . . 
but every animal performs the functions of his own pecu- 
liar instinct without requiring any instruction therein. . . . 
On which account it seems to me that animals perform 
their various functions by nature rather than by reasoning 
(as for instance the complicated habitations and occu- 
pations of bees, of ants, and of spiders), and to my mind 
uithoul any instruction."* fiife also "A Afanitalof 

BrosopAyr^b-7. J 

Btanus autetn ipax sunt 9.itiiim oTgann acul tyre "utifj^^^^^H 


of a mathematician, nor can the hand of a man of 
action resemble that of a man of contemplation. 
When 1 lay this down as an axiom I must not be 
misunderstood ; I do not mean the hand of a poet or 
mathematician by cultivation, but of a poet whom 
luiture has made poetic, and of a mathematician to 
whom nature has given a mathematical mind. And 
again, it would argue a very weak idea of the prevision 
of the Omnipotent Creator, of His justice and of His 
power, to believe that the instruments with which He 
has furnished us are not appropriated by the variety 
of their forms to the variety of our intelligences."" 

It is upon this great truth, and starting trom this 
point, that I have based my system. Cleverer men , 
than 1, if they consider it worthy of their attention, 
starting again ab initio, will enunciate and develop it 
better than 1 have been able to do. For myself I 
claim only the honour of having been the first to 
catch a glimpse of the fertile regions of this new 

"* " There is as much diversity and want of resem- 
blance between the forms of the hands as there is 
between varied phvsio^omies. This truism is founded 
OD experience, ana rei^uircs no proof : . . . the form of 
the hand varies infinitely, according to the relations, 
the analogies, and the changes to which it is amenable. 
Its volume, bones, nerves, muscles, flesh, colour, out- 
lines, position, movement, tension, repose, proportion, 
length, curvature, — all of them offer you disCincliuns 
lAich are apparent and easy to recognise." " L' Art 
de connaitre /es Hommes pat la Pkysioitumic," par 
Gaapard Lavater (Paris : 1S06), vol. iii., p. 1. 

ibrcepi bbium, icd est ulerque ipM>ruin 4Jtir<C]i (wram cjua |in>- 
dhns CM nuioiKin a^erc lUlem Don palesl >Ih]UC iirf^is. il> ct 
on* qnalibd uiima nculutn quasitam a sua ipsius aninia- facul- 
tales *c ID quw uius parm sua: jiulleani maiime nullo ilm-tote 
pnewslil . . ■ Qua pn^er ci'lera quadani inimalia mihi naluii 
magis qnuD nlione utem Bli(|iia<|uain nerccic viilentur faues, 
Tiddicet. plamtare fii^ere>4ue alveolm. Ibnaurua veiu quiMdam 
M iBbjrintboa liinnicz &bricsre, nerc aulem et (exete anuict.') 
at ■Mtcm coojccta itne doctoie," lib. i. 


Author's Note. — Perhaps I should say "rt- 
diseovered" for Anajugoras is said to have seen 
significant signs of the tendencies of the mind in 
the formations of the hand.'** The Greeks have, almost 
without exception, been gifted with the &culty of 

"* Acaxagoras was the first, unless I am mistaken, who 
is said to have pointed out the fact that man was the 
wisest of all animals, because he had hands. I do not 
know where he made the remark, nor do I think it occurs 
in any of the works which remain to us of him ; but 
Aristotle alludes to the statement, correcting him by 
saying that it was because he was the wisest of all ani- 
mals that he was given hands.* Galen in the work cited 
above, agrees with Aristotle.t 

cZku twv ^tfVy ijfdpufrw' tCXoyof Si Si^ ri tppovqiitraTor v&ai 
X*v=' Xo;if(<i««'.'"— Akistotle, HEPI 7,00N MOPIQlf, B^X. 4'., 

t " Ita quidem saplenlissimiim animalium est homo. Its 
autem et nunus sunt otgaiia sapienti animaiia convenientia. 
Non enim quia manus habuit. peopUrea est sapiendssiinain, at 
Anaiagoiaa tlicebat : sei) quia sapient issiinus erst, propter hoc 
■nanus habuil, ut rectissime cenauit Arisloteles." — " Dt UsM 
Parliiim Carpari! Nanieni." lib. i. 



Hands may be divided into seven classes or types, 
which are suflicientty distinct from one another in ^ 
their peculiar formations to be clearly and distinctly 
described. I have classified them as follows :— 

The Elementary, or Large-palmed hand. 

The Necessary, or Spatulated hand. 

The Artistic, or Conical hand. 

The Useful, or Squared hand. 

The Philosophic, or Knotted hand. 

The Psychic, or Pointed hand. 

The Mixed hand. 
These types, like the separate breeds of the canine 
race, cannot alter or modify themselves beyond a 
certain point, in obedience to an occult force similar 
to that which brings about the fact that the man of 
to-day is the prototype of the man of the patriarchal 
times, and which continually brings them back to their 
original purity and distinctness of characteristic.'** 
From the various ways in which these types strike 


■• DesbairoUea has said upon this paragraph:— "We 
will not follow M. d'Arpcntigny in his classification, 
because we consider it to M useless. Hands may 
nsenble one another, but nature never repeats heraen. 


out in new lines and mix themselves together, result 
the various civilisations which succeed one another 
upon the suriace of the globe. 

In his primeval forests, with their alternate lights 
and shadows, Pan on his pipes, which never alter 
their primitive form, is constantly ringing the changes 
upon new tunes. 

A nation consisting exclusively of two, or three, 
types, would resemble a lyre with only two or three 

Humanity is an argosy of which God is the pilot ; 
and man is a passenger on board this argosy, a passen- 
ger governed by his own instincts and inclinations. 

He obeys, like the little planet which he inhabits, 
two great forces ; the one general and exoteric, and 
the other particular and esoteric. 

Laws are evolved by the knowledge that we have 

■" of the abusivr powers of our instincts ; but they 

demonstrate our freedom in this sense, that they 

sum up and codify the rejleclive forces which reason 

oppmses to the spontaneous forces of our instincts. 

Each type asserts itself by the invincible persist- 
ence of the tendencies which it exhibits. 

From the day that he ceased to give utterance to 
the sighing harmony which testified to his divinity, 
Memnon ceased to be looked upon as a god"*", 

and in objects apparently the most similar she places, 
sometimes by an imperceptible touch, a. complete 
diversity of instincts." — " Les Mysth-es de la Main " 
(Paris: 15th edn., n.d., p. 176). But I do not think 
that the remark is called for, because it is sufficiently 
guarded against by the minuteness of M. d' Aipentigny's 
analysis and differentiations. 

>- This is the statue referred to by Juvenal {" Sai.," 
XV., I. 4), when he says : — 

" Effigies sacti nilel auiea cercopilhed. 
Dimidio magica; resonant ubi Memnone chcHdia, 
Alque veius Thebe cenluin jacel obnila poitis." 

In John Pinkerton's " Voyages and Travels in All 



t^rti of the Wartd" (London : 1814, tivols.). In the 
fift(«Dlh v<>luni«, conlaining " Pocock s Ttavds in 
•^Ryp." h< says :— " Sirabo, upeakinL- of Thebes, says 
thai there were in his time several villages on the site of 
it. part of them on ihal side which was in Arabia, where 
tb« city tben was, nart on the olher side, where the 
UemnoniuRi wm. Here were two colossal stalueB of 
Dn« stonr ne^f one another, one bein^ entire ; thi- 
uppi^T part of the oiher W3t> fallen down from the &eal, 
as It wa* aaid occasioned by an earthquake. It was 
thought that once a day a sound was heard as of a 
gnat bUtw from tliat part which remained on Die seal 
■ml ba*c. ^Vhen he wan there with Aliuii Callus and 
often be heard the sound, and whether it came Irom 
Am base or the atxtue or the people around it he could 

00 \\ '■ „ 
uttered , 
«iien il < 

■I 1 in whtth the stone is com- 

«'■ that Ctmbysea broke It, and 

: truro the middle was seen tyini; 

'it pan every Jay ul lun-nstn^ 

^\iiin'l hki.' Ihc breaking; of a strinH of a Uarp 

AK wound up.t Philobiratus, in his " Dc Vita 

r Tyanei," lib. vi.,c. }. describe* the slalue 

,( lilaik, Willi iU feet set lo|felher, in the 

. : il to sittini; culosei; and t'liny, 

■ kona amOQi; celebrated slalues 

' ':if>n DOW under cunsidcratidR.I 

..n. in hU ■■npogf-aphy 0/ 

,. — ... — ■•--, p. j6), ifives some very in- 

t eriij iinit noies on tlie i 

, and makes s 

n tiftt* tw rf 

• STitAtw,n!OrPA*IKllS, BySX. 17.- 
fV«tf> *<*v ** lli^r^rMr- 'KrralVa it tnu loucvwr go rwr 

Mun '* <*« r^ *«#MfMI irivVHX ttwv^ ttw^iwr^ tn ^—t, 

fdfcti • cUr^M rtr ftiWw Iwtfxrm *■■ 

rtti ■ . ■-' Tttaiii/ritr ^rr'atw'ai tar tit*''' 

B''-. ^i 'oXXo' . . . i Ka«./bVr*< &>»^ 

»l . . . < ^m> n^ (* iTtftvtr^. '» I* 

till ">>' QH^p*' ArwirrM ' HUmt ^aj. <«1 

: T .■..nj.- litL niiv., c 7. *■ NoM alf 

aonlr- ' pUUU. HevnoiHiiUlHl 

•l^lui. <|<i.-<n i|Li.irii1i.:r-, Hilki <tft& ototacuni ndiit aq«re 


pertinent observations on the proba.ble solution of the 
mysteiy, which is probably explained by the heat of the 
sun acting upon the cracked and porous stone. Memnon 
himself was the son of Tithonus and Aurora, or, as 
DiodoruB says, of some Eastern princess. He was 
evidently one of the most celebrated rulers of Egypt, 
and one of the most respected ; for we find loii^ accounts 
of him in Suidas, Diogenes Laertius, and ViigiL We 
also find mention of him in the works of Dic^s 
Creteneis, Simonides, and Josephus. E^ilostratus teUs 
us that he assisted Priam at the siege of Troy, and was 
killed by Achilles. 


tbe (^ano m (General. 


^ §(.. 




BEruRE tabulating the deductions I have drawn from 
the otncrvBlion of the various types, I propose to say 
a few words upon the significations to be traced in 
the various parts of the hand. 

On the palm of the hand are found the indications 
of the physical appetites of men, and, up to a certain 
point, those of the intensity of the intellectual aptitudes 
which these appetites detennine. 

Too slim, too narrow, too meagre, it indicates a 
feeble and unfruitful temperament, an imagination 
lacking warmth and force, and instincts without any 
settled object"" 

^ Aristotle, in his treatise upon physio^omy, points 
out this indication of a lonj; and (rraceful hand, in a 
passage commented upon at much len^h by Camillo 
Batdi in his •' //; fhysii-en-mica AristoMh Com- 
mmiarii," a Camillo Baldo .... lurubmti (Bono- 
012 : 1621, fol.), p. 69 (33). Vide also "A Manual. 
•ft-.," 5 III. 





Medium and 



1 98. 


Articulation and 

intelligence in 

proportion to 

one another. 

If your palm is supple, of a medium thickness and 
consistency of surface, — that is to say, if it is in 
proper proportion with the size of the fingers and 
thumb, — you will be capable of enjoying all pleasures 
[incalculable privilege !], and your senses, easily 
excited, will keep pace with the faculties of your 

If, whilst still supple, its developments are too pro- 
nounced, egoism and sensuality will be your domi- 
nating instincts. 

Finally, if its amplitude is utterly out of proportion 
with the rest of the hand, and if it is at the same 
time excessively hard and excessively thick, it will 
indicate instincts and individualities verging upon 
an animality which is destitute of ide^s* 

Look, for example, at the animals whose solid and 
rounded feet are formed of a single nail, cloven or 
solid-ungulous, as, for instance, the ox, the horse, the 
ass, the camel ; does not the fact that we men make 
use of their powerful strength, of which God has with- 
held from them the knowledge and the power to use 
it for their own advantage, aftbrd ample evidence of 
their want of intellect ? It is not the same thing 
with regard to the animals whose feet are articulated, 
like those of lions, tigers, and so on ; the superiority 
of their organisation is proved and verified by the 
superiority of their intelligence, which is demonstrated 
by the state of liberty in which they live.*^ 

'•• Helvetius has made some very interesting and 
analogous observations upon this point in his treatise 
'' De I* Esprit'' (Londres : 1776), ch. i, which are as 
follows : — **Tho human faculties which I regard as the 
productive causes of our thoughts, and which we have 
in common with the animals, would supply us with but 
a very small share of ideas, if they were not, with us, 
combined with a certain external organisation. If 
nature instead of with flexible hands and fingers, had 
terminated our anterior extremities with a horse-like 
hoof, what doubt is there that men, without art, without 


By the amount of liberty which they enjoy one can 
also form an estimate of the moral forces of a nation ; 
for liberty presupposes morahty. 

You will weigh, if you please, the importance of 
these comparisons and similes, notwithstanding the 
succinctness with which they are placed before you, 
and then we will go a step further. You will close 
this volume at once if your mind cannot grasp any- 
thing which is not amplified and minutely developed 
in the exposition. 

The indications furnished by the palm arc, ot course, 
modified or confirmed by the indications furnished by ' 
the other parts of the hand. 

habitations, without defence against animals, (;ntirely 
occupied by the cares of providing their nourishrnent 
and of avoiding wild beasts, would be still wandering 
in the forests like wild herds ?" And to this he appends 
the following note : — " All the feet of animals terminate 
either with a horn, like those of the ox or stag, or in 
naili, as in the dog and wolf ; or in claws, like the liun 
and cat. Well, this difference of organisation between 
our hands and the paws of animals deprives thrm, not 
only, as M. de Bunon says, almost entirely of sense or 
tact, but also of the skill necessary to handle any tool, 
or to make any discovery which requires hands for its 
development." Vide fl 51 and note ", p. 67. 


Putting aside the doubtful or unimportant signs, I 
will concern myself only with the leading significa- 
tions, the practically infallible indicators of the leading 

Fingers are either smooth, or knotty [i.e., with de- 
veloped joints]. 

Of the latter class some fingers have only one 
joint developed, whilst others have Iwo. Joints which 
carry with them meanings for us, are not those which 
are only apparent to the sense of touch, but those 
which the eye easily perceives at the first glance. 

Our fingers terminate either (a) in a spatule, i.e., 

■ are slightly enlarged at the lips ; (b) squarely, (.*., by 

a phalanx whose lines extend parallel to a more or 

leas square tip; and (c) in a cone, whose rounded 

tip is more or less accentuated. 

To these difterent formations belong as many 
different interpretations ; but before interpreting them 
let us say a few words concerning the joints. 

If the joint which connects the third phalanx [the 
outer or nailed phalanx] with the second is prominent, 
you have order in your ideas, i.e., a well-regalated 
mind ; if the joint which connects the second \pr 
middle] phalanx with the first [or lower] ooe it 


prominent, you have a remarkable gift of materia) 
order and of method in worldly aflairs. 

With both joints developed, at the same time that Y IW- 
you have the instincts of arrangement, symmetry, and oc^^)^* 
punctuality, you wilt proceed by reflection ; there 
will occur in your mind an appreciable interval 
between thought and action. You will have an innate 
faculty for the pursuit of science. 

Smooth fingers, on the contrary, are endowed with ^ 110. 
the faculty of art. However practicil and positive s™"^*"*" 
the end towards which they arc goaded by material 
interests, they will always proceed by inspiration 
rather than by reason, by fantasy and sentiment 
rather than by knowledge, by synthesis rather than 
by analysis. 

Taste [from the intellectual point of view] resulting ^ 111. 
as it docs from consideration, belong essentially to "^^Ut 
knotty fingers; and graet, unreasoning and instinctive 
as it surely is, belongs essentially to smooth fingers. 

There are people who sacrifice superior to inferior ^-^^^^ 
orderliness; they ruin themselves so as to have a 
well-ordered household. Louis XIV. sacrificed well- i-ouuXiv. 
being to symmetry, merit to rank, the State lu the 
Church.** He probably lacked the upper joint [that of 

" A better illustration of a mind absorbed by an 
attention to trifles and punctilios, vhich blinded it to all 
the great considerations which should havt: occupied it, 
than the Grand Monarque who immortalisfd himself by 
the sentence " L'Etat, c'est moi ! " could not have been 
found. This pettiness of spirit in the midst of his 
gnmdeur is especially noted by MM. A. Roche and 
P. Ouules in their " Histoire de France" (Paris : 1847, 
vol. ii., p. 174) ; and Voltaire's " Hhtoire,'' tome iv., 
-SiAcle de Louis XIV." (Paris: 1856. ihap. xxv., 
p. i;6), abounds in illustrations and instances of the trait 
we nave under consideration. " Hi^ had a manniT of 
iSeH," says Voltaire, ■' which would have sat 
HI any one else ; the embarrassment which he 
I to those with whom he conversed, secretly 


% 113. After the capture by Picrochole from Grandgouzier 

Rabei^ of some paltry little town which he had conquered, 
Picrochole, comparing himself to Alexander of Mace- 
don, proposed to march against Angoumois, Gascony, 
Galicia, Spain, Tunis, Hippes, Corsica, Rome, Italy, 
and Jerusalem. His counsellor, Captain Merdaille, 
baring his head to speak to him, " Be covered," said 

flattered the complaisance with which he felt his 
superiority.* The magnificence of his banquets, and 
his lavish generosity with the money of the nation, 
have become historic, as also have become his rules of 
etiquette, etc. To distinguish his principal courtiers 
he had invented a blue tunic, embroidered in gold and 
silver. They were as much sought after as the collar of 
the order of St. Louis. He established in his household 
a rigime which exists to this day ; regulated the orders 
of men and the functions of the court ; and created new 
posts of honour among his personal attendants. He 
re-established the tables instituted by Fran9ois I., and 
increased their number, . . . and all were served with 
the profusion and ceremony of a royal board.** Voltaire 
adds the following very pertinent note : — ** All this pro- 
fusion, made with the money of the nation, all these 
posts and sinecures, were absolute injustice, and 
certainly were a far greater crime (save in the eyes of 
the priests) than any he could commit with regard to 
his mistresses.' *t A very interesting collection of notes 
upon this reign, fully illustrating the above, will be found 
in M. I'Abb^ de Choisy*s eccentric and egotistical little 
work ** Memoir es pour servir d PHistoire de Louis 
XIV.'' (Utrecht: 5th edn. : 1727, 2 vols.), especially 
in the second volume. The minutiae of his household is 
demonstrated by passages like the following: — **Le Roi 
fit un grand plaisir k M. le Due en lui accordant les 
grandes entries, c'est a dire le droit d*entrer le matin 

^ ** II avail une demarche qui ne pouvait convenir qu'a lui 
et a son rang, et qui eut dte ridicule en tout autre. L*em- 
barras qu'il inspirait a ceux qui lui parlaient flattait en secret la 
complaisance avec laquelle il sentait sa sup^riorite." 

t ** Toutes ces profusions faites avec Targent dupeuple, toutes 
ces creations de charges iniKiles, constituaient des v^ritablcft 
injustices, et certes un beaucoup plus grand pech^ (saof ans: 
yeux des J^suites) que ceux que le roi pouvait commettre avec MP 


Picrochole. " Sire," replied Merdaille, " 1 attend to my 
duty, but do not be so sudden in your enterprises.""* 
This advice of the gallant captain 1 warmly recom- 
mend to the consideration of smooth- Rngered subjects. 
They are too passionate, too hasty. In study, in love, 

dans sa chambre en meme tenis que les premiers 
G<.*ntila-hommes de la Chambre, dcs qu'Jl est £veil1£, 
avant qu'il sort du lit. Car quand il se \ive, et qu'll 
prend sa robe dt chambru el scs pantoufles, Ics Brevets 
entrent, cl ensuitc Ics Ofhciers de la Chambre et Ics 
Court i sans pour qui les Huissiers demanduni d'abord, 
etc. etc." (p. 55. viil. ii.). On p. 138 a minute descrip- 
tion is given of the nuances de c/r^inonie, exhibited to 
the Papal Nuncio Ranuzzi. 1 have elaborated this 
note, as it will be found during the perusal of the follow- 
ing pages that M. d'Arpentigny draws largely on this 
exaggerated mclhodism of Louis XIV. in illustrating 
his pages. 

"* Our author has dealt somewhat freely with his 
original in this paragraph. The conversation takes 
place when at the clow: iif the day le Due dc Menvail. 
Comte Spadassin, and Capitaine Merdaille greet him 
with the words : — " Sire, to-day we make you the 
happiest, the most chivalrous prince that has lived 
since Alexander of Macedon." " Be covered," replied 
f^crochole. "Many thanks," said they; "sire, we 
attend to our duty ; '' and after some conversation, 
Picrochole having unfolded his great plans, "No," 
reply they, " wait a little ; never be so sudden in your 

■ RilBBLAls, " Gtirgamiiut;' liv. i., ch.-iii. 33. " Cyrc, anjoonl- 
boi DOui voiu rcndons Ic pluii h<.iin:Di, plux chevsltumix 
prince qui oncqua (cut depuys b moite ilc Aleiander Macedo.'' 
** Cnaares. conum voui, disi Picrochole. '* Grand mercy.'' 
dirail-ils: "Cjrre. noos sommcs a noslic iteliuolr " .... 
** Piinie [uIh-, Tojia Naples, Calsbre, Apuulle. el Siciltc toulcs 
en i«^ et Maltheavec. Je vouloys liicnqiu: In iilu:aiu> chnulicn 
iadii Khodicni Tom reiislasMnt. . . . Je iruys ' (disi llcnxhole) 
" Toulenlicn a Lorette." ''Kien, rien.~ itirenl iU." "ce wra on 
retoar." '' Dc b prendons C»ndve, Cy|>re. RKodcs. el Its Isles 
Cjcladci, et donneroiu Mr la Moree. Niw. la tenons SairKt 
Treinian. Dieo guard Hicmialcm, car Ic .Soudan n'csl pu com. 
[""M* i vcKtTc puimnce. Je." dial il, "fenx done baitir le 
Kwple de Sslninn." "Non," diicul iU encorci "attendei 
^V pc« ; ac (oyei JMndt lant soubdain dans rai cntKfirinMs.'' 


in business, they often fail to attain their ends by 

aiming at them with too much vigour."" 

5 119, I shall, however, return to this subject. Let us 

Th« nger upi p^Q^ggj („ consider the interpretation of the external 

^ lie. We have before us [let us suppose] seven hands 

Seven handi. belonging to as many different individuals. They are 

held towards us, resting upon nothing, the Angers 

slightly opened. 
^ 117. The first hand has Smooth fingers, terminating in a 

'*'" *' spatule ; the second has knotty or jointed fingers, a^io 

terminating in a spatule. 
T llB. Both, by reason of the spatnlated tips of ibe 

Indic«ion« rf ' ' ^-JW ■ ■ J-L 

ihc simiui^ie. fingers, are charactensed by an imperious desire Mr 
corporeal exertion, for locomotion as a rule, and for 
manual labour ; they act more upon the promptings 
of their organisations than of their heads ; they 
cultivate the science of things according to their 
useful and physical aspects, and are inspired with .a 
love of horses, dogs, and hunting, navigation, war, 
agriculture, and commerce. 
1118. Both are gifted wiih an innate sense oftangible reaE- 

wh^s. 'ies, with an instinctive appreciation of real life, s 
tendency to cultivate physical power, the talent *f 
calculation, of Industrial and mechanical arts, and 

'" The moral pointed in these two latter paragraph* 
receives a striking confirmation in the case of Gustave 
Dori, the French artist. As a painter he was compara- 
tively a failure, probably by reason of the fact that he 
always insisted on " running before he could walk," so 
to speak, with the result that his paintings always 
remained crude and unfinished in appearance. Thii 
characteristic is vividly pourtraycd throughout Blanche 
Roosevelt's " Li/e and Reminiscences of Gustavt 
Diiri!" {\jinAon: i88<i), and shows itself especially io 
his favourite aphorism. " Never be modest in j^ur undet^ 
takings, but always be modest in the day of success," • 



of exact, applied, natural, and experimental sciences, 
graphic art^ administration, jurisprudence, and so on. 
Jacquard,"* Vaucanson," and Constantin Purler had 
extremely spat u late fingers. 

But, as fingers which are smooth proceed, as 1 
have remarked before, by inspiration, passion, instinct, 
and intuition, and as knotty fingers [i.e., those with 
both joints developed] proceed by calculation, reason, 
deduction, and by a balancing of probabilities ; the 

'" Joseph Jacquard was the George Stevenson of the 
L)toDS silk trade ; he immortalised himself by ihc inven- 
tion of many labour-saving appliances in connection 
with the silk-weaving industry. Bom about the year 
1750 at Lyons, he was first of all employed under his 
ta&ti in a silk factory, but the work proving too 
arduous for his delicate health, he was apprenticed first 
to a binder, and then to a hatter, which latter trade 
he subsequently took up. It was whilst he was 
thus employed that he constructed, from a few 
sticks of firewood, one evening the rough model of the 
Jacquard loom, ihewhit-h, having attracted the attention 
of the authorities, he was taken to Paris to complete and 
expouckd it in the Kcole Polytechnique. He entirely 
revolutionised the silk trade by his invention, whicn 
caused him to be abhorred by the workmen of Lyons ; his 
nachine only liecame universally used in iSog. Whilst 
ii. Paris he completed and perfected the half-tinished 
spinning machine of Vaucanson, of which he found a 
model m the school. He died in August 18J4. For 
fiuther particulars of Jacquard and of his work see 
Madame Grandsard's work " 'Jacquard, ia Vie et son 
(Eitvrt" (Lille: 1869), or the short bioLTaphy contained 
in A. du Saussois' '' Galirie des Humntes L'tilts" 
{Pari.: 1875. etc.). 

" Jacques de Vaucanson was a man of character 
■imiljr to that of Jacquard. Itom at Grenoble in i;09, 
he devoted his energies 10 the improvement of the silk- 
■pinniae machinery used in I-mguedoc ; but he is 
better tcnown as the constructor of several m.-irvellous 
antomata, of which the moat celebrated were a duck 
that vwam about upon a pond, and ale grain which 
was thrown to it, and the world-famuus autuni.iluo llute- 
pbjrer, which created such an excitement in i~.{)*. 
■' * - " k of the time are full of it, hut the best ar 


If '«o] 

hand with smooth fingers will excel particularly in 
art by locomotion, by activity, and in applied sciences, 
where spontaneity and address, and the talent of 
grasping a subject with promptitude, excel over the 
mere capacity for combination and deduction."* 
1 121. Prince Jules de Polignac was devoted to the chase, 

spatuiaie ^^ travelling, to horses, and to all forms of bodily 
ce Jules de exercise. His was a sanguine temperament, and it 
^ 8°**^- was shown by his aquiline nose and high colour. 
His shoulders were broad, his chest deep, and his 
figure was well proportioned, but his lower limbs did 
not come up to the standard of the rest of his body ; 
with large feet and bowed legs he had a general 
appearance of boorishness, which gave one an idea 
of a swan out of the water. In his youth so great * 
was his muscular strength and his agility that on one 
occasion, having been attacked by a bear, he succeeded 
in throwing it on the ground and killing it On 
another occasion he held his own against a pack of 
the huge mountain dogs which the cowherds on the 
Ural slopes had set at him. As a final instance we 
may cite that one day, before he knew how to swim, 
he laid a wager that he would cross the Volga at a 

is to be found in a little work entitled, " Le Micfiauisme 
duFlNfct4r Aufofnafe, avcc ia Description (V tin Canard 
Artificiel ef cclle (V U7ie autre Figure jouant du Tarn- 
hour in et de la Flute'' (Paris : 1738). A translation of 
this work by J. T. Desaguliers appeared in 1742, 
entitled, ''An Account 0/ the Mechanism of an 
Automaton playing on the German Flute ^ etc*^ 
(London : 1742). Vaucanson died in the year 1782 

'" 1 may add here a comment of Adrien Desbarrolles on 
the above paragraphs. ** Let us add a most important 
remark, whidi M. d'Arpentigny has not made, viz., that 
exaggerations in the forms of the tips of the fingers, or in 
the deveh>pment of the joints, announce always an excess, 
and. therefore, // liisitrdi'r of the qualities or instincts 
represented by tliose developments." ** Lcs Mystkres 
dc la Main " (Paris : j^th edn,, n,d.\ p. 160. 


point of its greatest width, sustained only by a hand 
placed beneath his chin, and this he succeeded in 
doing.*** Such athletes as this are but little fitted to 
govern nations of varied individualities ; equally ready 
to devise sudden expedients, to make unpremeditated 
plans and to put them into execution, they are very 
prone to lose themselves in the unlimited wastes of 
abstract ideas?'* Their fingers are spaiulated and 
smooth. If their empire requires a prime minister 
they burden it with a Wazir; "^ if their sails require 
a gentle breeze, they let loose a hurricane. 

Spaiulated hands with the joints developed have 
the talents of practical and mechanical sciences * 
brought to perfection, such as statics, dynamics, 

'" The eminence of Prince Jules de Polignac in all 
feats of athletic skill was a fruitful theme for the satir' 
ists of the empire. The following is from a political 
M)uib, entitlea, " Feu fartout, voild le MinisUre 
PoHgnae" (Paris: iHig, p. lo) : — 

'■(^"il *liut fort — BurttKii au jcu ik paume, 
Nul neui ivk lui ilispuier Ir pru ; 
DepuB Ncmrod qud chasseur <lu mitwrna 
Abiuuil mietii au vol uor pcntrii ? 
Voitt cammnii u grandtur u.- lit humnK ! " 

"* " \x prince ctait un de ces hummos commc les 
jfouvemements savcnt en choisir aux jours dc leur de- 
cadences et qui nc font que hater Icur chute et pr^cipiter 
les revolutions. Loyal et conscienlicux, m.iis d'une pro- 
fonde ineapacite, aveuKle par ses pn;ju;,'es de caste et 
sea opinions retrot;rades, il i^orait absolumeni I'esprit, 
Ics tendances, et Ics besoins dc I.t France nouvelle, et 
marcha en sens coniraire de i'opinion publique."-' 
LarOVSsB, " Dktionnaire Cnh-erscl du X/X' Siick" 
(Paris: 1866-7;). Af*- " POLIOSAt." 

"' The autlu»' has, ! think, hardly appreciated the true 
signiScalion of the word ^ [pn>n(iunced by various 
authors vizier, wuzeer. wezeer, vizir, vizir], being 
derived from a root jjg (a'/';/-), nifanin>; " 17 huriirn.' 
m " load" and lh.i:tKjy\yj\^!;ran<l-ii<i:iri,i/,-'\. or pre- 
mienhip, is in no sen^- an .-luiiH-r.iric nfTiii'. Sali', in his 
Uanslalion of the Qu'ran,* lrani>lal>'s the wurd " (-'<mii- 
hJ Iki .tlitniH u/ Mehammid," 



navigation ; military, naval, and utilitarian archi- 
tecture, as for instance bridges, streets, and so on, 

;ions. gj-gat industries and combined strategies, k.t.X. I 
might quote, as examples of ttie type, Vauban, Monge, 
Carnot, Cohorn, and Arago, 

13. Here we have a hand whose smooth fingers termi- 

" ** nalc squarely, i.e., by a nailed phalanx whose lateral 
sides prolong themselves parallel to one another; and 
again, this other hand which we have here [which is 
also square as to its finger-tips] has its joints ap- 
parently developed. 

**■ Bolh of them, by reason of the square tips, are 

re lip, endowed with the tastes for moral, political, social, 
and philosophic sciences ; didactic, analytic, and dra- 
matic poetry ; grammar, form, languages, logic, 
geometry ; love of literary exactitude, metre, rhythm, 
symmetry, and arrangement, strict I y-defined and con- 
ventional art. Their views of things are just rather 
than wide; thej' have great commercial talent; they 
are great respecters of persons, and have positive but 
moderate ideas; they have the instincts of duty and 
of the respect due to authority, of the cultivation of 
practical truths and of good behaviour, with a strong 
paternal instinct; in fact, generally speaking, having 
more brains than heart, they prefer what they dis- 
cover to what they imagine. 

M. Rot 
30, p. 256, i-d. 1865]. Captain Slr R. F. Burton.'i 
reicnt translation of the Arabian Nights,* gives an " 
cstrcmdy interesting note upon the word. It must not 
be understood in the sense implied by the above 

♦ " />!<- /l-aia/t/u- T/iamaii.l Nixhis and a Mghl; A plam 
and lUo-al translalioti <•/ l/ie Araiiau Nigiti Enlfrlainmeiii, 
liAtk iiitr^lmlion, cxflanalBry nales . . . (I iiif a terminal estaj," 
by Kich:ir<l K,_ IturlOT (Henans: 1885, For Private CiBCU- 


Square lingers arc responsible for theories, for ^ ua, 
methodical registration of facts : and not for the higher '•^"l '""^ 
flights of poetry, to which they never attain, but for 
literature, sciences, and wimc of the arts. The name 
of Aristotle is embroidered upon their banner,"" and 
they march in the van of the four faculties. 

This type does not shine by the effulgence of its l lae. 
imagination as the term is understood by poets. T""" .™' °' 
That which results from this faculty belongs essen- 
tially to smooth fingers, as for instance literature 
properly so called, literature whose sole aim is its 
own perfection; whilst that which results from 
reasoning and from combination [as for instance 
social science and history] belongs essentially to 
knotted fingers. The fingers of Descartes and Pascal iiii>»raii™i. 
were jointed, whilst those of Chapcllc and Chaulicu 
were smooth. 

To fingers which terminate in a spatule belongs % 1ST. 
action, instinctive tact, and knowledge. There are ^"''•'« 
in France more square than spatulatc hands, i.r., 
more talkers than n-orkers, more brains particularly 
adapted for the evolution of theories than men fit 
to put those theories into practice. 

The hand of the ex-minister M. Guizot is large, ^ im. 

"* Of all the classic authors none could h.ive afforded ^'- ^'""^ 
a more perfect illustration of the habits and instincts of 
the square-handed subject than the Sia>,'%'riie philo- 
sopher. Those of my readers who are familiar with his 
works cannot fail to have bei'n struck, not only by the 
astounding extent of his knowledge, but also by the 
marvellous symmetry and order exhibited in the w.iy in 
which he marshals his facts and unrolls his theories 
with all the exactitude and tcrsenuss of a proposition of 
Euclid; never repeating himself, exccptinfj, -is B.ncon 
•ays, "to gain lime."* 

• " Ittratitns are cummunly low* of time : 1ml tlicrc w nii «ui;h 
gaine a( Iibk', u to iltralt often Ihr siatt of ihv qtmliim. \\,t it 
rh— ilh away msojp 1 frivolous sjiecch. as ii a coming foiih.' — 
FuuKU Bacon. Yj»»,j iki " DripoKk." 1615. 


with highly developed joints, and large square ter- 
minal phalanges to the fingers. His is one ot those 
retrospective minds whose light easts its rays in a 
backward direction only, which seeks to obtain from 
the dead the secrets of the living, and for whom the 
present is obliterated by the past. Bred for the pro- 
fessorate, he has acquired the disdainful bearing and 
pedantic manner of the professor ; two things have 
always been particularty objectionable to him, — war, 
because it throws into shadow talkers who do not act ; 
and the people, because it is not enough in his eyes 
that a man 'should be endowed with a high spirit for 
him to be great. Then, biliously complexioned, his 
head large, and well-filled rather than well-made, as 
Montaigne has expressed it,"' with large features, and 
clever at excusing his defalcations by specious maxims, 
he has made himself by words, and has sustained him- 
self by corruption. Seeing that one only knows what 
one really /oves, he knows by heart his l^al, mechani- 
cal England ; but our France, which is as variable as 
its own climate, diversified like its various Depart- 
ments, eager for lofty emotions, fatigued by uniformity, 
impregnated by storms, which to sophists without 
patriotic or national emotions are repugnant, — he has 
never understood her, and he never will,** 

'" This is the text upon which Montaigne bases two ot 
his most celebrated essays: " /Ju Pedantisme " and 
" De I' Institutinn iles Eirfants,"^'S.ii^MS,* 

''" M. le Capitaine d'Arpentigny in this paragraph 
reflects the opinions of many contemporary and recent 
writers upon Guizot ; the following passages may serve 
as examples : " C'est A Geneve qu'il a pris ces mani^res 
gourmfies, ce ton pedant, ces mosurs roides et cas- 
santes." — Engine de MirecnurtA " La figure toujours 
grave jusque dans son sourire . . . tel il apparaissait 

• " Essais de Montaigae, suivis dt sa CorrbfOfdatut, tU," 
(Paris : 1854. 3 vols,), livre i., chap. 13-4. 

^ " LfS ConUmforaiiis" (Paris; 1857), Art. " GirizOT," 


With more talents ami Irss chivalry than the prince ,1 *•»■ 
ff papal creation, whose influence was so fatal to the poiicnav 
elder branch of the Bourbons,'-" Guiznt has become the toniraiunL 
Polignac of the younger branch, with this difference, 
however, between them, — H. le Prince de Polignac, a 
man of action, fell with his sword in his hand, whilst 
M. Guizot, a man of words, fell with an oration on his 
lips. On the one hand fingers smooth and spatulate, 
on the other fingers knotty and square. 

There is more simplicity but less politeness, more ^ *** „/ 

dans toute la raideur de son doirmatisme austere, lais- 't*'"'*'' 
tant tomber dc sa luvrc d^d.-iigncuse dcs paroles, tour i "''^ 

tour roordantea et glacfecs."— i". Langeraa.* " Le 
lourd pMantisme de son procM^ . . . j aime i troiiver 
dans un critique un homme qui me fait part de ses im- 
preMioDS, et non pas un p6dagogue." — Hippolyte 

™ It was by the counsels and frightful extravagances 
of the father of Prince Jules de PoTignac that the revo- 
lution of yft9 was hastened on. Mirabcau is reported 
to have laid of him : — '* Mille 6cus A la Famille d Assis 
pour avoir sauv^ I' Etat ; un million \ la Famille Polignac 
pour I'avoir perdu ! " The article in the " Dictionnairt 
Vniptrsel du ,VAV' jVftr/r, quoted in note"* .continues, 
"On sait Ic rfsultat ; Ics ordonnances de Juillel i8)0, 
contre-sign^es par lui, firent Mater une ri;volu(ion 
qui consomma la mine de la branchc ain6e ! ' ' — quite a 
parallel passage to the above. Byre Evans Crowe, in 
his " Htstory of f-ra»ce" (l^ndnn: 1868, vol. v.. 
p. 381), says : " The very name of Polignac as minister 
was adeclaration of war against the nation," and Bertin, 
in an article in the Journal des Debats (ist August, 
1839!,— a paper described by Martin t as " un journal 
attach^ aux Bourbons par des liens que son ardenie 
opposition n'avait point brises jusque U," — says 
gloomily, " The glory of the dynasty was its moderation 
m the exercise of authority. Hut moderation is hence- 
forth impossible ; the present ministry could not observe 

• " FfrtfMtt CfHttmperaint " (l.a Kochctle : 1875), p. 15. 
f " La i/rmim€s It 1*3 Mmrs tn Frami€ stmt If Kigni Jt Leiii 

J/WttMt- (Puis : 1853), pp. 47-53. 
HSICM Martin, " HiilKirt Jt Framt (Paris: 1879), 
UL, p. 40S. 


freedom but less elegance, among people whose hands 
arc principally spatulatc than among those in which 
the square t^pe predominates. 

This fifth hand has smooth fingers whose terminal 
phalanges present the form of a cone, or of a thimble. 
Plastic arts, painting, sculpture, monumental archi- 
tecture, poetry of the imagination and of the senses 
[A riosto],"* cultivation of the beautiful in the solid and 
visible form, romantic charms, antipathy to rigorous 
deduction, desire of social independence, propensity 
to enthusiasm, subjection to phantasy. 

This same hand, but with jointed fingers, tietrays 
the same instincts, but with more combination and 
moral force. 

This other hand has knotty fingers with the ex- 
ternal phalanges partaking of the natures both of the 

it, however much they might desire it." The author of 
^' Lea Oinvibus du Nuuveau Minisibre" (Paris: 1829, 
p. 98), speaking of Prince Jules, makes the portentous 
remark ; " 11 ya des noms qui sent btals k des ^ats !" 
These notes will show that " the younger branch " had 
already a Polignac, and, therefore, Guizot was simply an 

'" Ludovico Ariosto [bom at Rcggio, in 1474, died at 
Ferrara in 1533,] was perhaps the most romantic, 
enthusiastic, and phantastic poet that Italy has ever 
seen, and is, therefore, very happily introduced here as 
an illustration. He was bred for the law, but aban- 
doned it to become a poet. In 1503 he became attached 
to ihe court of Cardinal Hyppolytus d'Este, at Ferrara, 
and, after a labour of about ten years, produced his 
" Orlando Fiiriosu," of which the first edition was 
printed at Ferrara in 1516, 410, and which appeared in 
its present completed form in 1532 (46 cantos]. The 
poem is described by a writer in " Chambers' Encycio' 
Jiff'dia" as "a romantic imaginative epic, marked by 
great vivacity, playfulness of fancy, and ingenuity in 
the linking together of the various episodes." The best 
English rendering of the " Orlando Furioso " was 
made by W. S. Rose, in 1823; the translations of 
Sir John Harrington ^1634], and John Hoole [1783], 
being of doubtful merit. 


[1 '«) 
square and of the conic, the upper joint giving the 
terminal phalanx almost an oval formation. 

It Indicates a genius inclining towards speculative ■ 134, 
ideas, meditation, the higher philosophical sciences, Th™ inHinrm 
and the rigorous deductions of verbal argument, love 
of the absolutely Inu, poetry of reason and of thought, 
advanced logic, desire of political, religious, and social 
independence ; deism,"* democracy, and liberty. 

This is the Philosophic hand ; it examines itself m ijj 
rather than its surroundings, and is more taken up Their u«i«. 
with ideas than with things. It hates the soldier and 
the priest, the former because his existence is anti- 
pathetic to liberty, and the latter because he is a 
stumbling-block athwart the path of progress. 

Finally, this last hand has smooth fingers terminat- ■ y^^ 
ing in a long-pointed cone. Contemplation, religious Peininl humli 
feeling, and idealism; indifference to material interests, 
poetry of soul and of heart, lyric inspirations, desire 
of love and liberty, cultivation of all things beautiful, 
by their form and by their essence, but particularly 
by the latter. I have given to this hand, by reason of 
its attributes, the appellation " Psychic." 

" 1 wish this xivrd to be noted as a characteristic of 
the philosophic t>-pe. There is a strong temicncy in the 
present day to regard et-frylhing un-absolutcly-ortho- 
dox as atheistical, a.aA atheistical has become a syno- 
nym for WM/amiyiar,*— a state of things recognised by 
Bacon, and concerning which he says, " For all that 
impugne a received religion or superstition, are by 
the adverse part branded with the name of Athfists" 
(Essay on " Atheisme," 16*5) ; and I have emphasised 
the word " deism " in the above paraKraph, for it will be 
immediately apparent 10 the reader how a philosophical 
mind may come to true reverent deism, when it cannot 
accept any recognised dogma. 

* A friend of mine once iried Ihc ei|>eriinent of wc3rin£ a 
green bu and BniMMtacine that it was Ihc symbol of his rclieious 
opiniaBii ; in Ibor dayi (rotn its tint iptiearance a wcll'mnnin); 
deplored to mc hii atheistical vievrs ! 


^ 187. Thus God has given to fingers which are spatulate 

luare, "-:onic or squafe, woWcr, />., materialism and the appreciation 
and poinMd of things real, as exemphtied by the useful and the 
necessary arts, action, theory in undertakings, the 
comprehension of actual facts, and the pure sciences ; 
and thus to fingers which are conic and pointed He 
has opened the gates of the illimitable ideal : to conic 
fingers, by giving them the intuition of the beautiful 
according to its outward aspect, i.e., Art; apA to 
pointed fingers by endowing them with the intuition 
of the true and of the beautiful, according to their 
inner meanings, as exemplified by the higher forms 
of poetry, by ideal philosophy, and by lyric ab- 

1 188. The hand which is hard and stiff, and which finds 

laild" * difficulty in extending itself to its utmost limit of 
extension, indicates a stubborn character and a mind 
without versatility or elasticity. 

f ise. I shall state further on, what must be, in each type, 

rTJ^Thiihe ''^^ proportions of the various parts of the hand to 

siudy. one another, but meanwhile you must not forget what 
I have said concerning the palm and the joints ; con- 
cerning the palm, which tells us all we want to 
know concerning the temperament and the intensity 
of the developed instincts ; and concerning the 
joints, whose influence is always in harmony with 
the genius indicated by the outer phalanx, and 
which announce at once to the Cheirosophist the 
existence in the subject of a spirit of calculation 
and combination. 

«i 140. Large hands, therefore, arc endowed with a spirit 

Larft hands qJ- niffiutiEe and detail. Froiu the love of trifles which 

Kredirkk he displayed to his dying day, we know that Frederick 

wiiinm. j|jg Yif^i of Prussia, known as the Sergeant- King, who 
reigned with a scourge in his hand, who used to 
cudgel his son when he was displeased, and into 
whose graces a pair of well-polished boots would carry 



a man a long way, had very large hands.'** In the 
same way, troiii the surname or " I Jing- handed," whii-h 
wan applied to one of the kings of Persia [whose 
name 1 do not know], one may infer that this sovereign, 
whose polilica were shuffling and petty rather than 
grandly arranged, had essentially the spirit of detail.*** 

•»• Carlyle. in his " History 0/ Frederick II. of 
Prussia H^ndon : 1858, vol. 1., p. 579), speaks of 
Frederick William I. as the " great drill "sertream," and 
^ves many instances of the manner in which he ill- 
treated his son and the rest of the family. In vol ii. 
[chap. 8, p. Ill,] we find an account by Dubourgajr— 
under date November 28th, 1719 — of his " raimng 
showers of blows upon his son." ( Vide also vol. it., 
ip. 61, 71, 87, as3-J Compare L. P. de Sigur's " ffe- 
\eime Nachrickten fiber Kusstand" {Paris: 1800), 
Noten zum FQnflen Heft, vol. i., p. 43U. 

™ Artaicrxcs 1. [who succeeded his father Xerxes, 
after having slain Artabanus. his father's murderer] 
was sumamed " Longimanus." or "jiaipijj^tip." from 
the fact that one of his hands — the ri^^ht — was longer 
than the other.' Strabo tells us that when standing 
upright, he could touch his knees without bending his 
body [like Rob Roy]. A writer in the " Encyclopedia 
Britantiiea," says, "His sumarrte luapixnp, first men- 
tioned by EHnon, has no doubt a symbolical meaning of 
' fer- reaching power,' but later Greek writers took it 
literally.'' 1 see no grounds for this assumption. 
Neither Thucvdides, Oiodonis. nor Herodotus pays much 
attention to him, save as the father of the Great Arta- 
xerxes (Ht/ivir), and it is only in this capacity that he is 
noticed by Plutarch. Cornelius Ncpos tells us that he 
was fomed for his beauty of person and of character ;t 
and nutarcb describes him as " the first Anaxerxes, 
who, of all the Persian kings, was most distinguished 
for his moderation .ind greatness of mind " (Z<i«,^- 
MerHe). These accounts, it will be observed, hardly 
■ally with M. d'Arpcntigny's treatment of the name. 

• Pu^TAKCK. RIOI: APTAZKPSOT. - ' .KpraHpiin.iZiplov. 

t C. Ntnis, " A'<srj.'— ■'Ai Miciochir pr.-Hn)<uani hahei 
llill III SBlpliMima: palchetrima-qae comoris r»rma?. cinam in- 
cradibili ortMTK viniiie belli. Natnquc illu t'ertarum n«nii fiiii 


Louis XVI,, born a locksmith ; •" Paul of Russia, born 
a corporal;" and the plausible Francis II. of Austria, 
born a sealing-wax manufacturer,'" — sovereigns 
whose innate tendencies led them to adopt these 
mean characteristics and pursuits, — had in like 
manner very large hands. They were endowed with 

Artanerres Macrochir reigned for thirty-five years, and 
died B.C. 425. 

'■ Madame Campan, inhercharrainffbook "MSmoires 
sur la Vie Privh de Marie Antoinette" (London: 
1823), says upon this point : — " Unfortunately the king 
displayed too pronounced a taste for mechanical arts. 
Masonry and lock-making pleased him to such an 
extent that he admitted to his house a locksmith's 
apprentice, with whom he forged keys and locks, and 
his hands, blackened by this work, were often, in my 
presence, a matter for expostulation, and even for re- 
proaches, from the queen, who would have preferred 
other amusements for the king." — Vol. i., chap, v., 
p. 112. And Martin, in his "History o^ France" 
(Paris; 1S78, vol. xvi. . bk. 10.1), says of this monarch, 
" II n'^tait ^ son aise qu'au milieu de ses livres . . . ou 
mieux encore dans son atelier de semirerie," etc. 
Compare also the passages to be found in J. Michelet's 
" Htstoire de France," vol, xiv., chap. i2, and the 
" ffis/oire Parfemeniaire de la Revolution Fran^aise" 
by B. Buchez and P. Roui (Paris : 1834, ™1- 'v-. 
p. 198), — a passage quoted by Carlyle on p. 3 of the 
second volume of his " History of the French Revolu- 

'" Of the taste displayed by Paul I. of Russia for 
the minutia: of military life, we are told by Alfred 
Rambaud ["History of Russia" translated by L. 
Lang (London : 1879), vol. ii., ch. xi.. p. l8t]. Vidt 
also L. P. de Segur's " Geheinie Nacliricnien fiber 
Russland" (Paris: 1800), p. 341, 34*.* 

'™ I cannot find any authority for this statement, that 
Francis I. of Germany [and II. of Austria] was in any 
way interested in the sealing-wax industry. Dr. Her- 
mann Meynert. in his " Kaiser Franz I. " (Vienna : 
, i8;2, p. 6), tells us that Francis II. of Austria took a 

■ " Ihre emschiedene Abneigung fiii alles was Sludiura und 
Nachdenken ecfordert, flossle ihnen beiden die sonderbare 
Leidenschaft fur militatisclie Kirdereien ein. . . . [Er war] ein 
Mann dei nichls liebte ak Soldaten, Wein und Tabuk " (11) 


the genius of their aptitudes, that is to say, of their 

respective natures, but they wore devoid of that of 

their kingly stations. They reigned because they 

were the scions of royal families : and they would 

have reigned well if they had been gifted with royal 

natures. These instances afford us good examples of Th* ihmry of 

the theory of Joseph le Maistre.* ^' ''* ""'*"■ 

With medium-sized hands we find the spirit of ■ ^ 
synopsis, i.e., a capacity for comprehending at one .Mtdiuiii-iiwi 
and the same lime the details and the mass of a '^'''' 

great interest in the industries of the empire, and founded 
many manufactories ; but they were of the soap bailing 
and (;las5 blowinj; order, and I cannot tind any mention 
of the " circ A cacheler " of which d'Arpenti^y speaks.* 

"• The theory of Joseph dc Maistre, thus vajpiely 
alluded to, refers to the office of kings and of kingly 
power, and is to be found enunciated in the second chap- 
ter of the fourth book of his work, " Du Pape " (L^on : 
iSjO), entitled " Institution dc U Monarchic Euro- 
pteaae." His statement of the theory is as follows: — 
" Kind's abdicate the power of judging Ibr themselves, 
and, in return, nations declare their kings to be in- 
fallible and inviolable. Nothing can happen, nothing 
exists, without a sufficient reason : a family cannot reign 
excepting for the reason that it has more vitality, more 
royalspirit, — in a word, more of thai quality which makes 
a family more fitted to reign than another. People 
think that a family is royal because it reigns : on the 
coBtraty, it reigns because it is" f 

■■ This, therefore, is the ideal hand. for. as Herbert 
Spencer has said [" Study of Siicinliigy" (London: 

* " Mil gcdicgoten Kenninisicn in der StaatswUsenachafi 
, . . TcrtaiKl « einc hinreichende Einsicht in die Uelilcic ilcs 
Kawl- Bad Gcwetbeneiuesunil derbiii^'cclichenVerrichtungun'' 
^ (ir., p. 6. 

\ " l.a roil abdiquent le pouvoir He juger jiur cux-mcmeb e( 
ka pcnplcK. en rctouc, ilcclaient td rois infiilliblcN ct inviiilAliln. 
Ricn D'arrirc. Hen n'exialc, sanr- raisiin siiffisanie : unv faniille 
p'clle a plus <le vie, plus ilc I'eiptil tiiy.ile. 

de ce qui ceml une fainille |>lus &il<: ixiui re(;n(.'i, 
'" Ullc eit royale pare ' ■■ " 
I'cUc eit ruyale." 

cfoit iia'ane liunillc nt ruyale parce<|u'ellc rigiie : au contrain;. 

H. t'AbM LisiL 


Strict observance of time and measure being the 
necessarily precedent condition of musical rhythm, it 
is among subjects whose fingers are square that we 
find the most correct and thorough musicians ; — in- 
strumentation is the especial forte of spatulate fingers, 
and melody is the peculiar province of iingers which 
are pointed. 

Musicians, generally speaking, are numerous among 
mathematicians and algebraists ; because they of all 
people can mark and count their rhythm by numbers. 

The hands of the celebrated pianist Liszt are very 
large, [i.e., finish in execution] ; his fingers are very 
prominently jointed, [i.e., precision] ; his external 
phalanges present a highly- developed spatulatlon, — 
there we have the power by which he takes by storm 
the approbation of all who hear him. Lean and slim, 
with a head which is long and severe of aspect, 
with a sharply-cut profile, he stands with his arms 
crossed, with an air which is at the same time 
courteous and cavalier, shaking back his long lank 
hair, which reminds one of Buonaparte the First 
Consul, and indeed he is perfectly willing to be 
placed in the same category of individualities. He 
scats himself and the concert commences: a concert 
without any instrument but his, and without any 
performer but himself. His fingers fly over the key- 
board, and one thinks involuntarily of the tramp of 
an army ; one remembers Attila,'" and one imagines 

1884), p. 322] ;— "The analytical habit of mind has to 
be supplemented by the synthetical habit of mind. Seen 
in its proper place, analysis has for its chief function to 
prepare thu way for synthesis, and to keep a due meittal 
balance, there must hi; not only a recognition of the 
truth that synthesis is the end to which analysis is the 
means, but there must also be a practice of synthesis 
along- with the practice of analysis." 

'■" AiTiLA, a celebrated King of the Huns, who in- 
vaded the Roman Empire in the reign of Valentioian 


that the Samrgt 0/ Cod is sent upon us ; or again, it 
seems as iTa tempest howicd across the desert whibt 
his fingers thrash the ivory keys like a downpour of 
living hail. Wc realise then that he has not over- 
rated his powers of entrancing us, for his fingers have 
the powers of a whole orchestra ; but, ardent and 
impetuous as he is, he never loses his self-possession, 
for his hand is not only that of an instrumentalist, it 
is the hand of a mathematician, of a mechanician, and, 
by a natural development, that of a tnecaphysician, i.e., 
of a man whose genius is more pre-arranged than spon- 
taneous in its exhibition, a man morcclcver than passion- 
ate, and gifted with more intelligence than soul."* 

Genius which is subtle and critically disposed, a ^ 146. 
strung love nf polemic discussions, and an instinct of t-^*"*^ B«niii». 
cuntruvcrsy, ultcn gather themselves tt^cther in the 
individuality of the man whose large hand is fur- 
nished with square lingers uf which the joints are 

When, shorn of all its most active and most power- ^ 146. 

DsliiK and fM 
with an anny of 500,000 men, and laid waste the "'ll" C.nA 
pnninces. He took the town of Aquileia, aiul marched ■'•"[""- 
a^'ainsl Kvme, but his retreat and peace were purchased 
with a large sum of money by the feeble emperor. Attila, 
who boasted in the appellation of the '" Scoiirgi- 11/ O'm/," 
died A.l>. ^5J. (Li-mjn-icre). For an aco>unl of this 
monarch and of his uperaliuns upon Kome, see 
Gibbon's " Decline ami hall 0/ Ihc Roman Kntjiirc," 
chap. XI iv. 

"* It is difBcult, if not impossible, to annotalu a pas- 
sage like the above, dealint;, as it does, with the name uf 
a man now living, who even as I write is ercaling a stir 
inourvety miilst. His compositions anil his biographies 
are innumerable. Mr. Arthur Pounin, in his " Supple- 
mtnt el CompUmenf (Paris: 1881) to the " Oio- 
rrapkie L'niverselle des Aliineitm it lUhlin^raphii- 
C/nA-ale de la Alusique,- by M. F. T. Felis (Ktris: 
i86o-6^), gives a list of ten biii>;r.iphic.'t) works dealin)^ 
with tlii> artist known lo the wi.rldas M. I'Abb^'- l.i-/l. 
-I lie only ones of which that I know and can re- 
commend lleiDg J. Schuberih's " J-'ran-^ LiiUi 


ful colonies, left like a head without a body, the 
Greek Empire, reduced to a single city, became at 
length extinguished, engulphed in the vortex of an 
absolutely abnormal state of government, it was 
ruled no doubt by hands such as 1 have just 
described. Until the last moment even,"* when the 
scimitar of the second Muhammad hung over their 
devoted heads, its citizens were involved in the most 
incomprehensible quarrels, in abstractions, in un- 
difTerentiated distinctions, in theological disputes, to 
the exclusion of the duties which they owed to their 
mother country, not from want of courage [with 
which, of a sort, they were well provided], but from 

To small and finely narrowed hands belongs the 
faculty of synthesis. 

The taste, so prevalent in France tn the present 

'' day, for historic and literary works which abound in 

details, is a proof of the intellectual advancement of 

the democracy, for democracy is the laborious pro- 

Biographie" (Leipzig; 1871), and •• L'Abbi Liszt" 
(Paris : 1871), which are as satisfactory as biographies 
of living celebrities can be. M. Pougin, in the work 
above cited, says of him ;^" Cet artiste prodigieui, fan- 
tasque, mais d une trempe intellectuelle singulierement 
vigoureuse, n'a cesse, depuis plus d'un demi siecle, 
d'occuper lu monde de sa personne, de ses travaux, et de 
ses excentricites, . . . Dans ces demi^res ann^es, ayant 
presque 6puis^ tous les moyens ordinaires, il n'en a 
pas trouve de meilleur que de taire croire qu'il entrait 
en religion. , . . Tout porte k croire pourtant qu'il n'en 
est rien, et que les pratiques de devotion qu'on a remar- 
qufies chez le grand artiste ne sont encore de sa part 
qu 'une nouvelle occasion de reclame et un d^sir toujours 
plus intense de faire parler de lui. . . . M. Liszt est ua 
type k part dans I'histoire musicale du 19° siecle, et si 
Ton peut regret ter ses defautsartistiqueset intetlectuels, 
on n'en doit pas moins appr^cicr ses ^tonnantes qualitts 
et les facultes admirables quoique mal equilibrees, qui 
constituent sa pcrsonnalite." 
'■ In the fifteenth century. 


gcnitor ol large hands, just as aristocracy is the 
indolent fountain head of small ones. Thus, a little 
while before the Revolution, hardly any literature 
was produced save for the aristocracy, which naturally 
preferred books which were synthetical to books which 

r admiration for the works of artists or of authors 


is in a direct ratio to the sympathy which exists Ourt 
to a greater or lesser degree between our physical 
organisation and theirs. 

To spatulatcd, and even to square hands, prominent ■; iso. 
joints arc an additional beauty, seeing that they are Hannony^ 
by nature destined to the cultivation of the useful arts, md joint. 
which arc those uf combination and of calculation ; 
but lu pointed or to conic hands developed joints 
would be a deformity, seeing that they are destined 
to the prosecution uf the liberal arts, which are those 
of intuition and inspiration. 

At the same time, predominance of the intuitive ^ ISl. 
faculties docs not necessarily presuppose an entire '■""^ "^ '>'■ 
absence of all the talents which depend upon the 
faculty of combination, any more than the predomin- 
ance uf the talent of combination necessarily implies 
complete absence of all inspiration. 

Alexander proceeded, as Bossuet has remarked, by ^ m. 
great and impetuous sallies,'" I Ic favoured poets, Ai'""''*' •'" 


*" This reference is made, I presume, to the p.issage 
in Bossuet's " Discours sur i' Histoire UniverselU" 

I Paris: 1786), when.', after comparing Alexander with 
)arius, the author describes his entty intu B^bylun. 
saying: — "And after having with incredible rapidity 
■ubjugsted the whole of Penia, to secure the safety uf 
his new empire on all sides, or rather tu gratify his 
ambition and render his name sliU inure famous than 
that of Bacchus, he entered India, when- he pushed his 
conquests even further than lhii»e ot thai celebcnled 
conqueror. He returned I" ll.-ibylun feared and re- 
spected, not like a cunquerut, but like a god." \'ol. ii., 



whilst he merely esteemed philosophers." Caesar, 
on the other hand, regarded philosophers with favour, 
whilst he looked upon poets merely with cold appro- 
bation. Both of them reached the zenith of glory, 
the one by inspiration supported by combination, 
the other by combination supported by inspiration. 
Alexander was a man with a great soul, Ciesar was 
a man with a great mind. 
^ lOS. Regard being had to the fact that the sense of 

Lf^fingwIJps. external touch is most highly developed at the tips 
of the fingers,'** and that man is naturally prone to 

" F«£e Plutarch's " Life of Alexander ." " He loved 
polite learning Coo, and nis natural thirst of knowledge 
made him a man of extensive reading. The •Iliad,' he 
thought, as well as called, a portable treasure of military 
knowledge ; and he had a copy corrected by Aristotle, 
which is called t/if casi-ef copy.' Onesicritus informs 
us (hat he used to lay it under his pillow with his sword. 
As he could not find many books in the upper provinces 
of Asia, he wrote to Harpalus for a supply, who sent 
him the works of Philistus, most of the tragedit;s of 
Euripides, Sophocles, and i^schylus, and the Dithy- 
rambles of Telestus and Philoxenus." So much for his 
love of poets ; as to his mere esteetn of philosophers, in 
the same life we find ; — " Aristotle was the man he ad- 
mired in his younger years, and, as he said himself, he 
had no less affection for him than for his own father. 
, . . But afterwards he looked upon him with the eye of 
suspicion. He never indeed did the philosopher any 
harm ; but the tostimonies of his regard being neither 
so extraordinary nor so endearing as before, he discovered 
something of a coldness. However, his love of philo- 
sophy . . . never quitted his soul, as appears from the 
honours he paid Anaxarchus, the fifty talents he sent 
to Xenocrates, and his attentions to Dandamis and 
Calanus" {Lang/tome). 

" Vide Julius Bernstein's physiology of the sense of 
touch: "The Five Senses of Man" {London: 1883, 
4th edit., p. 17), " The nerves of the skin which ter- 

' lie uswl tu keep it in n rich caskut found among the spoils of 
Usrius. " Doiius," said he, "u^d to keep his oinlmenis in this 
ta-sket ; but I. who have no lime to anoint myself, will CoD*ert 


ext-rcisc that sense which, by the accuracy of its per- 
ccptinns, he feels to be the most perfect and complete, 
it is obvious that the desire for those employments 
in which the physical sense is more utilised than the 
moral, will be the more pn)nounced in proportion as 
the spatule is the more developed in hands of that 

And in like manner, the more the conic phalanx is 
drawn out in artistic or psychic hands, the more 
unpractical and unworldly will be the peculiar bent 
of the genius. Lord Uyrun's hands were remarkable 
for extremely pointed fingers,'" and in the same way 

minalc in single fibres I'Xicnd only to the dermis, and 
here ihe^ are observed to end in a peculiar manner in 
the papilla;. Many of Ihem contain, for instance, an 
e^jj-shaped partii-le, which a nerve-fibre enters, and in 
which it is losi after several convolutions round it. 
They are called tactile corpuscles, and there can be no 
duubt that they .act us the instruments of the sensation 
of touch. . . . They are extraordinarily n 

about a hundivd lan be counted" Wiile % 77]. And 
the same thinj^ is laid down by Jan. H. Purkinye in his 
" CommfH/titiiKff Examine I^ysiiilogito" (I.eipsic: 
l»jo), and by Arthur Kollmann in'his recent work, " Der 
Tast-apparat der I/amlder Alunschliehen Rassen und 
tier Ajfen in seiner Jintivickelung und Glirderung" 
(Hamburg; und I-eipsic: iSB^). For a complete phy- 
siology "' ''■*-' sense of touch as re^^ards the hand 
vide "A iJanual 0/ Cheirimtphy" (London: 1883), 
is 39-S"- 

'" Leigh Hunt, in his bitter and un>,'TaIcful volume 
upon his best friend. " l^rd Hyron and same of his 
Cunlemporaries,etc." (London: 1828. p. c)i), says: - 
" He had a delicate white hand, of which he was proud, 
and hr used lo callaltenliun lo it by rin),'s. Ilethi>ughl 
a hand of this description almost the only mark remain- 
ing nowadays of a gentleman." In anulher place the 
some writer says : - " My friend (icorge Bustle used to 
lament thai, in cimsenuenci' of Ihe adv.tnrrmeni of 
knuHlcdgi- anil jMililrncss, thin- w;is no Kmger any dis- 
tinguishini; mark of gentility but a while hand." Sir 
Couno Cordon tella us that all his life liyron wait dis* 


the hand of Hegtrsippe Moreau was beautifully 

The exterior phalanges are the eyes of the hand. 

Each type has certain formations, which an enforced 

labour, a labour utterly at variance with the genius 

*" of which the hand is the born instrument, can very 

appreciably modify ; but which it cannot transform to 

such an extent as to render them unrecognisable. 

One finds convincing examples of this in villages 
°^ shut in on all sides by forests, and peopled exclusively 
by charcoal burners [for instance]; or in the hamlets 
perched upjn the rocks of little barren islands where 
fishing is the sole industry. Unless the population 
of these places has derived its ancestry from a com- 
mon source, all the types of hands will be represented 
with all their varieties, and the continued pursuit of 
an occupation which is imposed upon them, rather 
than chosen by them, will never change a conic 
finger into a spatulated one. The hand may swell, 
may thicken, and may lose its suppleness and its 
elasticity, but the innate formation will remain, just as 
does the instinct which is inseparable from it. To 
speak truly, the poet or the logician, in these hands 
thus altered and in these instincts thus combated and 
falsified, are hidden nearly as completely as is the 

tinguishcd by an intense sensitiveness,* which showed 
itself particularly concerning his deformed fool, which 
he was continually striving to conceal.t 

'■ The same sensitiveness has been recorded of the 
ill-starred young poet Moreau, who has been compared 
by Ste. Marie Marcolle In our poet Chatterton (in the 
1851 edition of his poems]. Saintc-Bcuve in the edition of 
i860, and Louis Ratisbonne in the edition of 1861, both 
call attention to his extremely unpractical and un- 
worldly ch.iraclcristics. 

• Sir Cosmo (ioRiiON, " J.i/t aii,f G,-nini e/ Lord Byron" 
(l.uiidon: l8z4l. 

1 Vide J. Galt's ■' Life of Jjird Byron " (Londtm : 1830), 

Significations found in the fingeks. 129 

n .571 

oak in the acorn, as is the butterfly in the chrysalis, 
or, as is the ddicatcly-iii'mldcd goddess in the nuighly 
chiscJIcd-down block of marble ; but a chance phrase 
ii) a homely conversation, or a chance opinion ex- 
pressed in the rudimentary debates of the conclave of 
village worthies, will reveal the hidden potentialities 
to an observing and penetrating intelligence.'** 

Finally, if, in practising this science a lingering ^ m. 
doubt remains in your mind as to the effect of the t^™^!^'' 
habitual labour upon a hand submitted for your 
examination, you must either relinquish your task, 
or base your judgment on the forms which the hand 
originally displayed, carefully described by its owner. 

" But," you say, " these signs which you have just *; ijj 
described to us; arc they in fact infallible indices ofonmimy of it 
our intellectual tendencies ? in other words, does the 
standard always declare the nationality ? is the voice 
of the oracle always that of God ?" 

In my opinion — Yes. But do not take niy word ^ ^gQ 
for it; let your convictions result from your personal Coniinniiion h 
obscn'Stions ; only, do not allow yourself to be 
prejudiced beforehand, and do not allow a few mixed 
hands which are difficult to decipher, because they 
have momentarily confused the pilot, cause you to 
deny the accuracy of the compass. 

Let us now, forsaking cities and their inhabitants, • j^i 
follow this company of surveyors and engineers, lliipfKiial 
these representatives of a class of men who are any- 
thing but pioetic, and who worship God in the form 
of a triangle ; there they go, backwards and fonvards 
across the country, armed with poles, measuring- 
planks, and chains ; one can tell by the joyous activity 
with which they pursue their task thai they arc exer- 
cising a pursuit of their own choice and entirely to 
their own taste, and that their souls, like the birds 

'■ rite" A Manual 11/ Cheirosofhy;^ \ 76. 


among the boughs overhead, or like the gazelle upon 

the sea-shore, lose themselves in the enjoyment of 
those trapezoids and squares which they map out with 
such ease and dexterity. 

Their hands arc square or spatulated. 

Whether spalulate or square, they have knotty 
fingers, jewelled as if with rings, with the equations 
which daring modern science attaches boldly to the 
blazing locks of, asteroids and comets. 

Now let us penetrate into the workshops of tne 
■ artillery schools and of the sciences of military 
engineering, into the circus and the hippodrome, 
theatres for the prowess of the loud-voiced descend- 
ants of Alcmcne and of Leda ;'*" inio the gymnasia of 
the acrobat, the fencer, and the equilibrist; into the 
haunts of the poacher, of the jockey, and of the 
horse- trainer. Here we find hands which terminate 
ill a spatulc, and also large conic hands which are 
very hard : these latter combine a vague sentiment of 
grace with their feats of strength. 

The most expert horse-trainer of lo-day, the 
cleverest, the most progressive, and the most elegant, 
M. Ic Vicomtc d'Aurc, author of several excellent 
works upon horsemanship and horse-training, has a 
hand which is decidedly spatulate, bul extremely 

'" Alcmene was the daughter of Electryon, King of 
Argos, and Anaxo [tailed f.ysidkv by Plutarch, " De 
Rebus ff;-<Kcor«»r.''and A'w/^vwiv/f byniodorus(i.,c. 2)], 
and was the mother of Hercules, by Jupiter. Leda 
was the mother of Castor and Pollux, who were also 
sons of Jupiter. 

'" M. le Vicomte d'Aure, one of the leading authori- 
ties on horsemanship, at the date at which the above 
was written, was the .luthor of a " Traits d' Eqniia- 
iioH " (Paris : 18)4). I'ldf also M. C. Raabe's 
" B.xamrn .(1/ Omrs iPE-iiiitntion de M. d'Aure, etc." 
(Paris: >85.^ 


If now, leavini; the crowd and bustle of our 1 W*. 

r 1, .... TV tchgluhr 

li'lliiw-mcn, wc go nnd pursue our invcstigattnns in tuuti. 
t)ic crystallisinfc solitude of large libraries, beneath 
the inspiring tiles of aerial garrets, in the narcotising 
atmosphere of laboratories, within the bare walls of 
the schools where ushers and pedants stalk up and 
down among the scholars,— if, I say, wc go into 
these different places and examine the hands of the 
philosophers, the artists, the poets, the mathematicians, 
the professors, all of whom an irresistible vocation has 
forced to follow the pursuits implied by the titles of 
these professions, we shall find them to present the 
appearances 1 have described ; that is to say : — 

Those of lyric poets and of romance writers who « ^gg_ 
aim at ideality, such as Georges Sand, Leconte de TtwpoMic 
risle, Chateaubriand, Hugo, De Vigny, Lamartine, 
etc., will be more or less conic as to their tips. 

Those of grammarians, critics, didactic, analytic, ^ m. 
and dramatic poets, those nf doctors, lawyers, geo- ''■^ ^H^"** 
metricians, artists of the rule and line school, will 
have hands whose fingers aro square or even 

As for the polytechnic schools ; if you find in those ^ iM. 
of dynamics, mechanics, and applied science, a hand "?^^^ 
which is finely moulded or pointed, pity the ill- 
luck of an unfortunate poet who has strayed from his 
rightful vocation of a sun- worshipper or follower of 
Astartc, constrained to offer sacrifice to the Cyclops 
and the Gnome. 

In a word, what more can I say? Without '"^"'J^ 
f«tiguing you with a study whose elements arc to Aitink tjpt 
be found on all sides, cast your eyes on your own 
immediate surroundings. Obser^'e the hands of your 
friends, of your neighbours, and of your relations : 
This one devotes his whole attention to intellectual 
pursuits— his characteristics arc poetry of soul far 


more ihan analysis of mind ; he has an absorbing 
passion for pictures, music, monuments, statuary, 
and poetry ; he prefers that things should be beautiful 
rather than that they should be useful ; he is easily 
exalted, there is in his expression, in his gestures, in 
his language, and in his dress an undefined element 
of strangeness and of inspiration ; he can do without 
necessaries, but not without luxuries ; his purse, open 
to all who require assistance, is hermetically sealed 
to his creditors. At an age when most men have 
lefV behind them the illusions of youth and have got a 
grip of real life, giving themselves up with ardour to 
the fruitful pursuits of a working existence, his heart, 
ever young, ever accessible to the most exalted and 
impractical ambitions, remains dominated by ideas of 
romance and of Utopianism ; he regards the world by 
the light of the antique hypotheses of spiritualism, and 
is profoundly ignorant of the real meanings and values 
of the things of this life. For him, the mountain tops 
shower dowzi holy thoughts from their beetling crests, 
he loves high-flown language and beautiful senti- 
ments ; he prefers charm to intellect, and he prefers 
grace to beauty. He sees a poetic sentiment every- 
where — in the raindrops which streak the heavens 
with innumerable sparkling arrows, in the window 
panes which weep with the sobs of the tempest, 
in the hoarse cry of the weathercock, in the figures 
of light like snowy doves, which the sun traces 
upon the green sward through ihe leaves of the 
forest when they arc kissed into motion by the 
winds. By night, when the moon has extinguished 
her feeble beams below the watery horizon, he loves 
to wander, his heart filled with a voluntary melan- 
choly, along the moist sands of the deserted shore. 
He is credulous, fond of the unforeseen, and his soul 
is like the spark which, if it is not allowed to burst 
into fl? 'vay. 


Very well ; this friend, this relation, this neighbour, 
has intvilably fingers which are cunic or pointed, and 
a small thumb. 

Here is another subject. This one likes to work 
with his hands ; he digs, he hews, he prunes. lie ' 
lives standing on his feet as it were, always on the 
move, always wHth a knil?, a hammer, or a gun 
in his hand. He despises those visionaries who, 
continually wandering in dreamland, drag out their 
existence watching the stream flowing to the sea, the 
clouds passing overhead, and the trees swaying and 
whispering to one another. He likes the noise of the 
hunting horn and the yelping of the pack ; he is 
passionately fond of horses, his courtyards abound 
with dogs, with peacocks, ivith poultry, with magni- 
ficently coloured cocks strutting hither and thither 
with their scarlet combs jerked to one side. He 
is an early riser, he is a hunter, be is an angler. He 
can tell you, without a moment's consideration, all 
alfout everything within ten leagues of his habitation 
in the way of lake^ abounding with tish, or heaths and 
moors abounding with game. He luve^ the sight of the 
restless sea ; he loves all that assists locomotion or 
produces activity. He likes physics and mechanics, 
and the turmoil of the timberyard and of the work- 

Don't bother him about gardens aromatic with the 
perfumes of mystic verse, retreats heavy with silence 
and shadows, whose ornaments are perchance a 
saintly statue, a sculptured well and fresh-leaved 
avenues, where the laurel and the cypress embrace 
one another, and the dragon-fly and the dove disport 
thenisch'cs. He would much rather see fruit-laden 
orchards and wide kitchen gardens, fringed with 
walls on which innumerable espaliers are trained 
symmetrically upon the green trellis-work. Here, 
beneath glasi, ripens the pine-apple and the canta^ou^. 

134 i;he science of the hand. 

and here in its stony bed the limpid streamlet pursues 
its even way, keeping up a rimning accompaniment 
to the songs of the bullfinches. Arbours, rustic seat?, 
shutters, swings, and what not ? all that furnishes 
his bowers, his terraces, his arbours, and his house 
has received from his industrious and natty fingers 
its form or its finishing touches. He is not super- 
stitious, he describes himself as living for the present 
day and for his own country, and he shakes his head 
at the words of apostles of religion and travellers 
alike; he requires comfort, and looks for thii^s that 
are useful, of good quality, and sound construction. 
Veterinary surgeons, masters of the noble arts of 
self-defence, horse dealers, iron -masters, turners, 
and huntsmen, fl hoc genus onint, find in him an 
.adept, a patron, and a friend. His manners are 
frank and open, he is gifted with the qualities of 
power, rectitude, and sincerity, and he is governed 
by his affections rather than by his judgment. 

Need I say that such a man will have hands which 
terminate in a spatule, with a firm palm and a large 
thumb ? 

Listen now to the lucubrations of yonder parvenu : 
" He has been in his time a cowherd, a porter, and a 
smuggler, and he is proud ol it," says he with a 
swagger; "he could live on ortolans if he wanted 
to, he is rich enough, goodness knows, but he 
prefers pork; let each man please himself." His 
clothes are always too big for him, and he has his 
hair cropped short like that of a labourer. Of his 
three sons his favourite is the one who blacks his 
own boots, and saddles and grooms his own horse. 
" That's a man," says he ; " he could carry an ox ; the 
others read and think and fiddle, but they can't even 
make wine I " He will marry his sons, if pos»b]e, to 
women who like to cook and to do their own washing; 
and who would despise the luxury of a paraaoL 


None or yuur mincing, attitudinising, dancing, singing, 
dolly*fact.'d misses Ibr him I Mu^ic? Uah I it sends 
him to sloep. TTiesc people who are profuse in 
their salutations and civilities, and full of the minor 
courtesies of life — ^thc very sight of them, like that 
of tats or of custom-house officials, horrifies and 
irritates him. He likes to feed in his shirt sleeves, 
and with his dress in disorder; he admires big 
women and big dogs. In days gone by, when he 
frequented fairs and markets, he was concerned in 
every quarrel, and u-as to be found in every gang of 
roystercra ; he is so far a philosopher as not to 
believe in the "mummeries of religion." He is no 
connoisseur of pictures or of statues, they are all 
nonsense, but he has an unerring judgment in boasts 
and farm produce. Sciences and arts! fine things 
indeed, but they have no value on 'Change or in the 
market In his garden yi>u find squares of cabbages 
and ranks of sunflowers. l-1e dues his own market- 
ing, hews his own wivd, k.t.X. 

A large, thick hand with a hard palm, spatulate 
fingers, and a large thumb. 

But here is another subject whose dress and whose ■ ^fg 
deportment argue a wholly dilTcrent class of mind. TV mrfol m 
He possesses .to the highest degree the sentiment 
of respect of persons ; he has a pompous manner, 
highly-starched linen, and spectacles. He inhabits a 
little town, destitute alike of commerce and of popu- 
lation, where one's footsteps echo on the deserted 
street, where the country squire is lord of all he 
surveys, and sacristans abound. In speaking of his 
patrons and of his superiors his voice becomes grave 
and subdued. He knows Latin, geometry, natural 
history, botany, geography, archaMlt^', a little 
mediciiic, a little jurisprudence -a little, in fact, of 
everything which is capable <>( being learnt, but 
hardly aaytbing which requires to be instinctivcX^ 


acquired. He is not in the habit of joking, and his 
sparks of wit, clogged by a viscid protoplasm of 
pedantry, have no spontaneity, even when they are 
just and to the point. To words capable of the 
widest interpretation as regards their intellectual 
meanings, such as liberty, order, poetry, and so on, 
he insists upon giving their strictly literal and 
material significations. Constantly arranging, brush- 
ing, and dusting, he piles his own Hnen in its place 
after having carefully verified the marking of it, and 
ever since attaining his majority he has kept all bis re- 
ceipted bills carefully locked up. He is exact, formal, 
methodical, punctual ; a martyr to regulations, and 
submissive to generally accepted usages, who regu- 
lates his life by these qualities, who is annoyed and 
disconcerted by any form of innovation, and whose 
thoughts waiidcr at ease merely within the narrow 
limits of vulgar common sense. He consults his mind 
more than his heart, and he denies that beauty can 
exist in a thing which cannot be reduced to a 
ilefinite theory. He likes gardens with box-bordered 
cross paths, which one can take in at a glance, whose 
trees, annually trimmed by the gardener's art, have 
no movement and make no rustle, and round which 
thickly-planted hedges, like heavy folding-screens, 
extend themselves in a rectangular figure. 

Such is the " proprietor " who is predestined to 
the honours of the municipal scarf of office, the 
churchwarden who is conscientiously regular in his 
attendance at the board ; where there is legality he 
recognises equity, where there is diplomacy he sees 
science. He reveres equally the rules of syntax and 
the penal code. Such is the provincial academician, 
with his barometer, his thermometer, his telescope, 
his sun-dial, and his bottled monsters; at the same 
time lazy and fussy, instructed and shallow- minded. 
Such a man dit wc find among people of second-rate 


minds, a man whose fingers are square, with de- 
veloped joints and a large thumb. 

And if ihese indications are to be found, perfectly 
according with the tastes and pursuits of the subject, 
and centred in the person of a man who, being 
independent, or even rich, would not be forced to 
these habits of life, were it not that they entirely 
suit his inclinations, what stronger proof can you 
require of the truth and trustworthiness of this 
system ? 

Althor's Note. — Out of four characters I have 
described, I have emphasised the bad qualities in parti- , 
cular of two, and the good qualities in particular of the 
other two ; but as there is no type which exhibits only 
the good or the evil tendencies of its nature and 
instincts, it will be easy for the reader to rectify any 
obvious bias in the above descriptions, whether for 
good or evil, and to complete the portraits accordingly. 



The Thumb, on account of the clearness and the 
importance of the indications which it presents, 
deserves to be made the subject of a distinct chapter. 
" In default of any other proofs," said Newton, 
"the thumb would convince me of the existence of 

Just as, without iht- thumb, the hand would be 

■ defective and incomplete, so, without moral force, 

logic, and decision [faculties of which the thumb in 

'" This paragraph, which has buen freely quoted from 
M. d'Arpentifjny, occurs thus in the original : — " ' A de- 
faut d'autres preuves,' disait Newton, ■ le poucc me 
convaincrait de I'existence de Dieu ' " [edition 1865, p. 
59J ; and speaking from whal I think I may say is a 
fairly intimate acquaintance with the works of Newton, 
I have very little hesitation in recording that Si ' 
* ' * .t all ! Certainly, it di 

s/oDr. F 

_ " Treatise of the ^ J ... _. ,. 

don; 1731), and I have searched the complete eaition 
of his works published in 1779 (London) in vain. He 
states his convictions of the existence of God, and the 
reasons for those convictions, at the end of " The Alathe- 
matica! Principles iif Natural Philosophy," translated 
by Andrew Motte (New York; 1848, p. 504-5^6), in a 
passage beginning and ending :— " This most beautiful 
system of the sun, planets, and comets could onlv pro- 
ceed ^m the counsel and dominion of an intelU^ent 


different degrees affords the indications] the most 
fertile and brilliant spirit would be a gifl entirely 
without value. 

In the same manner as the inferior animals, we have 
an instinctive will, an instinctive logic, and an in- 
stinctive decision ; but the thumb represents only the 
will of reason, the logic of reason, and the decision 
of reason. 

The superior animal is signalised by the possession 
of the futnd. the man is signalised by his possessing ^ 
a lAtmti.^ 

From the words pollicc Iruiicalus (= a man with 
his thumb cut off), which the ancient Romans applied 
to the cowardly citizen who cut off his thumb to 
obviate the possibility of his being sent to the wars,"* 
we have derived our word poUroou?^ 

and puwerbl Being. . . . We know Him unly by His 
most wise and excellent conlrivani-es of things and final 
causes, and we admire Him for His perfections," etc.* 
It is possible that our author made his quotation from a 
coup /Ttcii of this Schvlium, in the manner in which he 
" closed up " the dialogue recorded in note "*, p. 107. 

'* This IS a further development uf the dicta of Aris- 
totle, Anaiagoras, and Galen, discussed in note ■*', p. 94. 

"■ This is recorded of a Roman citizen of the time uf 
Augustus Cfcsar. who cut off the thumbs of his two sons, 
so as to keep them at home. 

'* As a punishment the amputation of the hand 
has been practised by a great many nations \vide 
" Afanua/, % la), especially among the ancients : in 
more modern times it has been principally in the Bast 
thai this punishment has been put in force ; whereupon 
George Sale, in his "Preliminary Discourse" to his 
transition of the Qur'an, says : — '' Theft is ordered to 

* Sii Isaac Niwton. " PkHoiafkut Xdiuralii frimifiia 

Mttumtita," tAixio tcnis (London: 1716). "De Mundi 

" —StMo/ium Ctiuralr :—ElKitaliiisinix hxc soli*. 

et cometanm coni|ia^s, nonnisj cuniilioi't duniiniu 

_ dpuunlisuriripotuii. . . . Hnnc ccigncscimus 

o per pTDprietstcs ejui et i>er Mtributa el pet sa)iien- 


A The thumb of the monkey, which is barely flexible 

;^ ''*' at all, and for this reason scarcely able to be opposed 

— i.e., be made to act in conjunction with any of the 

other fingers — is looked upon by many naturalists as 

nothing more than a movable nail,*" 

3. Whereas, on the contrary, the human thumb is so 

"""■ situated and organised as to be able always to act in 

an opposite direction to the other fingers, and it is by 

this power that it symbolises the inner or moral 

sense which we oppose to our will, and through it to 

the temptations of our instincts and our senses.'* 

Proofs of this assertion abound ; thus, for instance, 

s. idiots who are idiotic from birth, come into the world 

either without thumbs, or with thumbs which are 

be punished by cutting off the offending part, the hand 
[Qur'an, chap, v.], which at first sight seemed just 
enough ; but the law of Justinian, forbidding a thief 
to be maimed [Novell., 134, cap. 13], is more reasonable; 
because stealing being generally the effect of indigence, 
to cut off that limb would be to deprive him of the means 
of g'etting his livelihood in an honest manner." Vide 
also Puffendorf, "Z>e Jure Nat. et Gent.," lib viii., 
cap. 1, sec. 26. 

'* Professor Sir Richard Owen, in his monograph "On 
the Nature of Limbs" (London: 1849, p. ^6), calls 
attention to the fact that the "thumb," which is the 
least important and constant digit of the anterior ex- 
tremity in the rest of the mammals, " becomes in man 
the most important element of the terminal segment, 
and that which makes it a ' hand ' properly so called." 
Vide "A Manual of Ckeirosophy, ^,\ 31, 35, 

'" This important peculiarity of the thumb is duly 
emphasised by Galen in the passage which I have 
quoted at length in 51 35 of " A Manual, etc."* 

• " Tl tap %l (iijif't arttttTatcia Toil rtrrttpffw, Suittp rOr, 
iW i^J]i ivayre! ixl ^ai (iSeiat irf^itftat tl rjrrt ; ifi tt 
TpiStiXor, rit, a^ynjij-rof aurilip iylyyirv ri r\T)$tt ; trint yifi li 
\aiiP»i'6iiurij» aaipaXut fl xayTax''9cr tari jril«Xo», if, Ttirrvt y' if 
iyaTTiwr fvaui Taruv StaXtppivisSfu. ToOr'of* AriiXrr' ir eirtf 
erl luaj tiBelas i^rt^ dravrci irf<piKnriti' iniftrat S' iicpi§&t rC*, 
»Di Ttts iWois di^iTaxSimis. oOtw yip txti Birttti rt rat 
itu-^wt 4 (ft oStoi Saar' inuiTpi^iiptwoi ppaxfin wopriySn 


(Mwerlus and airuphtcd ; ai)il this is perfectly logical, 
for iirhere the essence is nbsc-nt, its symbol also 
must be wanling. 

Inlants up to the time when iheir intelligence 
tKgins to be developed, keep their hands continiinlly 
closed, folding their fingers over the thumb; but 
Ln proportiuo as with the body the mind becomes 
developed, the thumb In turn folds itself over tile 

Epileptic patients in their fits fold their thumbs 
before the rest of their hands, which shows that 
this evil, which is instinctively apprehended before 
h b actually felt, alfects tlic organisation by which 
perrcivcs and tiioufi, before it aficcts the organi- 
lation by which one merely frih}' 

Al tile appriiach uf death, tlie thumbs of the iJying, 
Mnick &» it were with the vague terror of appmach- 
ing dJMolution, 6ild themselves beneath the fingers,^ 
sure sigD of the neaniess of the final struggle.'*" 


Its thumb'* III t)>'' p 
icsl of 

'• Ml. w -, -. I '■- -■'i — 

w>Kk "/.'^(.V/j^j/jj „//;(.' ■ ■ 
tluir £it«i(-i, Symp/om:,. , 
lS8i), malcLi fniiutnt r.( - 
preciifsiiry 3Dd ciirly syiii[ir. ■■ 
appealed in the hand*. Out of ii<rrv <, 
attacks made Ilieir linit a)>prjintnci- hi 
about thirty Cflmmeoccd tn the haod 

> faAnds until its Kill shall 
ii itself into cxercitc ; and a 

.itiun i* to be found in an 
inticnl of extensor action." 

■ ••■- ifii-l minute 


vhich the 
, , lit have 
-■■■-, 111 nhichlhe 
the u{^-r limb. 

C of the 


file aathor u nut quile nghl m liia data heiv : it 
» trac tiui when rt^ mortis »ets in, the Thaiat> 


Man alone, by reason of his having a thumb, — /!*., 
reasoning faculties, — knows, i.e., is familiar with, the 
idea of death. 

At the rout of the thumb is situated the indication 

- of the reasoning will, a power of whose intensity one 
forms an idea by the observation of the length and 
thickness of this root. It displays also, say the 
Cheiromants [for which reason they have called this 
locality the Mount of Venus], the greater or less 
intensity of the capacity to love.'*' And in point of 
fact, love is but wi/i [desire]. 

In the first [or lower] phalanx reside the indica- 

■ lions of the logic, i.e., of the perceptions of the judg- 
ment, and of the reasoning faculties ; and in the 
second [or upper] phalanx, reside the indications of 
the invention, of the decision and strength of will, 
and of the initiative power. 

The Romans, in their gladiatorial displays, raised 
their thumbs, and the combatant stricken down 
received his life. If they lowered them, he died."" 

naturally drops towards the centre of the palm, the 
power of the flexor muscles being- always [even at birth, 
ri/i/f note '"] superior to that of the extensors ; but this 
ensues some time ^_/fer death, and not before it, unless 
the final struggle has been accompanied by convulsions of 
anv kind, in which case this symptom may be observed. 
'" Vide "A Manual of Cheirosopky" pp. 224-22^- 
lii t, ^g ji,^. gladiators m the gladiatorial displays had 
all previously sworn to tight till death . . . thefi^htwas 
bloody and obstinate, and when one signified his sub- 
mission by surrendering his arras, the victor was not 
permitted to grant him his life without the leave and 
approbation of the multitude. This was done by clench- 
ing the fingers of both hands between each other, and 
holding the thumbs upright close together, or by 
bending back their thumbs. The first of these was 
called polliccin premere, anB signified the wish of the 
people to save the life of the conquered. The other 
sifin, called /o///ircw vvrterc. signified their 'disapprn- 
balion, and ordered the victor to put his antagonist to 
dea th . " —Lemprieri:. 


Strange inMinctive appreciation of ihe initiative 
ivpusine in the iirvcli)pmcnt of this digit.'" 

If y"iir thumb ia naiTitw, lean, thin, and short in 1 191. 
this phalanx, you arc troubled with a complete absence ' ""* 

of decision ; you arc prone to accept generally-received 
opinions and the ideas of other people, and you are 
subject to doubt and endless incertitude, culminating 
in moral indifference. 

Of this continually uncertain state of your mind, 5 ^^ 
of this inability to form and adhere to an opinion of ok'^u. 
your own, you will always be able to give a l<^cal 
and comprehensible explanation, if your Rrst phalanx 
[that uf logic] is developed. If, on the contrary, your 
second phalanx is long and well-formed, whilst the 
first [the lower one] is thin and short, you will have 
decided opinions, strong and lasting convictions, a 
quick mind, and a decisive and initiative spirit ; at 
tl\e same time you will probably be a poor arguer, 
or a man more gifted with passionate conviction than 
with judgment. 

Generally speaking, a thumb which is small, mean, 1 W*. 
and poorly formed, announces an irresolute mind, * ' " 
and a wavering disposition in those things which are 
usually the result of reasoning power, and not of 

" There are many expressions of this description in 
use among the French, even to-day, many of which are . 
given by LittrA in his dictionary. Of llii:sc the most 
mierestmgare:— "Mettre poicrs, or <.oii.HF.R 
LtS poi't'E.s," i.e., to give oneself up, 10 yield, aftur a 
longer or shorter resistance,— a saying which seems to 
have arisen from the fact that the thumb falls into the 
palm of the hand when the resistance is exhausted 
[vide aote ™, p. 14"]. " Et faisant unebellu ri'vtrence 
sc re6ni luy estant combd le poulcc dans la main," Carl 
I., 39. Atercure. Serkf.R \.V.^ TOLXES, i.e., lo torture ; 
SB HORURB I.E.S POLL KS, i.e.. to repent ':i'lr nutc, 

fl |6][ DONNER IS COLP HE I'Ol.CE. />., lo slnnKle; 

aitd MALADE DU K)L'L'F., i.e., stin)0'> deriveil from the 
cipreaaion jot'EK l>i: t>ot:cE, i.e.. to pay out miinpy at 


sentiment or of instinctive knowledge. Such thumbs 
are the inheritance of the descendants of the Foolish 
Virgins, a class of people who are impressionable, 
sensual, and dominated by their innate tendencies, 
hut who are at the same time impartial, tolerant, 
naturally amiable, and able to accommodate themselves 
to all characters with whom they are thrown together. 

People with small thumbs are governed by their 
hearts [source of all tolerant feelings], and are more 
at ease in an atmosphere of sentiments than in one of 
ideas ; they appreciate things more at a rapid survey 
of them than on reflection. 

People with large thumbs are governed by their 
heads [source of all feelings of exclusiveness], and 
are more al case in an atmosphere of ideas, than in 
one of sentiments. They judge things better by 
reflection than on the spur of the moment, 

Albert DQrer, who was so powerful in his art 
simply by reason of the exquisite naivrle of his ideas, 
and so weak beneath the detestable tyranny of his 
wife ; '** Homer and Shakespeare, those impartial 

'" Albert Diirer's dearest friend, Wilibald Pirkheimer, 
has left us a sad account of Dijrer's wife, who would 
seem to have been to him very much what Xantippe was 
to Socrates,' excepting that poor Albert Diirer, not being 
a philosopher, and not having married his wife on 
account tii her ill-temper, died [as we are told by 
Pirkheimer] beneath the infliction. Pirkheimer in a 
letter [in fac-simile] lo Tzerte, the emperor's architect 
at Vienna, published in " Reliqukn von Albrecht 
Diirer" (Niimberg: 1828) says; — "That he should 
have died of such a hard death [as God willed it] I can 
attribute to none other but his wife, who gnawed into 
his heart, and tormented him to such a degree as to 
hasten his death : (or he was wasted to a skeleton, lost 
all his courage, and could no longer ^o among his 
friends. Also this wicked woman, though she had never 
known want, was continually at him day and night to 

of the huinao heart ; Montaigne, whose 
device was "Wliat do I know?"'** and who pre- 
ferred supporting an opinion to stating it ; La Foil' 
taitic, who hcsitateil bctwci^n rtiyaliuii and social- 

apply himiKir fiddly to work, in order he chould 
earn money asd leavu it Ui h«r. 1 have oficn chidden 
hrr myaetf (or her wlckcdneas. and warned her, and aiao 
predicted what the end of it would be."* ViJ^ also 
'■ 7%e Arhti'.i Married Li/e," trnn*latcd from the 
Cennan of I.capold Schafer by Mrs. Stiidan (New 
Yodc: i86a), supposed to bavt been written by 

"* Blaise Pa«ca1 tellautthat Montaiii^Tic, "not wishinc 
lo say • I know not,' said ' What do 1 know ? " of which 
uyinff be made himself a device," cic. t Vide also 
Bigone Ac Leschamps, " Miehrl Montatgtit, sa i'ie, 
r/r."(Paris: i860, p. j). On p. 49.1 [Appendix] of this 
volDOir. dr Ij-schamps. speaking'' of llic inscriptions 
wtiicli Muniaiffni- had carved everywhere upon ihe lintels 
of hii library, chilled allrnlion to the fart that " he had 
pani*:u]ar]y caused lo be there insiribed ihc maxim 
r*Mi iTfavni*, which antique w-isdom had inscribed 
upon the porch u( the temple ai Dtlphi " {x-ide not* •■. 
p. 87). 


s tl.M .Mil «r Sfttntt a Mtmmigmi. 


ism ;"* and Louis XVI., who owed all hia troubles to 
his indecision of mind,"' must certainly have had 
small thumbs. 

With a large and well-formed thumb, however, you 

' are your own master, and such being the case, your 

master is often a fool, as Henri IV. used to say."* 

Your principles are your laws, but you are inclined to 

despotism. You are truthful, but you are not innocent 

"• Martin ["ffisloirede France'' (Paris: 1879^, voL 
xiv.-, p. 25Z] tells us of La Fontaine : — " II n'avait des 
opinions serieusement n^g^tives que sur que](]ueB points 
de Th^ologie et dc politique oii il repoussait, soit par 
raison, soit par sentiment, les doctrines officielles. On 
se rapelle ses disputes avec Racine sur la monarchic 
absolue." He showed his loyalty by writing several 
"eloges" upon Louis XIV.,* and his indifference by 
remaining friends with the Prince de Conti, who was 
disgraced in consequence of the discovery of some 
of his letters reflecting on the government. f There is 
a letter written by La Fontaine to Conli during the 
lalter's exile, in the " (Eitvres Contpleles de La Fon- 
taine" (Paris: iSj7, epitre t.\., p. 552). The league 
above referred to is of course that of Augsbourg, of 
which I^ Font.'iine speaks in an epitre, according 
to Walcknaer [" Vieiie La F.," op. cit. vol. ii., bk. v., 
p. 102]. "Non la ligue d'Augsbourg, que je sais moins 

'" Martin \op. cit., vol. xvi., liv. ciii., p. 313] tells 
us: — "Louis XVI. is evcrj'thing which is contrary to 
what he would himself wish to be, i.e., the very embodi- 
ment of indecision. I^Cer the vacillations of feebleness 
will be looked upon in his case as treacherous combina- 
tions which will land him upon the scaffold;" and 
Carlyle, in his "History of the French Revolution" 
(London : 1837), makes continual allusion to this 
monarch's fatal indecision of mind. Vide, e.g., vol. i., 
p. 28, vol. ii., pp. 127 and 152: — "Louis ... if thy 
heart ever formed, since it began beating under the 
name of heart, any resolution at all, be it now, then, or 
never in this world," etc. 

"" " Henri Quatre rencontra un jour dans les apparte- 

• Fables de I.<i Foiilatne, liv. vii. and xi., epitre xviii. and xii. 
t ViJr hereon, C. Walcknaer, " BislBire di la Vie dt La 
fini/aine" {Puns : 1858). vol. ii., chap, v., p. 1S8. 


in the intellectual acceptation of the term. Your 
power d"cs not lie in your capacity to charm, for 
grace can only exist in that which is pliant. 

SouvarofT, renowned for the intensity of his will ;**• 
Danton, the magnanimous soul who underwent the 
opprobrium of a crime in the hope of saving his 
country ; "" Galileo, Descartes, Newton, Leibnitz, 
Saint-Simon the reformer, Charles Fourier, Robert 

mens du Louvre un homme qui lui 6tott inconnu, et dont 
I'ext^rieur n'annoncolt rien dc fort distin^^. II lui 
demanda, ' A qu'il appartcnait i ' le troyant de la suite 
do quelque sei^eur. ' J 'appartitns i moi meme,' lui 
dit cc personnag'e d'un ton fier el peu respcctueux. 
'Men ami.' reprit le roi. en lui toumant le dos, ' vous 
avez un sot maltre.'" — "L ' Esprit de Henri IV." 
(Paris: 177,1}. J>. a7"- 
"■ L, M. V. Tranchant de I^vcrme, in his " Histoire 

»-ilI, that no obstacle could laust roswurve" (p. 455), 
Compare also the passages dealing' with the same 
characteristic upon pp. jiR-joq, and 451 (chap vii.). 
Mr. E. N. Macready also, in his work "" A Sketch 0/ 
.Vwawr^w; " (London : ifl5i, p. 28), says; — " With him 
. , . the simple tcnn ■ duty ' was equivalent to, and 
exacted, the utmost devniion of which a man was 

■* This is a somewhat uncommon view of the character 
of Danton; I conclude M. le Capitainc d'Arpenti>,'T)y 
has been led away by the grand rhetoric of a speech of 
Danton's, made on March lOth, 1793. recorded in 
MM. E. Buchei and P. Roux's " Histoire Parlemen- 
taire de la Rf-,iduiion Franfaisi: yournal des 
AssembUes Xationales depiiix \',%<f iiisi/it'in i8n " 
(Paris: i8j6, 40 vols.), in which he crit-s out : - " What 
to me is my reputation i so lonff as France is free, let 
my name btr wounded. What do 1 care about beinj; 
called ' drinker of blood ' ! Good ! let us drink the blood 
of the enemies of the human race," etc." 

" Kh ! que m'inipone nin n-iHiMtimi '. i^ui; In France soit 


Owen, all of them profound reasoners and bold in- 
ventors, had infallibly very large thumbs. 

Voltaire, who of all men who ever lived sub- 
ordinated the promptings of his heart to those of his 
head, had, as his statue in the Theatre Franfais bears 
witness, enonnous thumbs. Certainly, the sculptor 
Houdon, an artist of the keenest and most delicate 
taste, cannot have given such thumbs to this marble 
statue, had not the well-known hands of his model 
imposed upon him the obligation to do so.'" 

The shaven-headed lama, clad in the robe of yellow 
wool, which enhances the brilliancy of his scarlet stole 
and violet dalmatic, benignly salutes his superiors 
after the manner of the Thibetans, i.e., by putting out 
his tongue, and scratching his ear. Beneath those 
eyebrows, arched like the leaf of the peach-tree, his 
liltle beady eyes sparkle with pure contentment, by 
reason of the fact that he has successfully ejaculated 
before the assembled multitudes that sacred phrase, 
deeply fraught with mystic profundity, "Oh, Buddha, 
jewel of the lotus 1 Oh, Buddha, jewel of the lotus ! " 

His science also is on a par with his devotion, and 
if he knows that he is forbidden to lay hold of a cow's 
tail to help him to ford a river which is deep and 
rapid, none the less is he aware of the healing and 
preservative powers of the flesh of the griffin and 
the horn of the winged unicorn ; besides this, 
Buddha has appeared to him in a dream, and he 
knows that after his death he will not be thrown 
to the sturgeons of the Yellow River, neither will 
his body be exposed upon a mountain, nor burnt, nor 
eaten by Thibetan worms; but that he will be cut 
into pieces and given to dogs to eat— an apotheosis only 

'" There exists of this statue a well-known print, which 
1 have before mc. In it the hands are certainly 
thoroughly philosophic, and the thumbs, as M. d'Ar- 
pentigny says, are very large. 




tho»r p<»pk- whose high moral qualities 
are evidcnttfd by a n-d bad on the top uf the hat, or 
■ pcocork feather swnying in the breeze ! Hugging 
hinuelf in the certainty of sn glorious a fate, his heart 
vxponda, his pride increases, he compares himsell' 
with ttic kings of the earth, and to give himscir a 
correct and striking and u-ilhal a dignified sense a( 
his own merits, he raises proudly on high his right- 
hand thumb and exclaims, "Thus am I."'o* 

The Giriicans, a stubborn race, obstinate by respect 
for tradition, and noi, as with nur Breton folk, by 
rcttsun of an obstinate instinct, all have very large 

"* U. d'Arpentt|rny haa evidently taken his informa- 
lion co«u;enilnu Tlilbi'ian cuKtoinN Itom wurk6 tike t)io«; 
of M. Hue E" Muventrs tfun I'ofage dans la Tartaric, 
It TkAet. It ill Ckine" (Pari*: I'Sso},] and the " Corr^- 
sfanJanttdf I'kbir Jtiequrmantavee m FamUlr.ttt.. 
fenJarit urn I'ayagr cfans L'lnde" [Paris: 1846, 

tib cdo., il!<>9, J voU.),--woTki, which though interest- 
ig and vuluabte in tlieinselves, rather come under the 
niu;goty of ih(^ books of travel described by Colonel 
~ ' ki-Tong in ht» recent work " Thr Chinese, 
by Ticmst/jvs '' tljindon : translated by James 
886), in which he say» ;— " Nothing is mon* 
an a notebook of travels : the first foot oni- 
a physiognomy to the whole nation whose 
art to hi described. The rci-ordcd ronvprsa- 
utcavl tna^ perhaps be considi-red a 
vahcable document by a travpller. , . . The fact is, 
the book is often written before the travels are undtr- 
tafccB, for the simple reason that the aim of the Journey 
i* the book to be published." etc. The sketch of 
Boddliism and of the Thibetan worship, which is more 
properly I^nuism, which is Kiven above is hijchly 
canaml by 001 auUior hum an already highly -coluurcd 
Mif^Lnal at-coant. Those who an interested tn the 
sdbtcct should rrad the «orks of Stanislas Julicn and 
of Banhtl^ St BiUire, and Rhys David's •' fiOttrt 
' ' " ' " or hi> Manual " Buddhant " ([..ondim : 


* The CorsJcaBB and the Bretons have always hnil 

the rqwutloro of obstinacy. As reganls the 



In La Vendee a large thumb is looked upon as a sure 
sign or a remarkable aptitude for the occult sciences. 
According to the peasants of the Bocage, no sorcerer 
can fail to be gifled with a rolling eye and lai^ 
thumbs ; the rolling eye by reason of the malicious 
mobility of his spirit, and large thumbs because it is on 
his thumbs that the full weight of the upper half of 
his body is supported when, after having transformed 
himself into a were-wolf, he goes at dead of night to 
howl and to gambol at the cross roads 1 

With a small thumb and smooth fingers, whatever 
may be the form of the (xterior phalanges \nola lmuf\ 
one will have within oneself, not necessarily the 
actual talents of poetry or art, but most certainly the 
germs of these faculties. Only, naturally attracted as 
they are towards the ideal, conic phalanges will 

this is said of Iheni by the author of "A General 
Account amf Ih'siriptwn i//Cursica '' [London : 1730), 
who describes Ihom as havinjf " always had tne 
diaractcr of a tlownisli, rough, stubborn people ; " and 
Strabo K"-L's a vivid account of their obstmacy and 
stupidity in his rEQrpA*IKON (book v., chap, a,)" 
As to the Bretons, A. de Courson, in his " Histoire des 
pciipjrs Bi-iloniics" (Paris: 1846), speaks of " the 
obstinacy whiiU distinguishes ihcm . , . whence come 
the cxtraordinarj' lonlrasts of the national character," 
in describing- the contradictions to be found in their 
religious observances and superstitions. The poet 
Briseux also speaks of the Bretons as ;— 

" La race, sur Ic dos portani di^ lon);s clieveiui, 
Que rien ne peul dompltr iiu^ind die dU ' je vcujt.' ' 

P- .156- 

* " (^o fil lit inonlann folenlcs. i]ui blroeiniis vitnm suslenant, 
i]isis si ul inhuman iurcs lx:9lla!>. Ilaqiic, tjiium Komani duces 
in iniulam linnc inciirMonem laciunt, ac inunitiiines adorli, 
mngiium innncijiiiirunt nuniunnn cc|icninl, videre RomK cum 
ailminilinni; liei-i, i|iiiiiilum in uis fcrilntiK ic iii<li>lis plane <^it 
liellisKlnui' nc slii|>idiiatc itniiiiiios oliicndunt. ut impeniiere 
IKcnitct etiaiii si i|uis minimo emcril.'" Stralnj, Ik. Hi., Didat't 


incline to a mode of expression, or, if you prefer the 
terra, a manifestation of the talent, which is more 
spiritualistic than spiritual. As for instance RafaClle, 
Correggio, Perugino, and so on ; and among writers 
Tasso, Georges Sand, and others. And as to the others, 
I mean those whose fingers terminate in a apatulc or 
in a square, seeing that they are attracted by what is 
true and real, i.t,, towards commnnplace in [he world 
o{ things, and towards custom in the world of ideas, 
thty will incline to a mode of expression which is 
more spiritual than spiritualistic, such as, for instance, 
Teniers or Callot, Scarron, Regnard, Lcsago, Btrangcr, 
and so on, whose arts lie more in the expression of 
real life than in the interpretation of what is really 
beautiful. They interest the mind and sometimes the 
heart, but never the soul. One appreciates ihcm and 
likes them, but one docs not really admire them. 

Hands which arc conic or pointed, with a large 1 >W. 
thumb, proceed in art by method, by logic, and -by 
deduction, almost after the manner of persons with 
square hands and a small thumb. Such were David 
[the painter], Voltaire, Fontenclle, and others, all 
peiiplc distinguished by little or no itaHtte. 

If, therefore, you remember what I said about ihc ' "•■ 

ConnnnUHai M 

mdicaiions found in the jonits and up<>n (he outer lendtnciK 
phalanges, you will remember that he who has conic 
phalanges, smooth fingers, and a small thumb, is 
trebly predestined to a poetic existence, whilst trebly 
predestined to scientific pursuits is he who, to square 
or slightly spalulated finger-tips. Joins knotty fmgcrs 
and a large thumb. 

It is more easy for largi -thumbed subji-cis [by ^,^^^J„g, 
reason of the strength of will with which llM-y are <«>>tn><SB. 
gifted] to overcome the tendencies of (heir natures 
than for people with small thumbs."* Again, nmny 

" Uark S. T. Coleridge's words [■■ Tabic Talk,' Sept. 


philosophers and learned professors have formulated 
their systems in vers« of a higher or lower quality of 
inspiration. But there has never lived an eminent 
poet who has excelled in abstract sciences. 

28th, 1830] on this subject :— " Why need we talk of a 
fiery hell P If the will, which is the law of our nature, 
were withdrawn from our memoiy, fancy, understanding, 
and reason, no other hell could equal for a spiritual 
being what we should then feel from the anarchy of 
our powers. It would be conscious madness I " 



You have before you two hands of the same thickness, 
the same size, the same development of parts, and 
tmninating similarly [fur instance] in spatulate 
exterior phalanges ; only there is this difference 
between them : one is supple even to flabbincss, 
whilst the other is so firm as to be absolutely hard. 

You must observe thai the difference lies in the 
(emperament and manner of life, and that, though 
the intellectual tendencies of these two subjects 
may be the same [by reason of their similarly 
spatulated finger-tips], their aptitudes and their moral 
natures will nevertheless be different ; for, as 
Fonienelle has said, from a basis of resemblance may 
rise infinite differences.*** In the love of action, of 

■• This remark of Fontenelle's occurs in his " Entre- 
tiens sur la Pluralitf dn Mondes" f" (Euvrts Com- 
fUtes de Af. ,le Fontenelh" (Paris: 1766), vol. ii.. 
p. 146], "Ne but-il pas pounani que lesmondes, malgrt 
cctte eraiit^, different en mille choses ? Car ud fond de 
ressemolances ne laisse pas de porter des differences 
infiniea." These " Hntrttirns ' wtre published at 
Amtterdam in itoi. and an En^jlish translation was 
subsequently nwae by William Gardiner, entitled, " A 
Weelfi Comoersation on ttu Plurality 0/ Worlds" 
(Londoo: jided., i;j;). 


movement, which js common to them, the 3oft-handed 
siibjfct will seok the fulfilment of its desire in 
moderate and subdued action, whilst the hard-handed 
subject will develop a love or energetic movement and 
violent locomotion. The latter will rise vnth the lark, 
whilst the former will appreciate the charms of a 
comfortable bed until the risen sun suggests the 
necessity of exertion ; as in their pleasures, the in- 
fluence of their organisation will make itself felt in 
the choice of their studies and of their professions. 

The ideas of hard-handed artists are based upon 
sound facts, and their works have more virile strength 
than those of anists whose hands are soft. Tliese 
latter, strongly acted upon by outward influences, are 
governed by ideas which arc essentially those of the 
surface, but their works are characterised by more 
shades of sentiment, more diversity and more subtlety, 
than those of artists whose hands are hard. The 

- little fleshy lumps which are found on the faces of 
the finger-tips are generally more pronounced and 
more delicately formed upon their hands than on 
those of the generality of people. Well, it is in this 
little fleshy protuberance that the sense of touch is 
the most highly developed '*• — the sense of touch, 
which is the sense of discernment, and, consequently, 
the outward symbol of moral tact. 

Paris obtains from the province of Picardy, hand- 

^ some men-servants, fair haired, and ruddy of tint, 
young apprentices, with low foreheads, who, at the 
same time credulous and defiant, headstrong and 
shallow-minded, perform their duties in accordance 
with the promptings of their instincts, either inertly 
or obstinately. Vulgarity, which is the leading feature 
of the physiognomy of the province, is written 
on every feature of their faces. Born beneath the 

"" Vri/e hereon T 153 and note •", p. 136, 


thatched roofs of muddy and dilapidated hamlets, 
wherein ghostly visitors hold nightly revels in all the 
pani>ply of shrouds and chains, they arc principally 
noted for want of manual dexterity, for a highly 
developed vanity of mind which is at once shamefaced 
and sullen, and by that hare-brained freedom peculiar 
to this class of people which is at the same time the 
result of maliciousness and folly. Their hands are 
large, red, and very hard. 

In the immense forests which clothe the banks of ^919. 
the Dnieper, here and there are found little villages, ""Jll^i^i^j^ 
built of wood, of the most squalid appearance, in- 
habited by low-class Jews and rough cowherds. 
Their staple industry is the rearing of huge packs 
of gigantic dogs, which they let loose by night for 
protection against wolves. 

With the exception of those of the Jews [who arc a ^ MS. 
race peculiarly endowed with the talents cif commerce], "^"J^ 
all the hands «nc meets with in these localities arc 
citrcmcly hard. 

In the reign cf He-Sou, Emperor of China, men 5*14. 
lived at peace with one another, not bothering them- ^''>™" '"»* 
selves about what they did i>r where they went. 
They wandered about in a satisfied sort of way, pat- 
ting their chests as if they had been drums; and 
more or less always eating, they were supremely con- 
tented: they were ignorant of even the most elementary 
principles of good and evil. Hands of the soft type."' 

"" I am not acqu.-iinted with the mon.irch recorded by 
the author, and he is not [as far as I can see] mentioned 
by Giles,* or by any ol tht- standartl authors upon 
ancient Chinese history. He may be one of the fifteen 
sages who formed the privy council of the KrapiTor Kou- 
Hi, who was one of the niters of the Cclcsii»l Kmpire in 
"fabulous" times. M.J. A. M.dr Moyriac d.- M.iilla. 
in his " Histiiirt O^ti^ralc ilc !•! Chitit," traduiu- du 

* H. A. litLbi, "G<mf J/ Chima l.tlrraJuri " ( IjinJuD 


„ ^ '^'- The expiring races whom, with their red-chalked 

The HcHKDUni. , . „ , 

and soot-strealced faces, LevaiHant lauds and reveres 

for their stagnating indolence ;'°* the fattened monks, 

Ecckuuiici corpulent caryatids of the holy kitchens of the Roman 

Church, whose love of the plethoric delights of an 

ever<somnolent laziness has obtained for them such 

celebrity at the hands of Erasmus and Rabelais ;" the 

flabby-visaged gate-keepers who, ensconced behind a 

glazed window sash, go through their innocent lives 

like oysters, perpetually opening and shutting a door, 

— all these have naturally soil hands. 

^ 216. The chase of wild cattle amid the jungles of the 

The Ci>ch«. savannahs of La Plata is the sole occupation, the 

Tong Kien Kang Mon (Paris : 1777, 13 vols.}, tells us, 
after giving a list of emperors who reigned B.C. 2053 — 
2689, the first of whom were Fou-Hi and Ching-Nong, 
that the historian Ouai-Kl places between them the 
names of fifteen rulers, who reigned for 17.798 years (I); 
but he informs us that these fifteen were councillors and 
officers of Kou-Hi[who was amost exemplary monarch], 
and in the list which he gives of them appears the name 
of H6-Sou.» 

'" It is fortunate for Le Valliant that they had some 
redeeming points in his eyes, for he says of these 
savages : " Constantly seeing the Hottentots has never 
been able to accustom me to their habit of painting 
their faces with a thousand different designs, which I 
find hideous and repulsive." Le Valliant, " Vt^a^ 
dans C Intirieur de I' Afrique" (Paris: 1790), vol, ii,, 
p. 44. 

■" It is not surprising that Rabelais was acrid on the 
subject of monks, seemg that he began life himself 
as a Cordelier, from which order he was expelled for 
personating the image of St. Francis in his niche on a 
• saint's day, and playing various uncanonical tricks to 

the stupefaction of the assembled worshippers. By a 
bull of Pope Clement VII. he afterwards became a 
Benedictine, but soon abandoned a profession for which 
he was pre-eminently unsulted. Erasmus fulminated 

* " Alors Fou-hi composa son conseil de quinze d'entr'evK 
qu'il jugca les plus sages « tes mieui instniits," etc— Vol. L, 
p. 5, note. 




uniqtK industry, or the Gauchos, who, leathern lasso Jn 
hand, and witli their hccis armed with huge spurs, 
ilrvole thctnsclveB i-ntlrely to this form of eiLTtisc, 
muunted un superb wild horses. They nre n rnce by 
nature nervous, agile, irritable, and prutupt in cxpc- 
ill«nls where prompt action is necessary, beneath an 
exterior which is phlegmatic ; a race which is con- 
Mtmed by a thirst Tor strirc and for action, and a love 
of boundless horuons and unchecked liberty. A 
horae- or buffalo-skin forms their bed, and analngously 
the desiccated head» of horses or buffaloes form their 
chttiTv and tables ; in fact, their domestic furniture is 
eonstructed olmasl exclusively of buflalo and horse 
booea."* Their hand* arc very hard. 

You have probably remarked ere now that a taste 
fbf fegricUlture and horticulture gains upon ns as We ^ 
grmv old. This taste, feebly developed as it is at 
(In*,— potently warred against lo the last by the 
smiles which shine upon us from gentle lips, mid by 
the soft hands which by their toudi Inspire us witli 
patriotic, poetic, and scientific enthusiasm, — grows 
grwlaally stronger and stronger, and develops its 

uafaial monks more seriously and to brttcr purpose than 
KaboUia. Among the Klicvirs on my bonkihrlvits I 
find a hiilr ■i.rlt. >n!iilrd " /Vi/rf. £rasmt KoUrdami 
Caii . ■■'. 167;). on p. 138 of 

•>hi< "me >t3nci>icans and 

INK' : ' 1 he latirr refusioj; to 

talc- 1 .■iirnrJiim '-t biben- 

hal, ■ ■ r!v 



" CaptJiiii : I h I* in his " Jaumeyt 

ta Simtk Am- ^19. p. Ml), wben 

descfilMnf; Uir •...■ rlato'Sesh. he sajni— 

"Tbc EaaiUy and ^'ucnts sii round il on the skeletons of 
botaes' boada, haadle Ihdr long kaira. iind cut away." 


intensity in proportion as the faculties of our imagi- 
nations grow weaker; and it is when our hands, 
stifFened and bony and bereft of their delicate tactile 
organisation, ofTer a faithful reflex of our impoverished 
imaginations, that this inclination to garden, to labour 
with our hands, acquires more and more dominion 
over us.'" 
SIB. In like manner we become more steady, less credu- 

lophy in lous, and more logical in proportion as the joints of 
our fingers emphasise themselves by their develop- 
ment, and become more prominently visible."* 
219 Though not dead to love, hands which are very 

of hard hard are seldom capable of much tenderness ; and 
"' by contrast, soft hands are generally more capable 
of tenderness than of love. 

220. Callosity in a hand seems always to cast a shadow 
iioaiy, upon the mind, 

221. For my part let mc see hands which are firm with- 
um"on- " ""' being hard, and elastic without being flabby. 
lency. They indicate an intelligence which is pre-eminently 

wide and active in its scope, having at the same time 
the faculties of theory and of action, and in addition 
to this, whatever may be the material occupations 
with which they may be employed, they only harden 
very gradually; whilst, on the contrary, hands which 
are naturally very firm rapidly become extremely 

'" Vide ''A Afanualof Ckeirosopky," ^ 21a 
'" "M. d'Arpentigny holds a theory," says Adrien 
Desbarrolles ['' Mystires de la Main" (Paris: 15th 
edn., nji.), p. 241], "that the joints develop upon 
hands, or may tend to diminish, and he gives as an 
example the hand of Madame Sand, whose fingers, 
once very smooth, have developed the lower joints 
since she has taken to philosophy and serious literature. 
Very well then. If the hands which contain the destiny 
can modify themselves by the direction of the will, 
Dtstiny can also modify itself, and is not irrevocably 
fixed. Compare " A Manual, etc.," fH 89—91. 


The same remarks apply to the skins and coats of ^ tSS. 
highly-bred horses, which although much finer than "'j|^"- 
those of commonly-bred horses, are always less subject 
to variations of texture, or to disease. 

How admirable is the foresight of Nature, which, in 5 HS. 
proportion as the aims of created beings are higher '"^JU^JJ^ ° 
and purer, supplies them with instruments and 
weapons of a keener edge and finer temper."* 

According, therefore, to the development of their ^ tB4. 
intelligences, the individuals of a particular type '-'V^?'™ 
divide themselves into classes, and adopt for them- 
selves the sciences and labours which are most adapted 
to capacities of their particular ciass. 

Thus, for instance, though all are equally well ^ au. 
constituted for the race, the finely-moulded horses of Di<'«™ii»w" 
the high table-lands of Central Arabia [El Nejed] are ™ 
not all equally well-gifted with swiftness of foot;*^* 
thus, although very widely dificring in physical power, 
the common house-cat and the royal tiger are none 
the less members of the same family ; in like manner 
it is from the same learned hands of scientific appre- 
ciation that Lavoisier,*'* and Jean Maria Farina, of 

"' " Nejedeao horses are to Arab horses in general 
what Arab horses are to those of other countries." — 
W. G. pAiXiRAVB. "A journey through Central and 
Eastern Arabia" (London: 1865). chap, ix., p. 433. 

"* Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, the eminent chemist, was 
bora in Paris in 1743. At the age of twenty-three he re- 
ceived the gold medal of the Academic for a new system 
of town illumination, and at twenty-five was admitted 
a member of that august body, A most interesting 
biography of Lavoisier was written by A. F. Kourcroy, 
after his death, entitled, "Notice sur la Vie et Us 
Trtrraux ie Lavoisier" (Paris: 1796); in which his 
bioKTapher tells us that " all branches of mathematical 
ana pbysicral science had their places in the studies of 
hiimking hours." He was ma-le a Fcmiier-G^n^ral 
fajrthcGownunent, a post which he accepted, as it gave 
brai leinire in «4iich to pursue his studies. Having; bt'cn 


Cologne, have received the laurel-wreath, ht^est 
mark of academic distinction ; in &ct, it comes to 
this, that, as Sganarelle remarks, " there are faggots 
and faggots.""* 

You must not, however, conclude that because you 
have a large thumb and jointed fingers terminating 
in spatule, you arc necessarily gifted with the 
capacity of excelling in all practical sciences and 
occupations ; nor that because you have a small 
thumb and smooth fingers you are necessarily gifted 
with pre-eminent talent in every branch of the fine 
arts ; on the contrary, the pursuit of a single science, 
or of a limited number of sciences [to an extent 
limited by the scope of the faculties of each in- 
dividual] absorbs, as a rule, the whole of the slock 
of genius with which God has endowed the generality 

arrested with the rest of the Fcrmlers-G^nSraux in 1794, 
the most strenuous efforts were made to save his life, to 
all of which the judge replied, "The country has no 
longeranyneedof ja:'(7«fa." [ Vide'ED.¥'LE,\JV.\,"Duiin 
lie rAisne"(Laan: 1852), pp. 22-3.] He was guillotined 
on the 5th May, 1794, having laboured night and day in 
prison at the completion of his discoveries in chemistry, 
until summoned by the executioner. His mast celebrated 
works are " Memoiresde la CA(>nie(Paris : 1805), and a 
" Traiti EUmentaire de la Ckimie " (Paris; 1789); of 
which an English translation appeared at Edinburgh in 
1790, M. d^rpentigny's classification of his emment 
countryman witli Johann Maria Farina, who received 
the same distinction as Lavoisier from the Academy 
for his Eau de Cologne, is truly an exquisite piece of 

■71 " 11 y a fagots et fagots ; vous en pourrez trouver 

autre part k moins, mais pour (eux que je fais " 

Valire. — " Eh ! monsieur, laissons lit je discours." — 
MoLi^RE, "LeMidecin Malgri Lui" act i., sc. 6. 

* ' ' Comme Lavoisier, c'aX des doctes mains de la tctence qne 
JeaJi Marie Farina, de Colt^ne. a rcfu son ridicale limner 
{3-oirsts /Vwi/Vr/uj)."— D'Ahpenticnv. 


of men. One has, indeed, known o( individuals like 
Caesar, Napoleon, Michael Angelo, Humboldt, Vol- 
taire, Cuvier, Leibnitz, and others, whose colossal 
intellects have embraced within their comprehension 
nearly all the talents specially adapted to their types 
of character, but these examples are rare — very 

The large, Tat, soft, spatulate hand among the middle 
classes in France, untroubled by the moral excitements , 
of high-class education, finds pltasure alter its own 
heart in the hum ol conversation which hovers over 
the crowded cafis, and the subdued gesticulations of 
the lower class of clubs. Driving in a nail here, 
strengthening the treacherous leg of a dilapidated 
table there, or again, drumming listlessly on the 
window-panes, — it is in ^uch phlegmatic employ- 
ments that they are content to pass their irre- 
sponsible days, and pursue the even tenor of their 
ways. The dull and stupid contentment of insig- 
nificant towns is less irksome to them than it is to 
people whose hands are hard. Such subjects find 
a pleasure in the noise and turmoil of fairs and 
markets ; you may see them any day, marching 
along, erect of gait and stick in hand, keeping 
military step with the evening fanfaronade of the 
gurison trumpeters. You may see them calmly en- 
joying themselves, engrossed in the dissipations of 
draughts, of backgammon, and of bagatelle, relinquish- 
ing to their harder- handed neighbours all wearying 
exercises and laborious pleasures. They do not do 
much themselves, but they like to see others working 
hard ; they like [remaining quiescent themselves] to 
watch the spectacle of action ; they do not travel 
themselves, but they like to read of voyages, tra- 
versing the habitable globe, riding, as one might say, 
on the shoulders of the energetic and actual traveller. 
Like lyAnville, who went everywhere wtthoul. once 


leaving his study, ''^ such subjects find the energy to 
travel in the activity of their brains."* 

Among subjects whose intelligences are wholly 

\' inrerior, the types of nature, as a rule, hardly exhibit 

their positive characteristics at all ; it is not so, how* 

ever, with their negative peculiarities. The eagle and 

the ostrich have alike wings and legs, but in escaping 

from the hunter, or in attacking their prey, the eagle 

knows instinctively that he can only rely upon his 

wings, and the ostrich that he must trust only to his 

legs. Every animal is automatically conscious of the 

portions of their organisation whose powers are the 

most highly developed, whereas many human beings 

are absolutely ignorant [from the moral point of view] 

of the particular direction in which lies their strength. 

It is, therefore, the office of education to enlighten 

them hereon. 

3. "In this world," says Tscu-sse, a commentator of 

' Confucius,*'* "man alone of all created beings is 

'" At the time when the above was written, Jean 
Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anvillo was perhaps the most 
celebrated g'eographer whom France had ever seen ; 
he was, besides, an eminent antiguaiy. He is chiefly 
known to-day by his " Aiitiquiti Geogra^higue de 
ClndeetdephisieursautresContriesde lafiauteAsie'' 
(Paris: 1757); " VEJiplirate et le Tigre " f Paris; 
1779); " Hiscriptinn <le la Gaule'' (Pans: 1760); and 
his •• G^graphie Amieniw" (Paris: 1768). Vide 
" Notice des Ouvrages dc M, ZyAnvii/e pricidSe par 
son Eloger by MM. J. D. Barbie and B. J. Dacier 
(Paris : i8o2). 

"• " The poet has his Rome, his Florence, his whole 
glowing Italy within the four walls of his library. He 
has in his books the ruins of an antique world, and the 
glories of a modern one."— LONGFELLOW, " Hyperion " 
(Boslon : 1881, p. 82), bk. i., ch. viii. 

"• The passage here quoted, which is a grand exemplar 
of (he subtle casuistry and lojric of the Chinese philo- 
sophers, comes from the ^ ^ {" Ta ffw"), of which 
perhaps the best translation that exists is G. Pauthicr's 
"££ Ta //it), on la Grande Elude. Ouvrage de Kmtg- 


d of a sovereign intelligence which is capable 
of fully comprehending his own peculiar nature, the 
laws by which his life is governed, and the duties he 
owes to society. 

"Gilled with this knowledge of his own nature, 
and of the reciprocal duties which he is bound to 
perform, he can, by this very fact, thoroughly com- 
prehend his fellow-nicn, and the laws by which they 
in turn arc regulated, and can thus instruct them in 
the duties which it is necessary for them to perform 
in order to carry out the mandates of the Most 

"Again, being gifted with this same knowledge of 
his fellow-men, and being able therefore in these 
matters and in this manner to instruct them, he can 
by analogy arrive at an understanding of all other 
living things, whether animal or vegetable, and can 
help them to carry out the mandates of the laws under 

/»(-ft« (Confucius) et dt son disciple Thseng-tzu," 
avec un commentaire par Tchuu Hi (Paris: 1B37). 
The passage quoted ^bovc is from chap, iv., " Sur le 
Devoir de connoltrc et de distinguer les Causes et les 
Effets." " To know the rixit or the cause, that is the 
perfection of knowledge." That is all that remains of 
the 6fth chapter of the commentary. It explained what 
one must understand by " to perfect one's moral know- 
ledge, by penetrating the principles of actions." It is 
now lost. To perfect one's moral knowledge consists in 
penettatiDR the principle and the nature of actions. 
We must devote ourselves to a profound investigation 
of actions, and examine to their foun^tions their 

principles or causes Only, these principles, 

these causes, these raismis <fitre have not yet oeen 
submitted to sufficiently profound investigations ; that is 
why the sciences of men are not complete, absolute \vide 
note ■•. p. 91}; i' '* f*"" ''"'' reason also that the " Ta 
Hio" commences liy teaching men that those among 
them who study moral philosophy must submit all the 
obiects of natufi' and human actions to a long and pro- 
found examination, to the end that, slaning from what 
they koow already uf the principles of nctiims, they can 


which they live, in accordance with the requirements 
of their particular natures. 

" Yet again, being able thus by knowledge to direct 
the existences of all things, animal and vegetable, as 
aforesaid, he is able by this very knowledge, and by 
means of his superior intelligence, to assist Providence 
itself in its direction of the evolution and bringing 
together of beings, to the end that they may reach 
their fullest and highest developments. 

" And finally, being able to assist heaven and earth 
in the evolution of the laws of natural causation, he is 
able by this power alone to stand up in the character 
of a third force or potentiality, ranking equally with 
heaven and earth." 

It is not necessary for me to call attention to the 
circumstance Ihai Tseu-sse did not live under the rule 

increase their knowledge, and penetrate into their inmost 
natures. " Inapplyingoneself thus to exercise for a long 
time all one's energyi all one's intellectual faculties, one 
arrives at last at the possession of a knowledge, of an 
intimate comprehension of the true principles of actions. 
Then the intrinsic and extrinsic natures of all human 
actions, their most subtle essentials, as well as their 
most gross particles, are penetrated : and for our 
intelligences thus exercised and applied by a sustained 
effort, all the principles of actions become clear and 
manifest." Another commentator, Ho Kiang, says on 
this passage of the "Ta Hio" : — " It is not said that it 
is necessary to seek to know, to scrutinise profoundly 
principles and causes ; but it is said that it is necessary 
to seek to understand perfectly human actions. In 
saying that one must seek to know, to scrutinise pro- 
found^, principles and causes, one may easily di^w the 
mind into a chaos of inextricable incertitudes. But in 
saying that one must seek to understand perfectly 
human actions, one leads the mind to a search after 
truth." I have amplified this note with comparatively 
full translations of the Commentaries of Tcbou Hi and 
of Ho Kiang, as they afford an extremely characteristic 
and interesting example of the systems of Chinese 


of He Sou of whom we spoke a short while since. 
In my opinion neither Condorcet nor Saint-Simon, nor 
H^el nor Chas. Fourier, have ever excelled him in 
the enunciation of this definition of the illimitable 
perfectibility of humanity and of bII nature. 

a jFeto apisceiianeous ©bserttations. 


n.. !,^ .' 





I THE scimcE ( 


CiutiioMAiicv, looked dnwn upcin as it is by the 

1 ptnerstinn, wax in rormcr da)-9 siudicd by 

>pheni and ivholiasts of eminent celebrity nnd 

' Worth. Among lliem wc may mention the names of 

Rich men as Ilatn,*" Aristotle," Oalcn,"* Allx-rtiis ^-twnta. i 

• I r>f> nrrt Icnow of any dinct mrntion of the hand in 

• r,.- ,.t .1... .1, ,p....T,pg of Plato. Our author may have 

''it- remarks which Socrates makc^ lo 

Firs/ AUihiadts." ot the dialot:vr 

' r, if Man." uptmlhf use aiihe hands, 

■ if wearing rinKs. are sufficient baiia 

claim Plato as a cli«ito»ophiii. 

■ certainly Bcrms to have (al:<-n a ronsidcr- 

it of notice of the iriencr. Vidt, tat 

i, the paaaagen in which he caUi attantiun to the 

Irojjth ol life is Indicati^d by the lines of 

whtch occur nntably in the '■ History of 

d in hi* "ProhUau."\ I have (taiil mueh 

■cience of the hand in "A UanHal of 

in Uk firit index lu which complete tv 

~ toaad iuh AKisruriJ!. 

R way Galen has remarked at mucb 

„^^ _£liU ■irropios, (wiv. a.', ■>«. ■«. 

"f -aUT^ 4m tV fc* X"W*» "pV 'x-*' « »*!, "-V^ 


Magnus,"** Ptolemy,'" Avicenna,*** Averroes,'** Anti- 
ochus Tibcrtus,"' Tricasso,'«' TaisnierW* Belot,"" 

length upon the hand, but more, I think, upon its im- 
portance as a member than upon the indications afforded 
by it. Vide notes '", '", and '", pp. 92 and 140, and " A 
Manual of Cheirosophy," index 1, sub GAI.EN, 

"" Albettus Magnus does not seem to have paid more 
attention lo the hand than would ordiaarily be required 
of a medixval sorcerer or alchemist. Godwin does not 
tell us anything about it in his "Lives of the Necro- 
mancers (London; 183-], p. 260); nor does Naud£ 
in his " Apohgie pour tous Us Grands Personna^S 
qui ont ite faussement soup^onnis de Magie" (Pans: 
1625, chap. 18), though both of them give accounts of 
Albertus Magnus. If anywhere it would be in the 
" Parva Naturalia,"- — " De Motibus Animalium," 
lib. ii., tract, i., c. v., and " De Unitate Intellectus," 
cap. V. Vide also "Albertus Magnus, Geheimer 
Cliiromant, t/r." (Leipzig: 1807). 

'" Many of the Ptolemies were celebrated for their 
literary tastes and studies of esoteric philosophy. The 
Ptolemy alluded to above would probably be Ptolemseus 
I.agus, the founder of the Alexandrine library. 

'" Husain ibn Ab'd'allah y-u. j^; ^ yjt—^^ ti*JiO 
commonly called Ibn Sina, or Avicenna, one of the best 
known of the Arabian writers of medicine, physics, and 
metaphysics, lays great stress upon the Importance of 
the hand in his numerous commentaries and treatises 
upon the works of Galen, of Aristotle, and of Hippo- 
crates. Oriental scholars who feel interested in this 
subject may lind the animadversions to which I allude in 
his Jl i_. ^. ,j~iJS j^^l JcjiH —all i^cy'*'' v^iA" 
{" The Medical Canons (^yUl [!]) of Avicenna. with 
treatises nn Logic. Physics, and Metaphysics "), which 
were published at Rome in 1593. 

'"" Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Rushd (ji, ^.y ,t.-l _,j, 
.via*) commonly called Ibn Rushd, or AverroSs, like 
Avicenna a commentator of Aristotle, was an Arabian 
philosopher, who lived at Corduba in the twelfth century. 
His chief work ,^1;. j. *:• ^y, j,, , published in Rome in 
1562, contains very little on the passages of Aristotle to 
which I have called attention in " A Manual, etc." 

'" Antiochus Tibcrtus was the pseudonym of one of 


Frtciichius, De Penichio,'*' k.t.K., all of whom have 
handed down to us reflections, and, in some cases, 
long treatises on the art of divination by the obser- 
vation of the lines traced upon the palms of the 
hands, — treatises which amply prove the high esteem 
with which they regarded the science. We are told 
that Aristotle, having found upon an altar dedicated 
tu Hermes a treatise on this subject, engraved in 
Icltera of gold, made a great point of transmitting 
it to Alexander, as a study worthy the attention of 

the earliest of the cheiromants who have left behind 
them works on the subject. The principal of these arc 
" Ad lUustrem Principem Octavianum Ubaldinum 
Merchaielli ComiUm A. Tyberti Epistola'' (Bononi.'e; 
t4<M)> and " A aliochi Tyberti de CAeiruinantid 
Libri Jll,, denm) recogniti. Ejus idem Argument! 
Cheiromantio'. etc." (Mogunliie : 1541)- 

" Tricasso, commonly known as Patritio Tricasso da 
Ccrasari, was one of the mi>st celebrated cheiromants 
that the world has known. His principal works were 
■' Ckyromantia de Tricasso de Cerasari .... nuava- 
mente revisfa " (Venice : 1534). and " Enarratio 
PuUherrima Principiorum Chyromanlitt, etc." 
(Noribergx : 1560). For a fuller catalogue of his workH 
vidt in " Bihliographid Ckeirosnphicd." p. 411. 

"■ The most celebrated work 01 Taisnier now extant 
is his " Opus Mathemafitum. Octo libros .... 
quorum sex priores libri absolutissimtr Cheiromatitiee 
tMeoricatn .... continent, etc., etc." (Colonic 
Agrippinz ; 1561), \vide Appendix ; Bibliographia 
Ckeirosopfiica},- a. work which has been freely epito- 
mised and translated from by authors of the seven- 
teenth century. 

- ViDK " Les (Euvres de M. Jean BHot, Curi 
de Afilmonts, Pra/esseur aux Sciences Divines et 
Ceiesles, contenant la Chirvmence. etc." (I.yon ; 
1654J, pp. 118: (Rouen: 1669), pp. 480; and (Li^ge : 
1704). PP- 5*8. 

" Le Sieur de Feruchio was the author of one of the 
most leading works on cheiromancy proper that has 
teached us to-dav ; it is called "La Chiramence. la 
Pkysiamomie, et la Gi0mence,etc." (Paris: ibtfi, lb},-;, 
16^). I have (juoted some of his aphorisms in " A 
MammtU »/ Ckeirosopky," p. ti6. 




some highly- cultivated and dcvelopted intelligence. 
This treatise, written originally in Arabic, has be«n 
translated into Latin by Hispanus,'*' 

Starting, however, from a few readily admissible 
"principia, — principia admitted in fact by physicians 
note to be incontestable, the Chciromants have de- 
duced arguments so utterly absurd, that they have 
ended by causing themselves to be discredited even 
by the most ignorant and the most credulous. At the 
same time, however, one finds here and there among 
their mummeries decisive indications resulting from 

" I do not know where this statement originated ; 
probably among the vaticinations and literary irrespon- 
sibilities of some of the older cheiromants ; certainly 
for many years every writer on the subject has repro- 
duced the statement which I have myself recorded in 
"A Manual of Cheirosophy,"^^9i. The " Ciromaricia 
Aristotelis" there referred to. as also the MS. [Brit. 
Mus. Kg., 547}, is recognised as a supposititious woik 
only, having probably been compiled by some student 
or commentator from Aristotle's multiplied refervnces to 
the hand \^•ide note '", p, 179]. I presume that the 
account arose in this way : There is no doubt that when 
Aristotle— subsidised by Alexander — made his expedi- 
tion into Asia for the purpose of compiling his " His- 
tory of Animals," he was in the habit of sending the 
results of his investigations to Alexander, as they were 
completed, and in the course of this journey visiting 
.£gypt, he there picked up a quantity of the occult know- 
ledge of the jEgyptian magi — cheiromancy among them. 
I have called attention in another place \MiiHMaJ, \ 58] I 
to the fact that Aristotle's works, IlEPt ZUQN MOriO.S ] 
and nEPI TA ZQA ISTOPION. teem with references to 
the hand and to the art of cheiromancy. Now, as to 
the connection of Hermes, two hypotheses present them* 
selves to my mind. First, the worship of Hermes 
[under the name Teti, Thoth, or Taut] occurs earlier io 
i£gyptian records than in any others ; he occurs as 
early as the eleventh dynasty, and being regarded as 
the inventor of hieroglyphics, alt literary comfosithms 
were dedicated to him. Hermetic philosophy is said to 
have originated with him, and Clement of Alexandria 
mentions 42, lamblichus mentions 10,000, and Manelho 
mentions 30,515 books devoted tu this particular uulu 


rcpeued ubservation which it is conveniMit to admit."' 
Such M, for example, the fallowing :— 

Pawns whose lingrrs arc supple, and have n ten- 
Aency to turn back, arc gifted with sagacity, ruriosiiy, 
aod addrcfis. [AtaniMil, f 151.) 

Pentms whose fingers seem clumsily set upon their 
hoods, and whose fingcn all differ as to their ter- 
mitui phalanges, arc u-anting in strength of mind. 
Tlw cheimmaitts condemn them to misery and to in- 
tellectual ineptitude. [Manint/, f 149.] 

If your hand held before a candle shows no chinks 
or crannies, i.t., your fleshy tingers adhere to one 
another parallel throughout their length, it is a sign 
of avaric^ [Matnta/,% 152.] 

Very short and very thick fingers are a sign of 
cruelty. [Miumal, t ijj.]'** 

Aalroloey and medicine were particularly in his line, 
and undoubtedly anv papyrus a\ tablet dealing ntth 
(iidrofnam:y would have been dedicated to him. It 1h 
more than prabablc that the altar was merely a vutivr 
tablet or a iianynm hanging in one of the temples of 
Ibts [//frmei], and that thu is what has jgivcn rise tn 
the tfatcmcDt which ii tinder discussion- The secund 
hvpnUieui vii^lds, 1 think, to this one in the matter 
of probability. ^-vii., Aristotle was 3 great friend of 
Heimian, xitc tyrant of Alamca, and spent some time 

with him ,-.11 ih\:. s-im,- jL,i,m.-y {: :}f.- V>\..^rn.-. I .i.rllu,]. 
It is [ .... 

of ll. 

a HMMt lAbkinauii^ly 

: «iia<jUily Univ 

* It must be remcmbcrrd that nt the lime « 


" Such a hand as this was ibe hand ol Marchandim. 


Long and thin fingers arc usually those of diplo- 
matists, of deceivers, of card -sharpers, and of pick~ 
pockets. {Manual, ^ 135 — 141,] 

A tendency to theft is indicated by a flattened con- 
dition of the outer or nailed phalanges.'** 

Curiosity and indiscretion are the leading charac- 
teristics of persons whose fingers arc smooth and 
transparent. [Manual, % 153.] 

Smooth and conic fingers are an indication of 
loquacity and levity of mind. 

Strong and large-jointed fingers are a sign of pru- 
dence and of ability. [Manual, % 163.] 

To move the arms about violently with the fists 
clenched whilst walking is a mark of promptitude and 
of impetuosity. The habit of keeping the thumb 
hidden beneath the other fingers indicates a sordid 
and avaricious mind. [Manual, '\ 2 ^Z.y^ 

the murderer, whose atrocious crime struck Europe with 
horror in July 1885. A cast of the hand is preserved 
in the museum of anthropology in Paris, and a descrip- 
tion of it, with some cheirosophic notes, appeared in 
La Ripublique Fran^aise for 15th August, i88j. 

'" 1 do not know where M. d'Arpentigny can have 
found this interpretation of a spatulate (P) finger-tip. 
Compare " Manual, etc.." \ i6g. 

•" The mobility of the hand is not its least expressive 
property. It is, of all the parts of the body, the most 
movable and the most rich in articulations ; over twenty 
joints concur in the production of this multiplicity which 
furnishes its physiognomical character. It cannot help . 
denotiag the character of the body to which it is so 
nearly attached, of the temferamcnt, and consequently 
of the heart and of the mind," Gaspard Lavater, 
■■ L'Art deamnitiffe les Homines, etc. " (Paris : 1806), 



A PARTICVLAR system of education, applied enclu- 1MT. 
sivcly to a particular class of mind, often results in „2ri^ 
the perversion and abnegation of that intellect by its »ft^llfc 
possessor himself. How fortunate, therefore, are 
those whose intellectual aptitudes, having been ap- 
preciated and understood early in life, have served as 
a basis upon which their early training has been 
founded and buiti up. They become at once a happy 
fusion of the man who has Icami [i.e., the man of 
education], and the man of inborn faculties [i.e., the 
man of innate talgnt] ; thus they have two impulses to 
direct their Uvea which are practically one ; they come 
upon ih^ sti^ of life anned with ideas which they 
have acquired, and supported by an intelligence, by 
instincts which hannonisc with those ideas ; and, 
whilst those whose talents have been stunted by an 
jllugicaL form of education are constantly retarded 
and embarrassed by doubt, the former sub>ccts attain 
practically without effort the front rank in any pro- 
fession they niay take up. 

But how few young people there are who are suffi- 1 MM. 
cieutly fortunate to have been imdcntiHxi when they jJSI^^J^ 
were young enough to be guided in the path moM 
advantageous for them, and how few teachers of youth 
there are who are ready to abandon all sIctckA^^rA 


rules and methods, and to adopt a separate system for 
each individual genius: It would not be too much to 
expect this from a parent, but it is obvious that such 
an effort, generous as it must necessarily be, must 
always be beyond the venal soheitude of a stranger. 

If this volume has any value, it must lie, as I have 
before remarked, in the fact of its furnishing the 
means of recognising the physical signs [signs which 
1 think I have described with sufficient clearness] of 
the special bent of every man's individual intelligence. 
At eight years old, or even at six years old, a child's 
hand is sufficiently developed to render practicable 
the interpretation of its particular aptitudes and 
faculties ; whether he will be a man of contemplation 
or a man of action, whether he will affect the study 
of ideas, or the practice of actual things, I trust that 
my observations have placed me in the path of truth, 
and that the primary cause of unnatural and improper 
educations will now disappear. 

By the formation of a dog's foot you can tell for 
what particular kind of chase he is most fitted; by 
the shape of a horse's hoof you can tell what is his 
breed, and what qualities particularly distinguish him. 
In the same way, by esamining our hands with care, 
we cannot help recognising the fact that they sum up, 
as it were, the whole of our [ninds, and that the 
tracing, the diagram, as it were, they afford us of our 
intelligence, cannot fail to be an interpretation which 
is at the same time profound and true."*' It is in 
this sense, and not in the sense which is given to 

'" •' Every hand, in its natural state — />., without 
taking into consideration unforeseen accidents, — is in 
perfect analogy with the body of which it is a member ; 
. . . the same blood circulates in the heart, in the brain, 
and in the hand ! " Gaspard Lavater, " L'Art de 
connaltre les Hommes par la Physionomie " (Paris : 
1806), vol. iii., p. 1. 


il by the Chriromnnl?, that ye must interpret the 
rakbrated pMsa)!c frinti the Douk of Job sxxvii. 7 : — 
"In manu omiitum Deua signa posuit ui novcrint 
sLnguli upcra sta."'* 

NMurc, in endowing the whole monkey-lribc with .*[?« 
idcntiod instincts, hao equally rndowcH them with 
identical hands ; and whilst mentioning these aninisl 
imitators, I may iidd that jiij^lcr?, conjurers, mimics, 
and octurs have nc:arly all c^f ihcm, like the munkey, 
■patnbtc fingera. 

There is a nying to the effect that a man lias ^ i 
" hidden his |]lUInb^" which signifies thai he has ^ 
abdioMeict all strength of will to act for himiwlf. 

A young girl, in " giving her hand." yields up her 1 1 
liberty ; the man in the marriage ixrcmony doc* not "^ 

"* I have considered and disirussed this passago at 
tDBCh Ipngth on pp. 55-;B of •• A Afanual 0/ Chrira- 
s^pky." The (juotation which I have left in I^tin. as 

ca<:b man m*jf know fits (God'sl work*, 
miHt unforlunatc miMjuntatton oE ilic icit as It appears 
In the Vulifate, ** In manu omnium hctninum ngitat, 
ul auverint •ioguti opvn sua." which iranslatL>4: — 
"who signs [or sea/s"] the hani) o( t-vcfy man," etc. 
In our Authorised Vcriion the vetM- i» rrfwli-m}' — 
"He wialcth up thi- hand of pvi-n- tlm ill mrn 
may know Ilin work." or. iis tin (; rS 

it. " Thai aU men *hi.m He haid 

AByoor who will read thr (in 1 > ■ .-^ 

vencs (6 and S] will >rr that n i v 

or divination of any kind waa in ' I 

have ctted Uie leadmi; coinmtiw . n 

"A JL/tmma/, tt€." It h-i* -ili* - 

e fn" 

.:i.i l.-,l 

.■A ,. 

■ 1 

wlvidt •btMiitl be 


give his hand ; thus he does not swear obedience, but 
undertakes to protect 

Almost any verbal slander can be overlooked, but 
once a man has raised his hand against another the 
insult is past forgiveness. It is true that neither 
Diogenes nor Christ preached a doctrine such as this, 
but man is governed by rules which are other than 
those established by cynic or Divine utterances.'** 

The ancient Persians, as a sign of absolute submis- 
sion, kept their hands constantly hidden in the folds of 
their robes when in the presence of the king.*" ** 

"■ " And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek, 
offer also the other." — Luke vi. 29. " For ye bear with 
a man, if he smiteth you on the face." — -2 Cor, ni. 20. 
The passage of Diogenes to which I conclude our author 
refers, is the account of his celebrated remark to Anti- 
sthenes, which is thus rendered by M C. Zcvort in his 
'' Viesef Doctrines lies Fhilosophes , Dioginede Laerte " 
(Paris : 1847, vol. ii.. p. 11, book iv., c. 2). " One day 
Antisthenes threatening him with his stick, he [Diogenes 
Lafirtius) stretched out his head, saying, 'Strike on! 
you will not find a stick hard enough to drive me away 
from you when you are speaking-.' "• But Diogenes did 
not always show the same meekness to his assailants : 
on p. 35 of M. Zevort's book we find, " A man having 
jostled " him with a beam and cried ' Take care ! 
Diogenes struck him with his stick, ciying in turn 
' Take care ! ' " So that one of the author's illustra- 
tions is at least doubtful. 

"• We find a passage which tells us of this custom 
in the -Cyropadia," where we are told that Cyrus in 
the procession [alone] kept his hands outside his 
robes, t and the custom of concealing the hands in 
the presence of superiors obtains even to this day. 
Sir John Malcom, in his "History of Persia " (London : 

ES ♦IA020*IA, etc., B.^\. r., ^., \aytii-l,t.—DiJi>ft Editiim, 
p. 138. 

t XhnOphon, KTPOr nAIAEIAS fo^X. H'., i»«. 7.— "So* 
ol i-KifU Si rdrrtt wap^ar taTafiifiT)tiTi! diri Tui» i»x«r. iraj 
JwipijJiiJro fit X''P" ''* '■'**'' 'orSiJW, &<nrep •oi rOr fri iulfiouvir, 
Srar Jp? paa'>'*6i . . . 'Eij U n^rox. ^v aMt inriir wvXSr 
Wfiou 4ia\»(ro i KSpot . . . tAi Si ^raot f^w Tii» >;npllur «!]((." 


As a mark uf abnegation, to express the knowledge Y »& 
which wc instinctively possess ol' our weakness and hjmdT^rMjw 
of i)ur insignificance, wc clasp uur hands in praying to 
God.*** For, after all, what is a man if he be without 
hands ? ''"* 

Very little, according at any rale to the opinion of ^ jj7. 
Lysander, who pnt to death the Athenian prisoners i;">inBoffiii« 
captured at ^^os-Potami, because they had decreed 
that they would cut off the thumbs of all prisoners of 
war who should fall into their hands in the victory 
which they regarded as a certainty, •^ 

1X29, vol. ii.,ch. xxiii., p. (99), says, "Looks, words, 
the motions of the body, are all regulated by the 
strictest forms. When the kin^ is seated in public, 
his sons, ministers, and courtiers stand erect with 
their hands crossed." The custom is not mentioned 
by Brechillet Jourdain ["/.a Perse" (Paris: 1814)], 
but then- nr-,: many of mv readers who must have 
observed it amonjj the members of the suite during the 
visit of the Shah to Kurope in i87,{-4- 

■■ Among the Arabs the posture of the profoundest 
submission and respect is standing vkith the hands 

* It has often occurred to me that the Moslem 
attitude, i.e.. standing with the palms of the hands 
turned upwards, is the more appropriate and symbolical. 
When rvcitine the Fatihah [ihe opening chapter of the 
Qur'an], the nands are held in this position as if lo 
receive a blessing falling from heaven ; after which 
both pilms are passed down Ihe face to distribute it 
over the eyes and other organs of sense [Bl'KTON, 
*' Arahiati Xigh/s," vol. v., p. 80]. 

•■Compare ''A Manual of Cheirosophy, " ^ 5. 

■" H. d Arpentigny quotes Thucydides as his authority 
for this passage ; as a matter of fact, Thucydides never 
mentioned either I.y Sander or the battle of i^gos-Potaroi 
in his "History 0/ the Pe/i'/xinitesian War." It is 
Xenophon who gives us the account of Lysander having 
made this slaughter of Athenian prisoners, because 
they had decreed that, should they wm, all the prisoners 
they took should have their right hands cut off, 
Adimanlos only being spared, because he had opposed 


1 SM. It is the rtght, and not the left hand, which is raised 

hand in"uit law '" taking the oath in the law-court, because the right 
courM. hand, being the one of which wc make the most use, 
it affords for this reason a more perfect representation 
of our physical, intellectual, and moral worth, than the 
1 848. In like manner the foreman of the works, who over- 

A pvala. j,^1js the whole of the process of construction, is 
a better p>ersonification and representative of the absent 
master-builder than the labourer, who is employed 
only upon some secondary but exclusive task. 
5 aao. The hand of Justice, which figures among the 

H«nd in ih. insignia of our [French] royal families, is always a 
ofFranct. right hand.*** 

this horrible decree in the Assembly. — Vide "A Manual 
of Ckeirosophy," T 2Z.* 

"' This formality will have doubtless been observed 
by many of my readers who have frequented the courts 
of the " Palais de Justice." Until comparatively 
recently the custom obtained in this countiy, and in 
Scotland it is the practice to this day, to raise the right 
hand in taking the oath in court. " In taking a. great 
oath . . . the gods used to lift up their han£, as 
Apollo in the poet bids Lachesis ytifmt arartlvau 
Little thought he how the Scripture makes the like 
action of the true God in several places. Men, when 
they swore a great oath, laid downe their handes 
upon the altar as we do upon the New Testarhent, 
whereas in a lesse, or in a private oath, made to such 
or such man, according to the Roman fashion, they 
laid their hand upon the hand of the party to whom 
they swore. This ceremony, 1 remember, Menclaus in 
Enritides demanded of Helen besides the words of her 
oath'' [//f/<w,v.,834]. F. Rous, "-4/-c//..^//.," p. z;8. 

'" This emblazonment of the House of Orleans was 
unknown to me. I have, however, received a document 
on the subject from M. A. Daubr^e, Ex -President of 

• Xenophon, 'EAAHNIKON, B-jSX, B',. «*. d (ji):— "■£»■ 
raOSo 8*1 iDTiryoyji'ni i-,i-f>iaiTO xoXXoi ^i.v 'htrftalinr S. rt fS^ 
i-apoMf otiijirKraf loi S /i/nj^iaiiryM flr7a» rouit; il tpvHistiar rj 




When one feels o prMcntimcnt of the wrath of God, 
and of the appmarh of ihr chAstiscmcnt by which it 
will be inanifcsii;*!, une says, He is going to stretch 
forth His right hand, »>., He is going to strike with 
ioteUiitcnce and discernment.*'' 

We kiss the hand of a prince in token of our sub- 
misaion," that of a father or ofn protector in token of 
respect and grititudv, those of holy men in token of 
vencfMion, thoac of fair women in token of odora- 
dun; — aiid ail thU bernuc royutiy, paternity, sanctity, 
and bcanty are rcnl powere, and all real power has 
the attribute of enchaining and of subjecting indi- 

L*Inatitut de France, of which the tollowing is u tran> 
wdptand IrauHlatlun : " Ftum tfae muracot wtieo the 
Uuc d'Orteans ascended llie throne in August iHju, he 
retained for a few days ihi.- arm^ of hiN family, Ihjl in to 
say, three flcurs dc ly*. He soon comiderrd that he 
oagihllo adopt othrfg.- -the tables of the law upon an 
UCuti^heon, on i-tther side of which arc hannerii, and 
on one Hide ilie royat sceptre, and on the other /Ac 
UamJ f<f JuitK*. It is this latter which i« aright 
hand upraiicd. It cannot be laid that it forma part of 
tlM arras uf France ; it ia an accessory o( the escutcheon, 
ftccordlntc to the Manjiiis de FIcrt." — A. I)AriiK£i;. 
Thla Information was obtained Irum (he Marquis dc 
Fief), at preunt the hrad «f the Huute of Orleans. 

■" ■■ The sit-in); strength of His right hand."^P*alm 
a*, t. " Why drnwot Thou back Thy right hand !" — 
pHln Ukiv. II. "The tight hand of the Ij>rd docth 
valiantly,"— Psalm cxrl it ib. "When Thou iin-lcheU 
forth Thy hand lo heal."— Acts iv, jo, "Behold therefore 
I have strxtchrd forik J/y kaud lAtr thtr and fioft 
dtmimtiktd Iky food" — fiiek. ivi. i'j. " fherefor* 
ia the anger ot the Lord kindled against His people, and 
JVe hath ttrtUkfd forth His hand against them, and 
hath smilim ihnn.'^ — lxa. v. 15. crJi. A caM [:ollcctioa 
uf phrasei in which the oord "Maxl's" fieunrs syro- 
bobcaJly may be (oaod in Ducange's " itSossarsum 

Jtiitti^r rt Jnima Latimtatis " {Niori and I>ind«iB, er- 
188}). W>1. V. 
" Oim: of the oldest tributes of rcMiccI and uibmts* 
t recuedea by Xenw^hMtiin 

*riMt.- 1880. w>l. V. 
"■ One o*U 

l*«i!r sevecal instances r 


1[ MS. From Which data I deduce this maxim : that the 

ITd'^B^.^r^i'' hand is the symbol of all powtr. The study of the 
""'h^''d'^° hand has at some time or another engrossed the 
attention of every race of living men. 
^801 "Creatures which are passive," says Manou, "are 

^of Ma™!*'' ^^ natural prey of those who are active ; creatures 
without teeth are the natural prey of those which have 
those weapons; creatures who have no hands are the 
natural prey of those who have those members;""* 
and he continues to the effect that the part of the 
hand situated at the root of the thumb [which, as I 
have said, is the seat of reasoning will],*"* is con- 
secrated to the Vedas ; that the part consecrated to 
the Creator is at the root of the little finger [which 
being the finger of the heart is always pointed, 
because the heart is always more or less poetic, and 
consequently credulous] ; and that the part devoted 
to the lesser gods [probably looked upon as the 
symbols of action, as manifested in the arts, sciences, 
and liberal professions], is to be found at the tips of 

the seventh book of the Cyropaidia. ' F. Rous also, in his 
" Arcficn/nffirff Attica-" (London : 1685, p. 278), says, 
" It was cither this kissc, or a kisse of their owne hande 
which they anciently termed lahratum. I have read 
of a kisse of the hande when they did the reverence to 
the gods, with putting- the forefinger over the thumb 

' jL'rhaps upon the m'^ " ' "' ' '" " ' ' 

n the right hande, ; 

Compare with this note "A Manual, etc.," %\ 18 and 
iq. and notes thereto. 

■" This passage, which is implied by the order of 
creation and superiority laid down in the first lecture 
of Manu, may be found in the edition of "The Ordi- 
nances 11/ Manu '' cited in note *', p. 202. 

"• !-ide% i 88. 

Tou MLipov ii^tXiiitiTf. (SI w6.\tr in olir T^r rpoaiipiiQai ; " and tt 
little further on we are tolil of Gailatas ind liobrjas. " frtm Si 
Kvpeii KOii^ftouf lal x'^"' ">' iruJai, xoXXi Jloit()i}oi-T(t," etc.. 


the fingers.-** I did not know this explanation [in 
which 1 find the germs or my system] when 1 
established the bases upon which I started to write 
this book. 

Abd-el'Kader bears on his banner a red liand 5 a 
blazoned upon a blue field,*"* ^^\^ 

In Tripoli they hang a little metal hand upon all 5 a 
objects, such as temples, houses, or palaces, which 1^" 
they wish to preserve against the effects and influence 
of the evil eye. *" 

"* The best translation of this passage to cite as a 
commentary to the above is to be found in " Afanafa- 
Dkarma-Shastra. or, the Institutes of Manu," by 
Sir Wm. Jones (Madras: 4th edition, 18S0}, lecture ii., 
vers. 58 and 5^ " I^t a Brahman at all times perform 
the ablution with the pure part of his hand denominated 
from the Veda, or with the pan sacred to the lord of 
creatures, or with that dedicated to the j^ods; but never 
with the part named from the Pitris, The pure part 
[of the hand] undtr the root of the thumb is lallcd 
Brahma, that at the root of the little linger Kaya, that 
at the tips of the fingers DaH'a, and the part between 
the thumb and index Pitrya. 

" A red hand is a very favourite emblem of conquest 
in the East. A legend connected with this is a great 
favourite in Constantinople, and is thus referrMi to 
by Th6ophile Gauticr in his " ConstantinopU of To- 
day" (I^odon: translated by R. H. Gould : 1854):— 
" I sought in vain in St. Sophia for the imprint of the 
bloody nand. which Mahomet II., dashing on horseback 
into Uie sanctuary, imprinted upon the wall, in sign of 
taking possession as conqueror, while the women and 
maidens <t-ere crowded round the altar as a last refuge 
from the besiegine army, and eipccling rescue by a 
miracle, which dia not occur. This bloody imprint of 
the conqueror's hand— is it an historical fact or only an 
idle legend f " [pt 181.} 

"* A superstition which is not by any means confined 
to Tripoli. Ii is generally supposed to have had its 
origin in Naples, where, as a preservative against the 
jtttahira. a little coral or metal hand is in great 
request and favour, being either cast in the position 
known as the devil's horns, or in the position prescribed 
lor the invocattoo of the episcopal blessing \pid« \ \\ 


1267. The Turks, a nation essentially contemplative and 

jj^boiism* inert, have only been able to find in the hand a kind 
of rosary, of which the fourteen joints constitute the 
beads; God is represented by the entirety of the 
hand, and each finger represents one of the cardinal 
maxims : — e.g. : Belief in Allah and his Prophet, 
Prayer, Alms, Observation of the Ramadan, and the 
Hadj pilgrimage,"* 

1 868. Hands which are large, dry, wrinkled, very knotty, 

and pointed-fingered, irresistibly surest ideas of 
uncanniness and isolation, which are to the last 
degree unattractive. When hailstones, like an in- 
surgent mob, or like a tribe of gipsies striking camp, 
roll and dance about on the pavement in the 
streets, and on the sounding tiles of the roof, it is 
hands of this type which the benumbed sorceress 
strives vainly to warm, muttering beneath her cloak 
of owl feathers. 

% 269. For the hand has its physii^nomy like the face, 

'^ph^mrnT'' with this difTerenee, that as it reflects only the immut- 

compartd. able bases of the intelligence, it has all the permanence 

ante and "A Manual, etc," 5111 2.1 and 24]. The hand- 
charm most in use along the north coast of Africa has 
all its fingers extended ; a descripiion thereof may he 
found in Chas. Holme's recent "' Odd Volume Miscel- 
lany," No. r5 (London: 1886). 

'" Compare Al Qur'4n of Muhammad, chap, ji., in 
which these directions are all specified for the guidance 
of true believers. George Sale, in the Preliminary 
Discourse which precedes his translation of the Qur'^n 
(London: with a Memoir of the Translator: 1865), says 
m the 4th section: — "The Muhammadans divide their 
religion, which they call Islam, into two distinct parts ; 
Iman, i.e.,faifh, or theory ; and Din, i.e., religion, or 
practice ; and teach thai it is built upon five funda- 
mental points, one belonging to faith, and the other 
four to practice. The first is the confession of faith, 
that 'There is no God but the true God; and that 
Muhammad is His prophet ' . . . The four points relating 
to practice are: i. Prayer; 2. Alms; 3. Fasting; 4. 
the Pilgrimage to Mecca." 



vt « UMterbil symbol. i>" Mirmr ns it is or (lie suul, of 
the bean, of the mind, and of the spirit, the physio- 
goqmy of the face is endued with all the charms of 
vsri«ty, but lu it is, to a certaio extent, subject to the 
dictates of our will, the accuracy of its indications 
cannot be guaranteed ; whcrciis the physiognomy of 
Ihc hand always bears the stamp, whatever it may be, 
of our genius.*" "' 

There arc hands which naturally attract iis, and 
UwR are hands which excite in us repulsion. I have 
MCI) hands which »eemed covered with lyts, so 
sa^uloua and so penetrating was their appearance. 
Some, like those of the sphinx, suggest an idea of 
myMer>' ; some betray folly and strength combined 
with activity of body ; others ngnin indicate laxiness, 
joined to fcvblcnns aiid cunning.*" 

There are people who fancy they are serious, 
because they are of a lugubrious and miserable slate 
at mind ; there are others who, like the Abbi! Galinni, n 
resembling clocks which keep good time, but whose 

"• riiifA ifaaitai.e/c." % 7$. 

" " Patticalar hands cait only belong to partleulai 
bo<lie^. T)ii» i» e^sy enough to verily ; choosi- a hand 
tor an example, corap.^re it with a thousand others, and 
amid thii number tncre will not be a ainglc one that 
i:ould be mbatiiuted for the iirst. ... It is— ju»l a» 
mnch ai the other parts of the body— an object for the 
atlciitinn of phvriognomy ; an objri-t na much ihc more 
significant nod itnking from the fai.'Is that Ihc hand 
canoot disHrmble, andthat \Vi mobility betiayn it at 
every mumeat. 1 say thai it cannot dissemble. becauM 
the muni accomplithed hypocrite, the most experienced 
deceiver, could not .titer the forms of his hand, nor it* 
ootliocs, ptopnrtionR, or muscles, nor even of a fiart of 
it i hccould ant protect it from the ga/e of the obterrer. 
•ave by hMing it atlogelher." Gam-ard Lavaikk, 
" L'Art de tonnaltrt Its ffommti. ttt " (Paris 1 tSo6), 

txii. lit., p. I. 

" Compare also OeabarrolteB " l-ej Atyi/irtt He Im 
1," ijlh«da., pp. }I9— 4JI. 
" UlKllier in motion or io a slate of ro^oM Oa* 

VhuIUi ivlcUB 


striking apparatus is out of order, contradict the 
wisdom of their behaviour by the folly of their con- 
versation,*'* Joseph de Maistre fancies he is an ardent 
admirer of truth, whilst in reality it is power of 
which tie is so assiduous a votary. His mind is 
tike the tower at Pisa, grandly proportioned, solid, 
and crooked.^^ Again, ttiere are people who are 

expression of the hand cannot be misunderstood. Its 
most tranquil condition indicates our natural propen- 
sities ; its flexions, our actions and passions. In all its 
movements it follows the impulse given to it by the rest 
of the body. It attests, therefore, the nobility and the 
superiority of the man ; il is at the same time the inter- 
preter and the instrument of our faculties." — Lavateb, 
lac. cit. 

™ In this respect the celebrated Abb6 Galiani was a 
most extra ordinary contradiction. Engine Asse, in his 
" Lcdres de I'Abb^ Galiani avec tine Notice Bio- 
graphiqite" (Paris: 1881, vol. ii., p. xxxviii.}, "If 
Galiani was often a regular Neapolitan clown, he was 
also, and most often, a true fur'ow^, a profound thinker," 
etc. ; and in another plate he says (p. xxv.}: ■' L'Abbfi 
Galiani entra, et avec le gentil abbe, la gaiet6, la folic, 
la plaisanterie, et tout ce qui fail oublier les peines de 
la vie." His greatest friend, Grimm, said ofhim ; " it 
is Plato with the whims and the gestures of Harlequin " 
Correspondence Ltttiraire " (Nov''" 15, 1764), tome vi., 
p. 116. 

™ Joseph de Maistre was the Piedmontese ambassador 
to the Court of St. Petersburg. Finding that the 
philosophers of his day were attacking the Catholic 
religion, he entered the lists with enthusiasm as the 
defender and apologist of the See of St. Peter, and wrote 
in its defence his two books, " Du Fape " (Lyon : 1836), 
and " De I'Eglise Gallicane dans son Rapport avec 
It Souverain Pontif" (Lyon: 1837). Immediately 
he was violently attacked on all sides by the progres- 
sive wrilere of the French philosophical schools, and as 
many works were written m his defence as were written 
againsthim. M. du Lac, in his preface to R.deSezeval's 
•"■Joseph de Miiistre, ses Ditracteurs et son Ginie" 
(Paris: 1863), commences with the words : "Pendant 
de tongues ann^es les ficrivains du liberalisme se sont 
plu k repandre sur le nom de M. de Maistre la haine, 
fe ridicule, et le m^pris, .... sous quelques ineptes 


moral, not for the good of their soub, but for the 
pleasure of talking about it ; others there are who 
make the foibles of great men their particular study, ■^' 
all that they know of Vinctnt de Paul being that he 
cheated at cards. *'^ These, like Balzac, because they 
are of a subtle mind, fancy themselves spiritualists ,**** 
those affect concealment that they may preserve an in- 

sarcasmes n'ont-ils pas tcnll: d'ftouffur sa parole ct 
sa i^oite ? " M. d'AipentljipDy, whose whole work teems 
with liberalism of Ihc most pronounced description, 
would naturally follow in the wake of these dctractori, 
of a writer who wrote in defence of the most bigoted 
conservatiEm which it is possible to imagine. 

" " Note, Sancho," said Don Quixote, '■ thai wher- 
ever virtue may be in a high degree, there it is hunted 
down. Few or none of [he past but were calumniated 
of malice ; for examples : Julius Ciesar, most cou- 
rageous, most prudent," eti;,, ctc.^" Ifon Quixote" 
pt. ii., ch. ii. 

*■ I cannot conceive what our author is hinting at 
here ; Sl Vincent dc Paul has been cited by numberless 
authors as a model of all that is pure and good. I^uis 
Abelli, Hiehop of Kodei, cites many instances of his 
havin)( been calumniated, and of hiii imperiousness under 
the circumstances, but dues nut mention this particular 
blander.* and it is difficult to imagine a thing of the sort 
uf a man, one of whose most celebrated dicta was, 
" Gentlemen, let us pay as much attention to the ioterests 
of our fellow-men, ai^ to our own ; let us ,ict loyally and 
equitably, let us be straightforward" (Abelli, book iii., 
c. 17, p. 260J. M. Capefigue, also, in his work "SI. 
ViHtent ite Paul " (Paris: 1805, p. 9), says: — ■• What 
motive caused his sea voyage to Marseilles ( Some say 
that he had taken flight before an abominable calumny 
(the most holy men have always been calumnicd, etc.} ; 
—this may be the matter referred to in the text. 

' There is no doubt that Balzac was endowed with 
one uf the most subtle mental organisations that France 
has ever produced ; but throughout his life he fostered 
Ihc idea that it was in spiritual, intuitive writing that 
he excelled, and thought his " Comidtt Humaine and 
his " Cimiin Pons" vastly superior to such wonderful 
works as his " Illusions Ptriiues " which give us pcr- 

LoMbAbiU, EvaqDedeKadat Harts: 1664). U*. iU-. 9- 



[1 »r'J 

cognito, and disguise themselves that their faces may 

not become familiar. Hie hand will not reveal such 

shades of character as these 

\ 278. Of all the antique statues which are to be found 

ana iir^i& '" European museums, two only have reached us 

luiu. with their hands remaining, or rather with one hand 

remaining, on each. Without these precious relics 

we should be absolutely ignorant of the Greek 

standard of beauty as applied to the hand. As it is, 

we know that they required that it should be large, 

with strong smooth fingers, a large thumb, a medium 

palm, and square finger-tips. Such, at all events, is 

the single hand of the exquisite, statue of the son of 

Niobe, which one sees at Florence.^* 

1 273. The Greeks, surrounded as they were by barbarous 

•-"w™^- nations, and continually in danger of seeing their 

iireriEih. fragile and lightly-constructed republic overwhelmed 

by war, held physical strength in high esteem ; and 

with good reason. In the course of their education 

wrestling, racing, boxing, fencing, and swimming were 

held to be of equal, if not of more, importance than 

the training of the mind."* This being the case, their 

haps the best possible illustration of the subtlety of his 
imagination. Vide a[so Thfophile Gautier's '' Honori 
de Balzac" {VMis: 1859). 

™ It must he borne in mind that the above was 
written before 1841, and that since then excavations 
have brought to lignt many beautiful specimens of Greek 
statuary with their hands in their original conditions. 
At the moment, indeed, that ! write, the labours of Count 
Charles Lanfkorotiski are drawing to a close ; and the 
illustrations to his work, describing his discoveries of 
Greek statuary in Asia Minor, at Idalia, and in Rhodes, 
will show us many representations of Greek hands. For 
the rest, many such may be seen in the British Museum ; 
the statue cited above by M. d'Arpentigny certainly 
presents an exquisitely- model led hand, but 1 do not 
think it is necessary to go to the UfBzii Palace for an 
unique illustration. 

™ Perhaps the most complete and curious, and at the 
same time pedantic and diffuse epitome of the educa- 


idea of beauty was tiAturaliy difTcrcnt to what ours 
is, seeing Ihat we are not threutened by the »mc 
dangers as they were, that we make use almnst 
cjKlusivcly of projectile wcapuns, which arc easy of 
manipuUtiDn, and Ihat, bruugtil up in the ft>cua as it 
were ot spiritual Christianity, we are surrounded by 
Christuui and civilised nations hlie ourselves. 

Foffetfulncss of self, and calmness in danger, arc 
to-day more necessary to nur soldiers even than 
phyaical atrcngtli and bravery. 

Large Itands, particularly if they be hard, are a 
•ign of physical strcngtb, and as the Greeks could not bi|«'i 

lion of Greek youths is Fnocls Rous' " ArchmUigia 
AUkte Lihri Sr^ttm " (Oxford : 16,^8). The training 
uf children wa*. of cour*c,rciydiffcrcnt in different state* 
of Gtnce : ibuii, for iii&tance, in Sp.irU babies wete 
But •'ruppcd in cwadilling clothes, the prime ubiect 
bninjc lo harden ibe body of the youajr warrior against 
the inHuoncc* of pain and cxenion. Among the Uoric 
Iribe* it wai. therefore, customary to expose weakly chil- 
dnro In aooie open place, when, if tney were strong 
enough to bear the test, they were brought up either by 
their parmts, or by anyone who would rescue them from 
Ihe eipr.'.iiri- Thu ^vM\-'^ I U'J " much Irngth 
byR. I- ■ ■ ■■ : M f.intum"j! 

and t -.1 tcteri in 

the she also 

didiM ■ in-pipiis'il 

and mpi'ct to thcit i^ldi-rs 
(wionpallyol Ictlcri. mutiii 

• TV Grttt TrtM TIUMn" 


conceive beauty without strength, a large hand was 
to them a great beauty, following the same analogy 
which with us accounts Tor the fact, that to us a 
small hand is the most beautiful by reason of the 
greater delicacy of mind which it reveals. It is, of 
course, a matter of common knowledge that the 
Greeks, whatever their station in life, never rode 
when they might walk, did their own cooking, and 
otherwise i>erformed a great deal of manual labour 
which would to-day be looked upon with aversion 
and contempt. They performed these labours not 
only without repugnance, but even with pleasure, by 
reason of the inherent love of detail which, as I have 
said, is the special attribute of large hands.*'* From 
all of which facts 1 gather that in Greece, not only at 
the time when princes tended the flocks, and princesses 
washed their own linen, and when the clergy excelled 
in the professions of butcher and baker, but even in 
the time of Pericles, large hands were abundant, 
l^i^e hands whose palms are of a medium develop- 
■ ment prefer that which is finished and exquisite, to 
that which is grand and large. The Greeks only 
founded small states, and erected no monuments of 
remarkable size.*'' 

™ The principal occupations of the men being, as I 
have indicated in the last note, of the more active and 
virile description, it is in the manners of the women that 
we notice principally the simplicity of which our author 
speaks. " The chief occupations of women, beyond the 

freparing of meals, consisted in spinning and weaving. 
n Homer we see the wives of the nobles occupied in 
this way ; and the custom of the women makmg the 
necessary articles of dress continued to prevail, even 
when the luxury of later times, together with the 
degeneracy of the women themselves, had made the . 
establishment of workshops and places of manufacture 
for this purpose necessary. Anti^jue art has frequendy 
treated of tnese domestic occupations." — E.GuHL and 
W. KoNEK, Op. cit., p. 186. 
^ it is difficult to say whether in this 


In Paris, notwithstanding their enormous hands, 5, 
the Flemish journeymen-tailors are immensely sought "^ 
alter, on account of the fineness of their work. 

Redout^, our celebrated flower painter [a school 5 
of painting naturally minute] had great big hands fla««r 
like a bricklayer. He used to laugh at the innocence 
of provincial [mk^IS and journalists, who, arguing by the 
delicary of his work, used to compare his fingers to 
those iif Aurora, "scattering roses as he went."'* 

Now, little hands, on the contrary, affect not only f 1 
the large, but the colossal; in fact, one is inclined ^^ 
to come lo the conclusion that everything must be 
ordered in obedience to the laws of contrast It Is 
towards the dwarf that the giant is irresistibly 
attracted, and in like manner it is by the giant that 
the dwarf is invariably fascinated. The Pyramids, xhe P 
the temples of Upper Egypt, and of India, have all '"^ 
been built up by people whose staple comestibles 
have been rice, gourds, and onions, that is to say, by 
the people who are the most delicate, and whose 
hands are the most delicate in the world. These 
hands were small and narrow, spatulatcd and smooth, 
as is evidenced by the representations of themwhich 
we find in the contemporary bas-reliefs with which 
these structures are nrnamenteti. 

d'Arpentigiiy refers to the fact that the Creek nation 
consisted of many small slates, each n-ith its sci>arate 
(i^overnment, and «*> im, but united by community of 
race and reli^i'tn ; iir that the Greek colonies consisted 
only of towns round the shores of the Mediterrane.m, 
with but small possessions attached to them. 
A);ain, the author must have overlooked the Parthenon 
and the other majestic buildings uf the Acropolis. 

■" Joseph Redout^, bom in 17,S9, was a celebrated 
flower painter attached to the court of Louis XVI. tie 
waa known as "le Raphael des Fleurs." and died at 
Paris in 1840. f'/'/c Oh. IK-zobiy and Tli. Baehelet's 
•■D»itit'HMuire dr Hingraphic el d'/Iiitoirt" il'aris: 
18^7). and "Aitnales dt ta ^KiiU" ^tome siu-V 
" Notice mr J. RedouU." 


The sculptor Pr^ult, having a small thumb and 
smooth fingers which are dehcately spatulated, pro- 
ceeds entirely by enthusiasm and inspiration ; and 
as his hands are very small [for a sculptor], ample 
proportion, power, and energetic treatment are more 
important to him than exact measurements and 
grace;**' his sculptured horse on the bridge known 
as the " Pont de Jena " seems from his springing 
position to carry away with him the whole block 
from which he was carved ; it is not so much a 
prancing horse as a rock. 

Balzac, with his large conic hands, liked to count 
the fruit on the espalier, the leaves on the hedge, the 
separate hairs in his beard; he took a delight in 
physiological details, and might have invented the 
microscope had it not been invented before he was 

Madame Sand, whose hands are very small, excels 
'^_ especially in psychological developments ; her very 

™ Auguste Preault, the sculptor [b. 8th October, 1809 ; 
d. 1 ilh January, 1879], of whom a most minute and 
interesting account may be found in Ernest Chcsnau's 
" Penitres et Sfatiiarr-es Romantigiies" {'P^ns: 1880, 
p. ii9,"AuguslePri'ault"),hasbeendescribedas the Dore 
of sculpture. Weird, morbid, fantastic?and enormous, his 
work Bceins to have been thereRection of his intellectual 
organisation, which his biographer describes as " ner- 
vous as a woman, sensitive, and impressionable." On 
p. 119 he says, " There exists apreciouscast of the right 
hand of Preault. It is remarkable for its smallness and 
the elegance of its proportions. By the absence of 
developed joints, and the fineness of the phalanges, 
Dcsbarrolles, the cheiromant, would recognise rapid 
intuition ; the short, thick, spatulate thumb is that of a 
man of action ar.d of stubborn will ; in the confused and 
multiplied hnes of the palm we recognise the fatal im- 
print of a destiny doomed to the agitation of a continual 
struggle [" jJ/tf////*//," ^ 421] ; the line of art deeply 
tr.iced, and the Mount of Jupiter high in the hand" 
{^'Manual," HH 429, etc., and 614, etc.]. 

" Honor^ de Balzac was very proud of his hands. 


details are immense ; in tike manner she might liavc 
invented the telescope. 

There arc laws which seem to be ctjuitnble, but 
which are not so in reality; the law of conacription , 
is one of these. Tlic duties, the nccrssiiirs imposed 
by it, light aind ca^y fur spalulatc and larce-palmed 
lumds,Bre overH'hdming for conic and pointed hands, 
more especially so if they arc also soR. What does 
it matter to hands which have a large hard palm, 
that the barrack rooms ore hideously bleak and bare ; 
that the life of the camp is brutalizing in its monuton- 
ou» stnthriilncss ; what lo them is the coarseness and 
the inalpidiiy of the food, the passive obedience and 
the aiitomatii: life 7 What do xhey matter to hands 
tlial are spatulate, with a large thumb, these eternal 
exavaa, the ihonolunous activity uf the work o( 
mines, tunnels, and trenches, and the everlasting 
agitation of the 't wren -decks ? But this same noise, 
tbesr scenes, these laliour^ are ineihanstible sources 
of moral and physical anguish for souls whose out- 
ward and visible signs arc handu which are narrow 
and pointed. 

And what shall we say of the Indian laws which 
campd A son to t|ke up and fallow the same handicraft 
aa hii (atbcr ? Is it nut obvious that the legislature 
would do better lo order that men whose hands — that 
b h) say, whose implements of labour — are identical, 
should adopt identical pi^rsuits ? '*> 

T1)Ao)Aile Gautier, ia bia" ffonoreiie Ai/wf" (Pari* : 
iSj<t], tell* us Tp.i il : " We remarked hU hand*, which 


oJ prcjurti'i- :ii,'jin-i 0\'>^<- whip--- 
\ wanting in delicacy." Campare n 
* - rSfr note -. p. 185. 

■. p. >v^. 


But, tyrannous and unnatural as is such a law as 
this, it is not more so than the one that in our own 
country makes property the sole qualification for 
electoral franchise. It is a matter of common know- 
ledge that fortune is more quickly and surely acquired 
by the exercise of manual skill, and of physical forces 
and activity, than by the pursuit of science, and the 
practice of mora/ forces and activity ; and the result is, 
that this franchise is nothing more than the oft-told 
story of the predominance of interest over principles, 
of industry over art, science, and philosophy ; the 
superiority of working over thinking hands. 

For many years past ihe university of Caen, an 
institution notable for its eminent professors, has har- 
boured among all the persons it employs one single 
elector,— the gate-keeper ! 

It is not right that it should be thus; nor would it 
be right if the contrary were Ihe case; for universal 
life is not to be governed simply by exalted and 
philosophic ideas; it has to be directed also by the 
common and vulgar ideas of which big spatulate hands 
have a far clearer perception [even though their 
intelligence is limited to this alone] than those more 
finely cut types among which all kinds of high-flown 
ideas and colossal schemes abound. We must hear 
what each has to say ; so-called " representative 
governments," in which every primordial instinct 
requires — for its development and for the defence of 
the interests of which it is the fundamental principle — 
to satisfy conditions which arc unnatural to it, are 
" representative " in name only. Man is a creature of 
mixed composition ; he has a soul and he has a body, 
and both the agencies which support his body and 
those which support his soul must be equally attended 
to. There can be no valid reason for debarring 
either of them from taking part in the mental debates 
which have for their nbjeet the physical and moral' 



advantages nnd improvement of rhc man. Certain 
things then: are whidi can only be well done by 
hands, and with instnimcnis, which arc homdy and 

; and again, there are certain others that can 
only be perfected with the most finished and delicate 

One can cut paper better will) n wooden 
knife than with a blade of goU ; one oki only 

fine stones with highly tempered implements 


Tn Hie United Slates, where they appreciate the 
value oTwYiodcn p«pcr-knives [i>., of ordinary minds], 
■od of steel instruments [i.f., of sohtle intelligences], VauJ Suio. 
bath arc equally called upon la direct the condurt of 
public afliitn ; and what has been the result of this 
co-operation within the space of a half i^nltiry even ? 
Tlie Well-being of the individttdl and the prosperity of 
the cuininunity, moral greatne&s, and material power, 
— Invincible proo6i tliat as regards government, and 
the due appreciation nf human lacultics, the people of 
the United States are on the right road. 

There an? truths which apply equally to all the 
typca of humanity, there are uthen again whidi 
appeal only tv particular classes and communities. 
"nK- flrsl unite mankind upon a common ground, 
the second divide them into separate dosses ; from 
which we deduce Utc necessity of toleration, and tlie 
duty of IKK looking askant upon the good fortune of 
Others. We inusl endeavour to appreciate the good 
points even of those whom we endcavotir in vain 10 
unlcntand ; evtn if merely from motivi-s of cunusiiy, 
fur appreciation will <i(tcn lead to an uivderstanding. 

I have as yet made but little progress with my 
subject, and I have already repealed roj'setr many ! 
times; but 1 have done so intentionally. Otw has to 

" A romfnentary to the French and Italian provetba ^ 
" A gens de village iromtictte du hot*," and " 
'A dMo da viUano." 




impress a new idea in much the sa 
teaches a foreign language ; the words, the idioms, 
and the principles of grammar must, be frequently 
remembered and repeated, so that the ear may become 
accustomed to them, and the mind may become 
familiar with them.*^ 

1 pass now to the description of the various types. 

™ " Iterations are commonly loss of time. But there 
is no such Gaine of Time, as \a iterate often ^k State of 
the Question : For it chaseth away many a frivolous 
Speech as it is coming forth."— F. BACON, " Of Dis- 
patch," 628. 


«6e «leinentatp V-nt. 





»"' ft. , 




Fingers big and wanting in suppleness, the thumb 

short and turned back [as a rule], the palm extremely 1"^. 

big, thick, and hard [this last is their most prominent 

and characteristic peculiarity]. 

In Europe they undertake manual labour, the care ^M. 
of stables and the long programme of coarse work, ^J^ f^^" 
which may be carried out by the dim flickerings of 
the light of instinct, — to them belongs war, when 
there is no personal prowess called into requisition ; 
to them belongs colonisation, when it is merely a 
matter of mechanically watering (he soil of a foreign 
land with the sweat of the labouring brow. Shut in 
on all sides by material instincts, they attach no 
importance to political unity, save from the physical 
point of view. Their convictions arc formed in a 
groove, which is inaccessible to reason, and their 
virtues are generally those of a negative description. 
Governed as they are by routine, they proceed more 
by custom than in answer to their passions. 

in those of our provinces in which these hands I.***- 
abound, as for instance in Brittany and in La 'o.^^H^I'mJu 
Vendue, instinct and custom, which are the bases and " "« !«>"■« 
mainsprings of genius in the country, preponderate 
over reaaon and the spirit of progress, which lattei kr 


[1 =94j 

the bases and mainsprings of genius in towns. In 
the provinces manual labour is more honourable than 
professional skill. 
T 888. Beware of seeking such climes as these, O you 

Gypiio. who love the ornamental sides of life, silken shoon, 
and the tinkle of the guitar at night beneath the 
flower-laden balcony ; the races with sallow com- 
plexions and flowing locks, with melancholy faces 
which peer from beneath huge drooping hats, who 
have left [he print of their footsteps in this gloomy 
country, upon commons decked with the soft green 
tulis of the broom, and have left behind them nothing 
more valuable than the Homeric luxury of the cabin 
of Eumseus.*'^ 
^ 396, Strangers to anything like enthusiasm, elementary 

,,.pf, hands indicate feelings which are heavy and sluggish 
in rousing themselves, a dull im^ination, an inert 
soul, rfnd a profound indifference. They were much 
more common among the people of Gaul when the 

"■ " But Ulysses found Eumieus sitting in the portico 
of his lofty dwelling, which was built in a beautiful and 
spacious position for the accommodation of his swine, 
out of stones which he had carried thither, and he 
had crowned it with sloe bushes. And outside he drove 
in stakes at frequent intervals, and inside he made 
twelve styes for the swine close to one another. . , . 
And having brought him (Ulysses) in, "he made him 
rest upon a great thick couch of rushes and wild goat's 

• " Ibv i' Up' M itpoio^if tip' fipjmr, ItBa ol ai\^ 
'Tif/rjXii i^SnijTo, mpurtiiTif M X'-'PV 
KiiX4 "• luyi'^v Tf, wiptSpofu/f lif |)a irv/Si^irt 
A^it ^etfiad' tkfftrii'. i/rtuX'^"*^ dk'OJTTOT 
N4<r*ii' itenolrri^, nal Ao^jn-ao yipouTin, 
■PuTolair Xdtffoi, etc., etc. 

'ill tlwiir ivipvuif tI Bh S'ipa oI ropii frfit 

■Evfl' 'OSurrotili itaWXfvr"- (wi it x\a?«f pAXir abrv 
Iliiii-iii' lai itCfiXip', 4 ol TopiXiviuT' itieifii,t, 
'ErrvfeiH, Srt rii x"^'^ (xwayXoi UpotrB." 

HOMUR, " Oiyssty," bk. liv., II, s-!0, 518-53]. 



reindeer and the beaver found in it an atinosphere 
congenial Ut their organisations, than they are in the 
present day. 

Among the Laps they arc in an immense majority, 
for they e!K«pc the inherent evils of the polar 
ladtudcs by their absolute inertness. 

Organs which are prsclically insensible can only 
convey Imperfect ideas to the brain. The uuler, is 
nercly the reflection of the inner man. As is the 
body, so is the mind, and mV( vfrsd, 

tn the East Indian Empire, (he country of gold and 
ofailk, a falntsed clime in which the earth, bathed in 
the raya of the tropical sun, bursts every year into 
t>lentifal han'csts, the legislature, in the interests of a 
oommunity cnmposed nf dreamers, of poets, and of 
cnthusiasis, lias been obliged to counteract the com- 
plete absence of the elementary type, — of the tyjjc by 
wliicfa in the north the trades of street porter, biitclier, 
•kinneft tanner, roof cleaner, and scavenger arc without 
the IcBst repugnance generally followed. lite Pariah 
who with us is a natural instiiution, is in ficngal 
■ legal unc, i.r., is the artificial proiluct of a political 
amuigemenL There is no doubt that wilbout the 
moni degradation, systematically encvurngcd by the 
law in a considerable class of the iMpuIation, the 
trades which 1 have just enumerated, abject but useful 
aa they are, would in India (tnil no bands to talce 
them uppn them^elvrr".*" 

" C ■■ ir urn the Pariah race 


1^ 800—308. "The name Soudra " (or Pariah), say the laws of 

^^)^ ' Manou, " signifies by the first of the two words of which 

it is composed ad/ed servility, and by the second 

^801. " Poric by the smell which it exhales, the dog by 

his look, and the Soudra by his touch annuls the merit 
of the most holy act. [Lect. iii., vers. 178-9.] 

^808. "Though a Soudra may be freed by his owner, he 

is not delivered from a state of servitude, because 
servitude being his natural condition, who can exempt 
him from it 7 [Lect. viii., ver. 414.] 

5 808. " By the law a Soudra cannot hold possession of any 

property in his own right ; everything which is his be- 
longs by right to his owner. [Lect. x., ver. 124, et seq.'\ 

5 S04. " If any one attempts to instruct a Soudra In Holy 

Writ he is without doubt everlastingly damned. The 
pulpit, the sword, the palette, commerce, and agricul- 
ture arc all alike forbidden ground to the Soudra. 

^306. "When a king permits a Soudra to pronounce a 

judgment before his face, his kingdom is thrown into 
as dire a stale of distress as a cow in a morass. (Lect. 

recent volume, " //iniiu Tribes and Cas/cs " (Calculti : 
1881, viil, iii., chap, iv., p. 130), says: "They are 
rcji-irdi^d by the Brahmins as defiling their presence, 
and [ire nol allowed to dwell in lillages inhabited by 
Hindus, but live in their outskirts. . . . They arc a 
dark-skinned raec . . . intensely ignorant and de- 
ba.sed. . , . The Madras Presidency contains nearly 
five millions." I'nder Hiitish rule in India the lower 
castes .'in.' for the most part frte to act as they choose, 
so the I'ariahs perform many of the sordid occupations, 
which no high caste Hindu could undertake. 

™ l.ect. ii., vers. .ji-,}2. M. irArpentiguy has quoted, 
I find, from the " MiiitiVit-Dharma-Sasfra ; Lois ile 
A/inioa, trailiiiles liii Sairsi'ri/e'' par A, I^oiseleur 

io/Mahu" ^London : 1884). Videa< 


" ir a Soudra dare (o place himself beside a 
Brahmin he is branded upon the hips, and forthwith 
banished, or at least the king must order his flesh to 
be gashed upon the hips. 

"Tlie king must sentence a Soudra who has dared 
to advise a Brahmin on a point of duty, to have 
boiling oil poured into his mouth and ears. 

"With whatever member a Soudra strikes a 
superior, that member must be mutilated. Thus he 
will have his tongue cut out for slander, etc."*" 

And so on ad infimlutH. 

Excepting in polar latitudes, real elementary hands 
are no longer to be found, save among nations of. 
Tartar or Sclavonic origin. Among the latter races, 
however, they exist in huge quantities, and in some 
localities they are to be found without any admixture 
of the more nobly endowed types. I have lived in 
the reeking huts of these peoples, devoted, like the 
solid-ungulous animals, to an eternal serfdom,'^ and 1 
have found them to be as dead alike to all condition 
of happiness or of misery as the lower animals, 
with which they share their squalid habitations. In 
war they are signalised by a brutal and ferocious 

■• Concerning the condition of the Soudra [or ^'udra] 
Madame do StaJ^l has written :^" I read continually a 
few pages of a book, entitled 'La Chaumitre Indienne.' 
I know of no more profound study in practical morality 
than the picture of the condition of the Paria, — of this 
man of an accursed race, abandoned by the whole 
universe, crying by night among the tombs ; causing 
horror lo his ^How-men ttithout having by any fauK 
deserved this fate, the refuse of this world into which 
he has been cast by the gift of life. There we have 
'a man literally thrown upon his own 
ving creature interests himself in his 
e ; there is nothing left for him but the con- 
templation of nature; and she satisfies him."^"De 
rinfluence des Passions." " iBuvrn Completes de 
Madame de Stail" (Paris : 1836), vol. i., p. 167. 

* Vid* notx ■■, p. lu. 



5810. Such must have been the Huns, those barbarians 

Kuni. whom nothing could rouse from their brutal apathy, 
save the spectacle of great cities in flames, or that of 
their droves of horses galloping in hideous confudon 
with the bodies of their victims hanging from their 
neclts, tied by the hands to their manes-^"* 

ISll. Such were the hands which in Gaul substituted the 

hindTi^^L ordeals by fire, and by water, for the formulas of 

the accepted jurisprudence, — methods of investigation 

well adapted to their intelligence and to their physical 


^31S. "As uncivilised as they were unclean, the Lithu- 

' anians, in the time of Tacitus, had neither arms nor 
horses, nor even huts. For sustenance they relied 
on the herbs of the earth ; for clothing, on the skins 
of animals; and for resting-places the earth itself 
Their sole means of existence were their arrows, 
which, in default of iron, were barbed with sharpened 
bones ; men and women alike followed the chase, and 
shared its spoils. To protect their children from wild 
beasts and from the inclemency of the weather, they 
put them to sleep among the interwoven branches of 
™ " The numbers, the strength, the rapid motions, 
and the implacable cruelty of the Huns were felt and 
dreaded and magnified by the astonished Goths, who 
beheld their fields and villages consumed with fiames, 
and deluged with indiscriminate slaughter." Gibbon's 
" Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," chap. 26 
[iii.). The whole of this section of Gibbon is full of 
instances illustrative of the coarseness and barbarous 
cruelty of the Huns. 

"*" "A far more remarkable and permanent super- 
stition was the appeal to heaven injudicial controversies, 
whether through the means of combat or of ordeal. . . . 
It does discredit to the memory of Charlemagne that 
he was one of ils warmest advocates " (Baluzii " Capitu- 
laria," p. 444).— H. Halijvm, "A View of the State 
of Europe during the Middle Ages" (London ; 1853), 
vol. iii., p. 294, chap, ix., pt. i. The recourse to the 
trial by ordeal was prohibited, we are told by Bouquet 
[lorn* j.\., p. 430"), by Louis If Debonnaire, but traces of 
the institution lingered as late as the eleventh century. 

F »: 


305 ^H 

n youth, 





trees. This wm Uieir lirei resting-place ii 
tbdr lut rctmt in old agc."**^ 

One can imagine to oneself the sort of hands which 

such a cliinatc an theirs such habits of life would 
lead one lo niipposc they possessed. 

Still, the influcnci? of such liands was a iastliig one, a 
bci which may be inferred from some of the laws which 
were >till in force in the fourteenth century. Such, 
for instance, as that one which ordainiHl that slanderers 
■hoold be condemned to remain on nil fours and bark 
like a dog for the space of an hour, or that olticr which 
decreed that the man who waa convicted of having 
feasted on a fast day should have his teeth broken. 

In our ci]unlr>- it is to quaai-elcmcntnry hands Ihni 
one owes the existence of those gardens beloved by 
bees ; gardens filled with thyme, and with vegetables ^^_ 

straggling! anioing wallflowers and violets, where the ^^H 

wslcrcresaes lie in the running stream ; where the ^^H 

blMchbfrd warbles in the hedge ; where everything ^^H 

flmn^shes and rvjoiccs beneath the smiling sky ^SU. 

To Ihcm do we owe the \-illages that we see, ■'^" *>"■•" 
perfiuned with stnw, and with ilic aroma of the 
cattSe-stall, where all day long one may sec huge 
luten vnndehng about Uic roads, where at cv^cry 
rrMs-road In front of a spangled niche, the votive 
kmp of siHnc gulden-shued and scarlet-checked saint 
raises its feebte glimmer; rustic communities whose 

*" Thii IB ii i'.-i--Jk;<.* uken from the concludioe words 
aliU, ! . ■ifTaciim'lxmk. -/Jf^iw-iAwj 

firt ' kU in the origiaa.! ; " Fennis 

mii.i : < 'tas : non arma, non euui. non 

pen:i: .. vi'ilitui |i>:1l<'<. i nbilr hjtnu!! ; 

tola in «.ii.-:iii- ijvi-. 'juns. in.!]" > ; i-'- 

rani. tilciiu)uc renatui. viro* p-^ t. 

Fasaim enim coroitantur. pancn 
Nee aliwl infantibua (eratum im < n. 

Quam ut alM|uu ramoruRi neiur.onk|i..>Mii.<i hm. t.>..>iiii 
jiivcnH,lKK ■titucn rcceptaculam." 


distinguishing features are the tavern, the row of lime 
trees, and the dove-cot.' 

The original manners and customs of the Turks, 
a nation of mid-Asiatic origin, have hardly received 
any modifications from time, and we shall presently 
see the reason of this. Given over entirely to fatalism, 
,and, therefore, to absolutism, they prefer [by reason 
of a hankering after the liberty of the pristine savage] 
an arbitrary and absolute form of government, whose 
action may be termed intermittent, to a government 
which is regular, and whose action is consequently 
continuous.**' They are ruled to-day, as they have 
been in past ages, exclusively by instinct, looking 
upon instinct as a gift of God, as if reason was not 
also a gift of God. They look upon instinct, in fact, 
as the only infallible guide of human conduct. They 
fancy, with their vacuous solemnity and gravity, that 
it is a fitting substitute for everything, — study, reflec- 
tion, experience, and science.*" The prime favourite 

"' ''The Turks, governed by the principle of fatalism, 
have much of the passive immobility of Ihe animals 
themselves."— Theo PHI LE Gautiek, " Consianiinopie 
of To-day," translated by R. H. Gould (London : 1854), 

■" " One cannot long reside in Turkey without being 
made aware of the fact that the entire fabric of Mussul- 
man society is founded upon the Qur'in, which claims to 
be of Divine origin, and, therefore, unalterable. . . . 
It may well be called a body politic, constructed after 
the pattern of the Middle A^es. struggling for continued 
existence amid the blazing light of the civilisation and 
knowledge of the nineteenth centuiy." — Murray's 
" /Jandoook /vr Travellers in Constantinople" (Lon- 
don : 1871 , Introduction, p. 30). Of all writers who have 
discussed and criticised the Turkish character, none 
have given to European readers a better account than 
the author of " Stamboul and the Sea of Gems" 
(London : 1852) ; and Edmond de Amicis, in his volume 
" Cons tan t/nople" [translated by Caroline Tilton 
(London : 187^, p. 127], gives agraphic account of the 
incomparable mdolence of Ihe Turk. "They look," 
says he £p. 134]," like philosophers all bent on the same 
thesis, or somnambulists walking about unconscious of 






of the civlliting Sutlan Mahinoiid,*" Arhmct Vevxt f"^™"^ '* 
ParitB. had bewi lii turn eobbltr, coll'i^tf-liuuse-lcerper, 
vnier-earrirr, bnatman, juid probably thr intimate 
friend of every stray dog in Uic Imperial city,*** when 
Mahmoud, struck by his prepossessing appearance, 
took it Into his head lu iruilcc him his pipc-bcarer ; 

ibc pl&ce they are In, or the objects about them. They 
have a look in thcJr eyes as if they were contemplating 
a distant hnriton, and a vague sadncsi hovers round 
(be noiilh like people accustomed tu live much alone 
and shut up within themselves. AJI have tlic tuime 
gravity, the same composed manner, the satne reserve 
of Uneuatce, the same look and gcsiurc." 

"* Mahmoud II., who is .-ilwnvs known at the " Re- 
former o( Turkey." wai the fother of Uie two late 
Sultans, AImIxI \U-dJld ami ATidul Aziz. To him are due 
all the reforms which have taken pUce during ihc 
procnl ccniury. And to him bclon^'s ihc fami? «( tlic 
WDrld-knowo estetrninaiion of the lanissaiies in the 
El-neidAD f Meat -market 1 in i8a6. We find on p. 434 
ol Jacob's T'' vartorutn] '• History 0/ Ihf Ottoman 
Empire" (Ixindon: 18^4} a full catafoeuc of his reforms. 
"Tn« rciKu of Sultan Mahmoud II., say the authon, 
" wu thi; must evi-ntful in every way thut has occurred 
in (he Mstory of the Oduman Empire since the com- 
mencerncnt nf thr pti's.-nt century, and that he and the 
jBvrt- ,-'-'-■ - > ' hi ministers" \natahly I/taiein 
/*it, ■ ■ I that impulse to Che Turkish 

mini! .'I'lofs are being *o conspicuously 

aB.i: : (1 . Arhmet l-'evii wai not the 

onlj t .-- 'li railed to hi);li dignity by 

Malim<.-ud II. Kiu Pailia, who was tlie favourite alike 
o( Mahmoud. of the Sultana \Valid6. .ind of Abdul 
Medjid. was urigin.-illy a srocer's boy in the spice- 
bouat. In theory irvery Moslem is equal. Compare 
bIki B. Poujoulal, " VoyagtAConslanttnopU" (Parts: 
ifl^o) vol. i.. p. ai9. 

"* '* Constantinople is an immenie dog kennel ; the 

dogs CODSlituIe A >':>.oiitI pMpii1.i[i<>ii y>X Vt-; (1T1, less 

nunscmas, t>»T ...-->- ^, 

body knows ) < 

1 do not kai"i > 

towards all > i> n 

bocaosc, bkc • • . : ^ i"-- 

bringiers of guu>l [uiiuati, uc Lccitiac ihi: pruplitt luted 
them, (W because the sacred books speak of tliiMiv.oi 


from this he became overseer of the harCm, after 
which he was gazetted a colonel of the guard, and sent 
as ambassador to St. Petersburg. To-day sees him 
admiral-pacha of the fleet '^ What a skilled mariner 
he must make [i838].»« 

because, as some pretend, Muhammad the Victorious 
brought ID his train a numerous staff of dogs, who 
entered triumphantly with him through the breach in 
the San Romano gate. The fact is, that they are highly 
esteemed, and that many Turks leave sums for ttieir 
support in their wills." — E. de Amicis," ConstanftnopW 
(London: 1672), p. 108. Compare the passage in the 
sixth chapter of the Qui'dn : " There is no kind of beast 
on earth, nor fowl which flieth with wings, but the same 
is a people like unto you ; we have not omitted anythingf 
in the book of our decrees : unto their Lord shall they 
return." — Sale's translation. Compare also Savary's, 
and note the passage in chap. viii. ["The Cafes'*] of 
Th. Gautier, " Constatithtupje of lo-day" (London: 
I S54), upon the kindness of Turks to animals. 

'" Baptistin Poujoulat, in his " Voyage t) Consfan- 
tino-ple, etc. " (Paris ; 1840, z vols.), gives us an account 
of Achmet Fevzi [vol. i., p. 229], wnich shows us that 
M. d'Arpentigny has been a little hard upon him ; " 11 
y a quinze ans," says he, '' qu' Achmet Fevzi 6tait 
cafctier dans le vallon des Eaux Douces d'Europe, il 
avail amasse assez de piastres pour faire I'acquisition 
d'un caique. . . . Un favori du sultan, se promenant un 
jour dans le Bosphore, fut frappS de la jolie figure 
d'Achmet Fevzi, le prit avec lui, et lui donna la place de 
Chiboukji au serail. II devinl ensuite inspecteur du 
linge au Har6m, puis backki de Mahmoud. Puis il 
entra dans le mabeiti ou personnel du grand seigneur. 
Dans la memorable joum^e de la chute d'Ojak, Achmet 
Fevzi donna des preuves d'une grande bravoure et quand 
on forma les troupes reguli^rcs, le grade de capitaine de 
cavalerie de la garde compensa son courage. Achmet 
ne resta pas longtemps dans cc grade, il avan^a succes- 
sivement en dignity dans I'armee, et parvint Jusqu'au 
grade de rnouschkir ou g^n6ral-en-chef de la garde. 
L'Ex-cafelier fut envoy^ en ambassade eitraordinaire 
aupr^s de I'Empereur de Russie .... A son retour de 
Saint Petersbourg, Achmet fut nomm^ grand amirat. 
La maniere dont Vancien batelier du Bosphore afaii 
son chemin, est Chistoire de la iluj>artdts hauts per- 
sonnages de I' Empire Ottoman}' 

'" A grim commentaiy on the concluding sentences 



In iSai the TiJiobanbaclii, or chief sliirpliim], wa& 
etev&tcti to this dignity ; an old man whose hnir had ^ 
grown gray in ihc enviable quietude of a pumpkin 
In ■ frame, who had never done more than count 
beads of sheep, and who fell into Ihc water llie 
Arsi time he went on board the admiral's flag- 

M. Funlanier gives the following account of his 
entry into Sapanja. one of the prindpal towns of ''• 
Anatolia [the ancient Bithynia] ; — 

" At last we eutcred the town, and I toAlc up my 
abode io a tavern, the sole hostelry to be found in 
these parts. Once installed, after having aminged 
my carpet, and having sat rayiself dowp croas-lcgged, 
halding my pipe in one hand and the inevitnbte coffee 
in the nlher, I entered into convcrsition with mine 
boat, who lost no time in giving me ihc cusipmary 
weleome,'** and plying mc with a string of questions, 
to which I had by this lime become thuruughly 

at the abnvc p.-ingraph is uRorded by the following 
Bcntcace (mm b«niucl Jacob's "HUtory o/tht Ottoman 
Kmfirt" (Lunduo : 1854. p (jjl: "A few weeks 
aft^ward* 0)0 Heel, under Achmct Capitan Pacha, was 
earned to Alexandriii bv that irmilor, and delivered ap 
Id the Pacha of Kgj-pt. 

•" Frum V. Fuoianicr's " Voyages tn Orient enlrt- 
pru fi»r OrilrtJu Goii.frnrmfnJ fraitfais dr famtUt 
tStt draim/e iSi9"(Pari*: 18^9), p. 16, " liisncrdleM 
to say that to bcconiir captain-paclu of iho fleet, no 
kngwfad gB of the BU is in any way nccessarv. To ^vc 

' ' "'i», in iBji the Tchoban bochi." etc. 

I uluLallon ill as follows : The visitor 
ulinff the riKhl h^nd. with which hr 
>t. Tip*, ana forehead, saying, a> he 

__, _.. . n atclkftm ; " the master of the hoiwe 

rimtihatM'ftusly Imltaies this moliua, rGpeatiog, "Ve 
okflcilm vUm.*' This i« on/y among Turlui. To a 
Ouiuion, or Ghiuur. the nrdinary nna of the hrad and 
the Turkish "Good-day" [pjiil ^^jl^jfi^U 
cB-!j'jB^>^"^ C^] '• oofuldend tuffldent. 


5 lift 



acclimatised, and to all of which I had the necessary 
answers on the tip of my tongue, thus. What is going 
on ? What is not going on ? Whence do you come ? 
Whither do you go ? Have you much money ? 
Have you a passport ? Are you a spy ? 

" Four or five Turltish travellers, separated from 
me by a wooden railing which divided the raised 
floor of the caravanserai into various compartments, 
listened with indifference, and smoked with imper- 
turbable gravity. Then each one in turn, without 
making any further draft on his imagination, gravely 
put to me the same questions of which they had just 
received the answers. On my side it was merely 
a question of memory, and above all of patience, for 
had Ihey been twenty I should have had to repeat 
the same answers twenty times."*'* 

Andthroughout every class among the Turks weiind 
" this same mental lethargy ; only read their romances, 
only listen to the recital of their dreams, eternally 
filled with accounts of diamonds by the bushel, and 
of voluptuous houris by the troop, of hidden 
i suddenly discovered by the aid of some 
r whose good graces have been won by some 
spontaneous act of common hospitality, and you will 
amply realise that nothing is more repugnant to them 
than mental effort of any kind, which they avoid 
making by throwing the blame of all things upon 
fatality ; and manual labour, against which they 
protest by their fondness for, and their belief in, 
talismans and charms."" 

This manner of looking at things they owe to their 
physical constitutions, which owe their equability to 
their civil and religious institutions. They feel ihem- 

"• V. FoNTANiRR, " Voya^s en Orient, etc.," 
" Deuxieme Voyage en Anatohe" (Paris: 1834). 
»• Vide note "», p. 183. 


selves thai any attempt to regenerate them as a 
nation would be futile, and that the tide of civilisa- 
tion [as we understand the word] would be as fatal 
to them as the waters of the ocean would be to river 

In 1817 some one remarked to Fasl6-Bey, Colonel ^IM. 
of the Imperial Guard, that the reforms of Mahmoud ^^ cno^*^ 
seemed to be achieving considerable progress. "The ofUMToik*. 
Osmanlis," replied he, " remain buried in their pre- 
judices; they ore like madmen to whom the right 
road has been pointed out, but who persist in 
travelling in a different direction." "But still, one 
sees many Mussulmans adopting the European 
costume, and surely that proves that they seek afler 
civilisation." " Those Mussulmans," replied Fasl£- 
Bey, "are like men dressed as musicians, but who 
have no idea of music. Turkey is at the present 
moment in a wretched condition ; she is like a cistern 
from which water is constantly being drawn, but 
into which none is ever put back." " Your opinion 
of the country is a very despondent one." He 
replied by this verse of the Qur'ftn, " Unto every 
nation is a fixed term decreed; when their term, 
therefore, is expired they shall not have respite 
for an hour, neither shall their punishment be an- 

" This work bears internal evidence of having been 
written between the years 1835 and 1838, when the 
reforms of Mahmoud il. [t-idc note '", p. 206] had not 
yet had time to make themselves felt with all tneir force 

•■ This occurs in the tenth chapter of the Qur'in. I 
do not know whcncL- M. d'Aq)enti);ny obtained his 
version, which re.ids : " Aucun pt'uplc ne pcut avancer 
ni reculer sa chute ; chaque ti»tion a son terme fix^ ; 
elle ne saurait ni \c h^ter ni li' n'larder d'un instant; 
Dieu seul est 6temel." Tht above ronversatitm is con- 
densed from B. Poujoulats"! w_y<ii'c d C'ons/an/imifi/e" 
[Paris: 1840). vol. i.. pp. 134-5. 


Ifamanisa Christian \ik hopes [positive force]; if he 
is a Muhammadan he rtsigns hintsMlJ [negative force]. 

It is part of the nature of every type to revel in 
^ its idiosyncrasies, and to despise and mistrust any- 
■ thing which is foreign to it [I shall have occasion 
to recur to this observation.] Where wc find the 
combination of reason and science, intuitive in- 
stinct is frightened at itself. Among nations in 
which the elementary type predominates, they pride 
themselves on not being able to read or write ; and 
they are taught concerning a god who is the friend 
of ignorance and poverty of soul. 

Thus, for instance, in Barbary, the possession of 
a book is looked upon as a crime,*** and in Turkey 
idiotcy is looked upon with reverence, as being some- 
thing holy.*** 

Among ihe Kalmuks each family has in its tent 
a machine called the Tchukor, consisting of a cylinder 

■" Wicked from the point of view of its being a 
strange and uncannypasscssion. The Rev. M. Russell, 
in his " History of the Barbary States " (Edinburgh : 
1835), says of the inhabitants with every show of reason ; 
— " Since the sun of knowledge rose again in Europe, 
the shades of intellectual ni^ht appear to have fallen 
with increased obscurity upon all the kingdoms of North 
Africa" [chap, iv., p. 14'i]. The same remark applies 
all over the Ottoman Empire. Dr. Shaw, in his "Travels 
relating to Barbary" '\yo\. xv. ol" Pinkerton's Voyages 
and Travels" (London; 1814), p. 637], remarks : — "As 
for the Turks, they have no taste at all for learning, 
being wonderfully astonished at how the Christians can 
take delight, or spend so much time and money, in such 
empty amusements as study and speculation. ... If 
wc except the Koran, and some enthusiastic comments 
upon it. few books are read or inquired after by those 
persons of riper years, who have either time or leisure 
for study and contemplation." 

>" Edmond de Amicis, in his chapter "Galata" 
[o/. cif., note '"', p. 207], gives an account of the 
consternation produced by the continual appearance of 
idiots in the streets of Constantinople witliout any let 
or hindrance. 




covered with manuscript prayera and liymns, which 
i» pal into motion by ornns of a mcdianical nrrangc- 
latnt, whirfi is wound up like a roasting-jack. Tliis 
apparatus, by tuniiiig, blesses and prays to Cod for 
the whoie family, — an extremely convenient mnnnrr 
nf attaining everlasting happinesa without making loo 
great an effort over the proeess.** 

"* " Perhaps the most marvellous invention which the 
Thibetan has devised tat drawing down bli-ssings from 
the hvpothctical bein}^ with which his fhildish Taney 
has niled the heav<^ns. Arc the well-known praying 
wbcrU, — lhi>«e rurioua machine which, filled W'ilh 
prayrr*. or charms, or passages from holy books, stand 
ID Ae towns in every open place, are placed beside the 
hmipaths and the roads, revolve in every stream, and 
even Tby the help of sails tike those of windmills] arc 
tumcJ byevcty breeze which blow over the thrice sacn^ 
vallcysof Thibet,"— T. \V. RH. \).\\'IDs, ■• StuUAum, 
htinia SM<h of Iht Li/e and Teiuhingsof Gautama. 
tAeBtutdha-[UinAoa; i88j), eh. iiL. p, Jio. Hvety 
Kalmuk or I'hibctan Buddhist has also a private prayer- 
wlirel of his own, which, bcjn^ tilled with a tij^ht roll 
of pan'hmenl. on which is toscnbed many thousands of 
• s the formula. '■ U BiuUim. Jrwel of the Lottii .'" 
looslanlly revolves from right ta tffi. A friend n( 
> tried very hard to purchase one of these spparntus, 
ia vain, for tlic owncfs believe thai, should anyone 
■ " " from left to right, all their prayers will pro- 
_ly be cancelled ! I'id* also concerning this 
■upvnnilion Hue and G.ibrt's " I'oyagri" 
: 1650, voL i.,p.ii4]: General Alexander Cun- 
nhmliam's " f^dak" (London: if'54). p- 574; Davis 
in the Transaetioits of the Raya'i Aiiatu Secitty. 
vol. ii.. !>. 444 ; Klaprntn's " Rtisf it 4tm Kautttsus " 
(Halle: 1811-14). vol. i.. p. ifli : and las. Frrtruiwi's 
•• rrMamdSer^Ml tl'trr^hi/f (Undon: 1868). - fio 
ttUo." says T. W. Kh. Davids [n/. ci/.. p. Jlol. " these 
siiMite folk are fond of pulling up what they call ' Trees 
of Law,' thai is, lofty flagsIalTs with silk fings upon 
them, faUiuoed with that mystic ctiaim uF wonncf- 
»atrcd wordi, ' (Jm A/iirii ptiiimt 
.. .. ^ . _ ifl ri In llic I^liu'l. \\^lent■vM 

the flags are blown oprn by the wind, jml ' Ihr huly Mt 
•yllaUcs' arc turned towards heaven, k counts as it a 
prsyer werv uttered, not only upon the pious devotee al 
t put up, but also upon the irtuiiw 



Some nations there are, who have left behind them 
a glorious reputation for superlative horsemanship, 
such, for instance, as the Parthians,*** the Persians,*" 
the Thessalians,*'* etc., or for having left behind them 
the most stupendous and indestructible monuments, 
like the Cyclops, Egyptians,*"* etc., or for having 
lived free, and valiantly maintained the democratic 
form of government, e.g., the Athenians. Again, we 
know concerning the Sybarites that they dressed 
horses to perfection ; that theirs was a republican 
form of government ; that they were adepts at the 
precise hewing and elegantly magnificent super- 
imposition of huge stones. Nevertiieless the word 
"Sybarite," classed in the present day among de- 
rogatory epithets, is no longer applied to a man 
excepting as an insult. Whence comes this state 
of things? Is it because they slept upon beds of 
roses? A moment's reflection will show us that, 
besides the fact that SHch beds could not be in very 
general use, a bed of roses could not be more com- 
forlabie than one of straw, and would be more a 

™ The superlative horsemanship of the Parthians, and 
their custom of firing their arrows whilst pretending to 
fly [whence our term "a Parthian shot"], have t>een 
a theme to almost cveiy poet and prose writer of anti- 
quity. Thus we have the passages in Horace, book i.. 
Ode 10, V. 11, and book ti., Ode ]3, v. 17 ; Herodian, 
" fiisioriariim Romanarum," book iii. ; Lucan, jiai-- 
sim : Virgil, •• Georgic.," iii., I. 31 ; " jSneid," vii., 
1. 606. 

-'' Referring no doubt to the " immortal guard " of 
10,000 horsemen who were attached to the person of the 
kinjr of Persia. 

" The Thessalian cavalry was, after the Parthian, the 
finest in the ancient world, 

" ■' The most sohd walls and impregnable fortresses 
were said, among the ancients, to be the work of the 
Cyclops, to render ihem more respectable " {Lempriire). 
The builders of the Pyramids of Thebes, of Camac, 
and of I.uxor. hardly require a note to illustrate their 
masonic capacities. 



iratter of experimcnl or of pageantry than of effemi- 
Oicy or sensuality. No, the Sybarites, a rich and 
■ ctvilbed tuition, having been overwhelmed and 
destroyed by barbariiins, were slandered by their 
conqvcrors,*'" who execrated in Ihetn all the instincts 
or civilisation in the asimp way that the Cimbrians i 
and tile Teutons,* whu were overwhelmed by civil- 
bed conqueror*, have been calunioiated by iheir 
, who loathed in them their barbaric 

Like that of the other types, the Elementary Type, 
white It remains irresistibly attached to the tendencies ^ 

" Tile luxutyand fastidioumcsaof the Sybarite.^ have 
been chanted by many a writer ; by none more than by 
iEUan,who,iiihi»ac(:uiuitii[>fSmindandes \^'l'ar. //u/..' 

u. i4. and lii. 24], aims ai Uic whole naliun. Of their 
valour, however, and i>f their power aa a nation, there 
U no iguotion. Svbarls was tinjlly reduced. 508 B.C., 
by the tBiciplea of Pytliajforns, after a long and vigorous 
resUUnce a^fainst the town uf Ctutona. 

** The brauD bull to whom the Cimbri and Teutons 
were in thr habit of making their iiacrifice» of human 
bUmd U thus mentioned by Plutarch in his " /.ifr 0/ 
CatMi Manut " :—" The barbarians now assaulted and 
tr>uk the fontest on the otlier side of the Athcsia, but 
admiring the bravery uf ihe garrison, who bchavod 
in n manner luilable to the glory of Komc. ihey dismissal 
ibero upon certain cuoditiuoi, having first made then 
■wear to tlietn upon a braien bull. In the battle wliicll 
fulkiwcd thtB bull wa» taken among tin- spoits, and !■ 
•aUI to have been carried to Catulu^ houi>e. kk the tint- 
tmita of the victon- " [J^m^Aofiu'j J'ransiAtum\t^. 
Sinba[''6Vv^<fjtAjr, booVvii., cap. ii.(j)j describes tha 
rite a( the Cimorianb t^criflcing tlielt nrisuners, and 
catching ihcir Mood to draw Jiugurirs nrom, but doe* 
not mention tbc broien bull. The bciil quasi -clauiic 
acvount which we haie uf tlic Cimbn and Tculuni is 
Chrlslopboras CelLirlus' " Dhitrtatta Historifa de 
CtmAra el Tfutvmi" (Magdeburg: (Tot). 

' Tbej lael •» ifmikle with faumaii bkod Ibe > 


of its lutur^ modifies and tnnsfomu itBolf acconliiig 
to the times and pUces in which it lives. 

Greece, still in s condition of barfauism ntd 
governed by instinct [as is natural to every aodeqr 
which exists in a state of syncretism], saw the em- 
bodiment of its idiosyncrasies in die formidable 
features of Polyphemus ; later on she saw it admied 
with the natural grace and repose of rustic moralities. 
Caliban in rough and foggy England, llKlibaea beneath 
the scented pines of the Sabine hills, Sancho amid 
the joyous turmoil of the Castilian bostelriea^ are after 
all merely different re-incarnations of this same idea. 

The General Rapp seems to me to have been the 
best expression of the conico-elementary type, as it 
has manifested itself among the upper classes of our 
society under the Empire. He was a man in appear- 
ance round, broad, highly-coloured, and of striking 
individuality, with manners at the same time 
sumptuous and rustic, theatrical and soldierly, who 
required either a luxurious bed and a delicate arrange- 
ment of furniture, or a truss of hay and a iivooden 
spoon. In Dantzig, in 1812,**^ where we used to call 
him the Pasha on account of his pomp and peculiar 
order of merit [that of the sword], he liked to drive 
about in an open vehicle, magnificently dressed, 
lounging rather than sitting with his mistress, an 
affected German with prominent cheek bones, to 
whom his inferior officers used to pay court as if she 
had been a queen. His magnificent feasts, at wrhich 
there figured daily a hypocritical and despised dish 
of boiled horse-fiesh, were an insult to the miseries 

** General Jean Rapp [b. 1772, d. iSai], was re-tn- 
stated in the comnia.Dd of Dantzig in December i8i3 
by Napoleon. Here he sustained one of the most 
memorable sieges of the century [January 1813 — ^Janu- 
ary 1814].— Larousse "DictioHtMtredu Xl^SOelt^' 
Art. " Rapp.") See also Martin's "Histotre^Ftramtt" 
[Pitris: 1879}, vol. iv., p. 6;. 



of the sntdicrs, to wlioiti he wniild habitually and 
willingly give money with his own hands, but whom 
he abandoned in his carelessness 10 the rapacity of 
vrritcn, and of commissariat agents. At the theatre, 
where the subaltern epaulette could only gain admis- 
sion to the pit, eight or ten boxes were ornamented 
with tlic colours of his startling and x'iviilly -insolent 
livery. In the same way that his own ttenchmen, 
beneath the rustling plumes of their aigrettes of cock 
feather*, had hi» name always on thrir lips, ihc name 
of the Eniperur, hi« master, was always cm his; he 
owed his promotion, firsDy, to his exalted fetish- 
ip of the Hero of No^-cmbcr ;•" secondly, to his 
Mldacity; and, lastly, to a kind of rough flattery, 
with a kind of capricious good-fellowship, 
he used to great advantage. Without any 
culti\-atcd toJentii, but not without tact and subtlety, 
be had recourse in all drrumstances of difficulty to a 
fiwrulty for dissembling which he summoned tu the 
aid of his incapacity and of his ignorance. Such, 
h<iwever, was his opinion of himself that be con- 
sidered us well paid for our tinrdships, and considered 
himaeir quit o( atiy obligation to us fur our troubles, 
uhen be had said to us on parade "that he was 

•• Napoleon was known as •• L'H*ros dc Bnimalre," 
bcvauw It wa* on the 9ih Novcmbrr, i;m, that be 
b<uiit;)ii about the caufi d'fiat from which he emcrgvd 
KirM Ciinsul, anil which waa tlic fini ttrp towaidn tha 
ettablishment of the empire. Vide K. Martin's '" ffist. 
fi-iiM-..'' vol. lit,, pp. (ki-8R- Rapp. in bis own Memoin 
["A/^mt»rfS,/i. Ot.Jral R^pp ■'Cl.ondn* : i8j,i), thap. 
I,, p. 4), says cowrmmj; Ini- friendship which exiitcd 
between him and Napi'lcin ; — " Zeal, frankness, and a 
rrrlAln aiilitude in :i[m>. t;;iiiird (nr me hii confidence. 
He ha* (inpn laid In thusi- .tniunH him, thai it would b« 
■flAcnlt U) hxrv more auIumJ i;c)oil lenibe and ilitcem- 
netit than Kapp. I hry [i'|'«rai<-d these praise* to me, 
and I conlea* that I wai fUlterod by them. ... I would 
have din) h>f him to ptrn-e ray Ktatitude ; and be knvw 
On pp. iij-To he ili'scribes the siege of UiL&ln^, 


[1 sj"! satisRed with us." Beyond these peculiarities he was 
a good man, hating set speeches, serviceable, always 
ready with similes and parallels, and generous often 
to a Tault 

^ 881. Elementary hands are, for the most part, more 

^^il^''™'' accessible to the charms of poetry than to those of 
science. It was to the lyric measures of Orpheus, 
and to the harmonies of the flute of Apollo, that in 
the old Greek world the first communities of men 
were formed, and the first towns were built.*** 

1 >M. ij, the depth of the forest, or on the deserted sea- 

shore, by night, when the boundless ocean moans with 
the murmur of the tempest, hands which arc elemen- 
tary are the more troubled by phantoms, spectres, 
and pallid apparitions, in proportion as iheir finger- 
tips are more or less conical. But whatever be the 
form of the terminal phalanx, the type is always 
much influenced by superstition. Finland, Iceland,*" 
and l.apland abound with wizards and sorcerers. 

^333. Elementary- handed subjects, whom neither inertia 

t™" ' " "'"' iisensibilily have been able lo protect from pain 

and sorrow, succumb the more readily to their attacks, 

from the fact that they are generally entirely wanting 

in resources and in moral strength. 

'*' In allusion, I presume, to the legends that Orpheus 
was one of the Argonauts, from whom the Lemnian and 
other races are said to have sprung ; and that Apollo, the 
god of music, is said to have assisted Neptune in raising 
the walls of Troy. 

"* Icelandic legends are full of tales of sorcerers 
and elves. Several occur in Mr. C. Wamford Lock's 
volume, " The Hotne of the Eddas" (London: 1879), 
which may be taken as specimens of the kind of leg'end 
which is most popular. The curious in such matters 
should consult also Dr. Wagner's " Manual of Norse 
Mythology. Asgard and the Gods, the Tales and 
'Iraditions of our Northern Ancestors,'' a.Aa.'aXxA by 
M. W. Macdonall, and edited by W. S. W. Anson 
(I^ndon : 1884), which is a complete epitome of Norse, 
Finnish, and Icelandic superstitions. 


Cbe dpatulate Cppe. 


pl«t» y.— t«» ai 


.».. fPl.tcV.| »„,,.„, 


In this chapter I propose to deal only with spatulatc ^SSf. 
hands whose thumbs are large — thai is to say, with '■■^^'•■■■' 
those in which the instinct which is peculiar to these 
hands, supported by the promptings of the brain, 
makes itself the most clearly manifest. The intel- 
ligent reader, alter what I have said ancnt small 
thumbs, will be able easily to appreciate the intricacies 
of the mixed types which form themselves upon the 
groundwork of a spalulate hand. 

By a spatulate hand I mean one, the outer phalanges ^ sst. 
of whose fingers present the appearance of a more ^^^^J!^"'*' 
or less nattened-out spatHia (to borrow a term from 
the dispensing chemist). [I'lVfr Plate V.] 

The spatulate hand has undoubtedly its nrigin in * 3ST. 
the latitudes where the inclemency of the climate, '" """" 
and the comparatively sterile nature of the soil, render 
tocomodon, action, movement, and the practice of the 
arts whereby the physical weakness of man is );to 


[1 Mil 

tecled, more obligatory upon man than they are u 
more southern skies. 

1 US. Resolute, rather than resigned, the spalulate 

ebm^^Mct. ^"^ resources for the resistance and conquei 
physical difficulties, of which the conic han 
absolutely ignorant. The latter, more contempl 
than active, prefer [especially among merid 
nations] the ills to which the flesh is heir, to 
exertions requisite to overcome them. The 
confidence of spatulate subjects is. extreme; they 
at abundance and not [like the elementary subj 
merely at sufficiency. They possess in the hij 
degree the instincts of real life ; and by their na 
intelligence they rule matters mundane, and mat 
interests. Devoted to manual labour and to ac 
and consequently endowed with feelings which 
more energetic than delicate, constancy in loi 
more easy to them than it is to minds which 
poetic, and which are more attracted by the chi 
of youth and beauty than by a sense of duty an 
ethics. All the great workers, the great naviga 
the great hunters, from Nimrod to Hippolytus 
Bas-de-Cuir, have all been renowned for their sob 
and continence.'*" 

1 339. Of the goddess of the daizling forehead, D: 

Gretk'm'yiho^ '''^ white- footcd, the finely-fomied, whose imm 

logy. life devoted to the chase is spent in the liberty 

iictivity of the woods, the Greeks made a person: 

tion of chastity.**' 

^ I do not know upon what episodes Nimrod, ' 
mighty hunter before the Ixird " [Gen. x. q], and 
de-Cuir base their claims to sobriety and contine 
The Hippolytus mcntiom-d is, J presume, the so 
'lIiL'^t-us and Hippolyte, the Joseph of profane literal 
Compare the passages in the jrd book of Ovid"s "J-'t 
[1. adB], and in the nh "^tieid" [1. 761, etc.]. 

-'■ According to Virgil [/ur. ci'iT], Diana restore 
life Hippolytus, named in the preceding note, 
ren-,ird for his exemplary chastity. 


With smooth fingerx, npatulatc subjects like cnm 
as well as elegance, but their elegance is of a foshi 
able rather than an artistic kind. 

Our colonists of the Antilles, people far the 
part luxurious and sparkling, who find delight in 
movement, in dissipation, in dancing, and in billiard 
and fencing saloons, who love to struggle for the 
mastery with vicious horses, whose sole amusements 
are hunting, fishing, and conquests in love, — these 
colonists, i say, necessarily the descendants of ad- 
venturers distinguished by a love of haiard and of 
action, have, probably almost all of them, hands like 
those of our circus riders and of the satellites of our 
iockey-club stables, that is to say, smooth -Angered 
and BptttuUte. 

Large spatulate hands are much more numerous in 
Scotland than they are in England, in England than 
they are in France, and in France than they are in 
Spain, and in mountainous than in flat countries. 

I'he painter Ribera, whose natural bent always led 
him to paint more or less ugly people, always gave 
the people he painted [as also did Murillo and 
Zurbaran] fingers which were more or less pointed ; 
which would certainly not have been the case had it 
not been that the generality of the hands that he saw 
around him, being thus pointed, gave him as it were 
a law in the matter. Big, square, and spatulate hands 
abound, on the contrary. In the pictures of the Dutch 
and Serman schools. 

In Spain it is in Galicia and Asturia that one sees 
the most spatulate hands, and it is from this rocky 
and mountainous district that all the muleteers, and 
all the labouring people that one finds in the penin- 
sula originally come. 

The Kabyies inhabit, as we know, the slopes and 
valleys of the Atlas range ; ihey arc the most spatu- 
I, ami also the most hBrdworkin% v*^Vi^^ ^ 


be found in Algeria. The Bedouins of the desert, 
an indolent and ferocious race, are hardly more than 
shepherds, and their hands are enormous. Super- 
stition is tbe sole sentiment by which they are in 
any way affected. 

The Swiss are actuated ahke by the love of labour, 
patience, and obstinacy. They are a race of people 
only very slightly poetic, Ufron whom God, who has 
placed them upon a soil which is subject to landslips 
and avalanches, has bestowed by way of compensation 
a love of mechanics and dynamics. **" 

Among the Russians the elementary hand is the 

most common, and among the Cossacks [who are a 

Ti Mongolian race], the spatulate. The Russians lead 

' sedentary lives, and travel in carriages; the Cossacks 

lead an active life, and travel on horseback. Tlie 

Russians are mercers, innkeepers, shopkeepers, and 

bankers ; the Cossacks are artizans, and construct for 

themselves the implements and utensils of which 

they make use. The Russians owe their military 

glory to their discipline, it is a characteristic which 

distinguishes them as a race; among the Cossacks, 

who aim at renown as the result of personal prowess, 

glory is a thing which attaches only to individuals. 

For the following reasons the most stable colonies 

„ are formed by spat u late-handed people rather than 

* At this point we find in the original a paragraph 
which reads as follows : — " 'The wants of man,' says 
Lady Morgan, 'are his most powerful masters, and the 
means adopted for the satisfaction of his wants are 
infallible indices of the real position of a nation upon 
the ladder of civilisation ; for the highest possible point 
of social refinement is no more than a more perfect 
development of certain physical resources ; and the 
most lofty aspiration of human knowledge is simply 
a more judicious application of the faculties which have 
been given us for the support of our existence." " I do 
not know the works of the "Lady Morgan" referred 
to, so i have no means of identifying the passage. 



by iilhen: — (a) Almnst insensible lo art or to [loetry, 
Ihcy «fe endowed wilh n very small share of ihc 
liwtincts which lend t» moral inaubility. {^) They 
■tUt-fa themMlvcs to a country nicrely for the material 
benefit* which nccnie to them therefrom, (y) Mnnunl 
labour li agreeable to Iheni rather than antipathetic ; 
and it ia the same witli nil kinils of active exercise. 
(8) They sufler front the absence i>f abundance, but 
not from abaenrc n( the superfluous, for they arc 
unly slightly sensual. They are more greedy than 
cpirurran, and you will find among them more 
fiuthful husUuids thaii gallant " aigisbts,""" mure 
Krtrcs Jean than Fjumrgcs."* («) Their love of luco- 
nurtlna renders thcnt comparatively insensible tu the 
■nnnyances, 1 will n»t say of exile, but of expatria- 
tion. iQ Accustomal ^ tliey arc hy tht? multtplicKy 
uf ihe wants which assail man in our northern lati- 
ludev [their indigenous hahitalions] to rely principally 
m their own exertions, ihcy have ni> Innate objection 
lo aoUtude. (>)) Finally, they are apt at mcnces which 
m merely those of physical necessity, and which in 
ordinary life affei.-l only tho^c things which arc con- 
slant and immoxiible.'" 

Frwice, after having populated witli hands of this 
description, Canada, and certain disnictsof Lotiiaian^ 

~ TUI» wurU [ilii- Italian euisiev], derived from the 
idd ftcDch lAii'Ar jnd hetiii, mr:*nia^ the favahrre 
srrrMilr <•* Ih*- NfMdl*" Atr*^, ■■ mpi'lly brofning 

Ulu-ir . I ik 

eianplea .il l!u- i,;Iu1To:i .iml l.( irifj^-aniint. (':,■/.■ •; J15, 

and note *■, p. ij;. 

*' Compare wiih Uiese t»ratn^h» Bacon's Essay 
" 0/ flamiiitioHi" 1 1615], and the very intrmtiag 
renukflu oa coloaist*. which are m-orded in S. T. Cole- 
fUge's " T^ie T^lk," under diU- 14th AiiKust, iSji. 


felt [her feelings have often saved her by checking 
her ideas] that she could go no further in that 
direction without injuring herself; and Spain, having 
consigned nearly all her hands of this description to 
America, and having thus deprived herself, not only 
of soldiers and agriculturists, but also of that moral 
counterpoise which the ideas which these hands 
represent, afford to ideas which are mystic, sensual, 
artistic, and poetic, has only just stopped short of 
absolute extinction from physical and moral ex- 

Whence comes the severely practical common- 
" sense of the North Americans, if it is not from these 
" working hands," scattered over a space which they 
can comprehend without enervating themselves, and 
from resting their faith upon institutions which har- 
monise with their instincts? 

Had it not been for the intervention of northern 
genius by the hands of the Flemish and Walloons in 
the aftairs of Southern Europe in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, the glory of Charles V,, deservedly great as it 
was, might perhaps have been nothing more than that 
of an ordinarilj' victorious prince.-" Certainly Spain 
owes much of her solidity tn the qualities which she 
found among her Flemisli, and whii-h were absolutely 
wanting among her Spanish subjects. To this day 
those two natiims nre distinguished by ihc most 
startling contrasts ; the Spaniards are prompt and 

■'- Charles V. of Germany, being the grandson of 
I'L-rdinand and Isabella of Spain, took possession of the 
Spantsh throne as Charles I. of Spain on the death of 
his (grandfather in 1516, his grandmother beiny mentally 
deranged. He ascended the throne of Germany in 1519, 
and uas one of the most victorious and chivalrous 
princes that the world had seen s,ince Alexander !he 
Great. It was in his reign ihat the celebrated diet at 



violent, but constitutionally imlnlmt; the Dutch, on 
the other hand, arc slow snd cnld-blooded, but con- 
MJtntlotully loborinus ; the S^mnlah ore only stubborn 
andor the inlluencc of pasBioo, the Dutch ar<r so only 
under the influetifc o( self- interests. BcncHtb an 
appesrince uf inertia whicJi is almost Mupid, the 
Uutirh hide tin extremely keen intclligoncc of positive 
taCU; tite Spaniards beneath an air of phlegi 
Itrmvity, conceal an Imagination constantly running 
upon excitements and ndvcnturcs. ITie [)utch can 
only llioroughly cuniprehenO what Hppertains tn real 
liii\ and they take a apccidl pride in wanting for 
nothing [ Uie Spaniah can only appmdatc phi 
life which ore mmantic and contemplative, and pride 
Ihnnselvcs un being able to du with very little. 
Before Ihe gifb of hard Wbric, such u Bden» and 
Wealth, which are so dear to the Flemish, the 
Spaniard! esteem those of chance, such as beauty, 
valour, genius, and good birtli. 

[t wo* with hi* large, s(|uare-handcd Duichinen 
thai Charles V. establlslicd, turned to good accuunt, 
and ofganisrd the cnuntiie* which ho hod conquered 
with his Ihln and piiinted -handed SpwiiarOs.*^* 

In proportion as the Invc of arbitrary facta forms 
the tnais o( the inuinds of every man who is fund uf 
material power (just as <KfioN rr<]uire8 liberty for its 
exerdsc, and apatn late- handed people are always 
active, or at any rate restless], k> is tiberly, wher- 
ever they arc in majority as they are in England 
and the United Slatn, a potiticat institutioti ; a 
Ihct which does not prevent, but rather proves, 
that 'if all people in the world the English and tiK 
Areeriraiis arc (he most prone to esclusivcncia and 

hi. I>upiii ihe elder, whose iiii'llo i», " E>cr)- man 

=" I 'ttir the pre<ce<lhig note. 


lM4] . 

for himself and by himaelf," has large, ugly hands, 

which ire knotty and spatuUteT* 

SH. It is from the restless crowd of spatulate subjects 

, typg, tiiat we get these eternal gaugers and everlasting 

measurers, whose admiration for works of ardiitec- 

ture measures itself by the greater or less extent of 

the surbce of those monuments; their instinct of 

grandeur is not in the form, it Is in the number ; they 

are governed by arithmetic. That which does not 

astonish diem [and diey are not easily surprised] 

does not please them, but you will always find them 

going into ecstasies over those colossal monoliths, 

whether ornamented or not, whose unearthing, whose 

transport, or whose erection awakens in their minds 

ideas of muscular effort and mechanical industry, 

which are pleasant to them. 

3M. In the north, where spatulate and square hands 

aninm" ^^^ '" ^ majority, the artist is swallowed up by the 

artizan ; in Italy, in Spain, and even in France the 

artizan is effaced by the artist. In the north there is 

more opulence than luxury, in the south there is 

more luxury than wealth. 

SST. You are a man of cultivation, but still you do not 

auoiuof particularly care for the beauties of architecture and 

"' A. M. Jean Jacques Dupin, known as Dupin Aln£, 
to distinguish him from his brothers Charles and 
Philippe, was bom in February 17B3, and died in 
November 1865. He was one of the moat eminent 
lawyers that France has ever koown, Choue['h his reputa- 
tion has matoly survived as a politician of the " Vicar 
of Bray " school, by reason of an elastic political con- 
science, which gained for him the appellation of " le 
cham^lioD political." He was elected a deputi'\a 1837, 
and became a member of the council of Louis Philippe 
in July 1830. In 1832 we find him President of the 
Chamber of Deputies, and in 1848 President of the 
Legislative Assembly. After the CoufifEtatoi 1851, 
he disappeared for a while, re-appeariog, successful and 
enen'etic as ever in a new cause, on Uie restoration of 


of antique monumental sculpture. A town is fine in 
your eyes, iT it is divided by long straight streets, 
cutting each other at right angles; if it has sym- 
metrical squares filled with uniformly-built houses, 
and public gardens planted with regulariy-trimmed 
trees. As for statues, you do not find them neces- 
sary, and you can do without marble basins, columns, 
and caryatids; but you like green shutters, neat 
pavements, and white walls, whose painted doors 
are ornamented with shining brass knockers. You 
require that the town, regular and prosperous, shall 
suggest to the observer respectability, felicity, and 
order. It has been built and decorated by people 
notable for good sense rather than for imagination. 
Nothing that is cither useful or even comfortable is 
missing, but the "family fool" will seek there in 
vain for his Divine pastures —poetry. Well, these 
predilections announce in you a hand which is 
spatulale or squan- ; it is in England, in Belgium, 
or in the north of France, countries where your type 
predominates, and where consequently its concomitant 
genius is alone appreciated, that you must fix your 

Start thither at once ! and may this inexorable 
symmetry rest lightly up«>n your soul ! ! 


CoWtihuatioh. SPATULATE HAKDS [eOHtmMeJ\, 

National Ckaraettristies and Hands. 

fBM. When society is dominated by ■ single ides, the men 
lypc. who embody and personify that idea naturally 
achieve power and wealthy and with p»ower and 
wealth they win women of thejr own kind. Thus 
the idea becomes supported by a number of ad- 
herents who are bound to it by ties of organisation 
and relationahip, and becomes far more powerfully 
supported than it would have been if the idea had 
not already become powerful. It is a well-known 
axiom in stud-farms that the horse generally [though 
not always] hands down with his physical form his 
mental intelligence to his progeny. To a certain 
extent the same remark applies to m«n. 

^S69. Left alone, men remain at a standstill, like the 

tsciu^neis. P^oplcs who prcvcnt the infusion of foreign blood into 
their veins by the enforced seclusion of their woman- 
kind, and by the separation of their race into caaUsJ"* 

^MO. On the one hand, nations among whom these 

><9gn«ivt and ugageg Jq not exist have made progress by Ihdr 

naiion^ wars [which have, by a great poet, been described 
as the motive-power of the human race] and by 
whilst, on the oilier, those who have been 


deprived of the salutary influences of the infusion of 
foreign blood have degenerated, instead of trans- 
forming themselves, as a natural result of the constant 
reiteration of the same causes. Distinguished only 
by a downward tendency, the people of the Indies 
are tii-day practically what they were in the time of 

And we may remark by the way, that if the force 
of the genius of a man may be measured by the 
greater or less permanence of his work, what ad- 
miration we niust feel for the high and penetrating 
intelligence which cunstructcd the yoke beneath 
which, for five thousand years, succeeding genera- 
tions of Hindoos have const:nted to bow.*" 

'" If proof were wanted of this stalcmtrtit, it niiffht be 
found in the Laws of Manu, of which a scholarly English 
translalion 'and edition has been made by l)r. A. C. 
Bumell: — " The Ordhutncn n/ A/anu ; translated 
from the Sanskrit" (l»ndon ; 18H4). These laws, by 
which the entire native populations of the LCast Indies 
are ^vemed. are of incomparable anti<|uiiy, though it 
is probable that the tirst regular codifnction and tabu- 
lation of them took place somewhere between Anno 
Domini and A.ii. 700. The queiitiun with all the evidence 
is discussed at length in Dr. Bumell's translalion above 
cited : in India they refer their urif^n to 1250, n.c. and 
tbis date was accepted as correct by Sir William Jones. 
Professor Monier Williams, in his " Jiulian Wisdom" 
(London; t875.p. 2i5),put ihedaleat 500 li.c'.; Johaent- 
gen [■• Utber tias Oesrtzbuch <trs Atan'u ■ {Berlin ; 1 86,(). 
p. 950] dales them at 350 n.c. ; and Schlegel at 1000 
H.c. Following;, however, the line of argument adopted 
in his introduction by Dr. Bumell, his dale is. I 
should think, approximately correct for the tabulation. 
but 1 undcrstarta from a Brahmin of very advanced 
Oriental and European education that their origin is 
probably correctly dated by Sir William Jones. 

■• Vuie the preceding note. The origin of Buddhism 
is lost in the shadows of the remotest antiquity : .-is 
much as can be known on the bubjeci may be gathered 
fr»m Rhys David's '-Buddhism' (l^mdon : \»i2\ or 
fnimSpence HatAy't'^ Jdanuat of Buiidhiim'' {\4MtAon: 
185J and 188a). 


1 MB. In the United States, whither new people continually 

BKhuwuUc betake themselves from all parts of the world, the laws 
!■*•■ undergo, every year, modificiitiona suggested by the 
changes which have taken place in the temperament 
of the nation,*^ whereas in China and Japan, empires 
hennetically sealed against any influences of foreign 
extraction, the laws [however important or un- 
important they may be] remain statjonary, like tiie 
national wants from which they take thdr origin, — a 
state of things brought about by the unchanging 
nature of the national oiganisation."* . 

5 MS*. These thiniFs prove the correctness of Montesquieu's 

liw. defimtion of law : " Law, says he, " is a necessary 
relation among men, resulting from the existent 
nature of things,"'"* 

" It will probably occur to the reader that this might 
be of any nation among whom the constitutional 
form of government eitisls. 

** The present centralised form of government was 
substituted for the previous feudal form about 2,000 years 
ago 1 Thomas Meadows, in his work " Tie Chinese and 
their Rebellion " (^London ; 1856, ch. ii., p. 22), says: — 
"All Chinese law is carefully codified and divided into 
chapters, sections, and sub-seciions. Some parts of 
this law are as old as the Chinese administrative system 
itself \j>. supX One of the oldest, and by the people 
erated, o( the codes is that which most neariy 
themselves— ^the penal. This, commenced 
2,000 years ago, has grown with the nation,'* etc. Sir 
Rutherford Alcock, in " The Capital of the Tycoon " 
(London: 1663, ch. ii., p. 62], gives us the same informa- 
tion concerning the antiqui^ of these laws [p. 221], and 
makes on the subject of Japanese legislation the following 
remark [p. 410]: — "A land so strangely governed by 
unwritten laws and irresponsible rulers — I say unwritten, 
for Chough the ministers tell me a written code exists, 
I have been unable to obtain a copy. A county without 
statute law or lawyers does seem an anomaly with a 
civilisation so advanced." 

'' This aphorism occurs in Montesquieu's book '^ Dt 
rEspritdela Loi'' (Paris: 1S16, liv. i., ch. \.\ where he 
says :— "Laws, in the widest acceptation of the tenn. 


The harsh and inflexible laws of Sparta were wdl 
adapted to the apaluUtc descendants of the Hera- 
elide*, just «s the elastic laws of the Athenians wvtl- 
well IVmnied for the brilliuni and mobile genius of 
that nation, — that aatiun "enslaved by llii? cxtra- 
urdiitary and loathing the cummon plate ; who in 
tbcir fondness of fine oratory, irueted their care even 
more than their eyes, and who, not reasoning with 
ordinary pen^cacity upon any of the things which 
eonccriM^d Ihem nearly, always ted away by brilliant 
speech, and thus, as one might say, drawn about by 
the pleasures of ihcir cars, seemed in their asscinblica 
to be spectators ranged in a theatre tn hear a sophis- 
tical discunlon, rallier than citizens dellbGrating upon 
matters which cnnecrncd the state."*' 

U. Sunvestre IclU us that in the district uf I.c<in, in 
Brittany, there arc si-me villages whose inhabitants live ^ 
■ life which is a nintinual round nf activity, cxclte- 

an the relations tendered aecessary by the 1; 

UjlilL-r.....,...^'.-„r,. tmi, 

display their taleiiio, o 
var*c api>car the belter 
their Kuti Mly :h.-ii ^i'. 

. , ; of 

all living things are *ubject 
rprnligny has not transrribed as 

ipli tH the ftubtonace of the jSth 
■Mhe •• PfiopaHntiiAH War" 
'.'. Clfon leils ilie Athenians that 
h to tliT Up the question of the 
tiiml L-ilhi'i mnintAio 1 paradox to 
iniiii b(- bnht-ii to make ihr 
au»e. He 1<:1U Th<.'ni that It i> 
s them cni-*out3Hfinent ; their 
admiration of talent : lempi- 
» gratify their ctsving for intcl- 
ihln to propoM Mond sense in 


merit, and holiday-making, whilst there are others 
which are entirely populated by pieople who are 
chronically melancholy, discontented- looking, and 
morose ; and he attributes this state of things very 
reasonably to the religiously-followed custom of the 
exclusive inter-marrlage of people of the same 

Communism, as understood and defined by certain 
theoreticians of the present day, might be practicable 
in a small nation whose racial idiosyncrasies are kept 
pure from the influences of foreign blood. Indeed, 
what was the government of Sparta at the bottom, 
but a kind of wisely- organised communism — well, 
the Spartans alone, of all the Greek tribes, never 
admitted a stranger to the freedom of their city.'*' 

™ Emile Souvestre, " Les Dcrniers Bretons" (Pans; 
1854, vol. !., p. 20), speaking of the inhabitant of 
l.ton, says : — " His joy is serious, and only breaks out 
in flashes, as if in spite of himself. Grave and concen- 
trated, he shows but little interest in his dealings with 
the external world." And laior on [p. 45], speaking of 
the inhabitant of Comonaille, he says :^" As in the rest 
of Brittany, the religious taint is perceptible, it is 
mingled everywhere with a light-hearted gaiety. I have 
already said that it is in the festive solemnities of life, 
rather than in lugubrious ceremonies, that you must 
seek his ch.iracler. Poetic and bright in pleasure, he is 
awkward ;ind trivial in sorrow ; it would seem as if the 
' Uon-ard ' and he had shared life between them, — to 
the one joys, and to the other sadness. Thus, if you 
go into the neighbourhood of I.^on, ask to assist at a 
deathbed scene or a funeral ; but if you are among the 
mountains of Arlrcs. go in for betrothals and wedding- 
breakfasts." It is evidently from these passages that 
M. d'.\rpenligny has taken this paragraph. 

« This is what we find in Plutarch's " Life of 
LycHrgus." He says; — " He would not permit all that 
desired it to go abroad and see other countries, lest 
they should contract foreign manners, acquire traces of a 
life of little discipline, and of a different form of govern- 
ment. He forbade strangers, too, to resort to Sparta 
y/ho could not assign a good reason for thei 



The rtrangc epoch which extended from the ninth ^3W. 
to the twellth t-eniury, was essentially tlial of hard, 'T^I^^^,*''- 
spatuiatc hands. On the death of Chnrlcm^nc, who 
hull cmfcavuurctl to n-tutisiruct ihc principles of 
Roman civism, the hatxl, spntulotf^ *ubjocts relapsed 
iniD the individuatism which rhuroctttriiKs Iheni. 
The state of society which they brought about, a 
society divided into innumerable little grtiups, ench 
iadcpcndcni uf Ihe others, could only realise the 
meaning of an idea by the examination of its outward 
and visible form.*" Each group had its jiefulinr 
leader, catchword, device, and standard; every pro- 
fcwioD had cluthtts pecuhar to itself. Without Iheac 
exienuJ signs all would have been chaos, for, when all 
ore eav«loped in on equally ilcnse hajte of ignorance, 
order and dvihaation [when they exist] arc apparent 
in matters material rather than in matters ideal. 
BesKles, all ihen; hands, clothed as it were in 
puntlets of brass, aspire to command ; ihcy desire, 
Ibey watch after war, — war, or else its simulacra, 
luurtMinents and the chase. To them are these long 

not [as ThDcydidc* luysl out of ( thai they should 
imrtMtc the conMitution of that city, and make improvr- 
■lents in iheii im-o lirtut-. but lest they should teach bis 
own people some evil. For ali>n|{ Willi Tori-i^cri come 
Dew MibJcctB of di»coiir»r : nt-w diH'our*!' ptuductf^ new 
opinion* ; and from these ihinms tufi-is.irilj' sprini; new 
pualun* and de*ires which, like di»-urd--i in music, 
would disturb the eHtablishcd j;uvtrnineni. He, there- 
ion. lllOUKlit it mor* expedient for tllc city to keep out 
h( it comnt cuvlonti and tnannrrii, cvrn 1h.>n i'> pr<;vt-m 
the intmauctton of a pestilence." ~ f-an^horMr'i 
rransU/i'a. Comii.iu- .iln' »h.ii fUiiT-. s.tys un tlii* 
pe< ii" '■' ijreaintitt 

' . . ■ .lur author 

Lin in hi* " t/utoirt " [wy. \V., 


cavalry rides and warlike commotions of steel, 
espedatly dear. Glory and honour to the strong, 
shame and misfortune to the weak. What is overt 
licence but the o&pring of power 7 and the leas it is 
restrained by law or philosophy, the more fascinating 
it is. Thus they attain to the eiyoyment of the mere 
pleasures of the senses — the only pleasures capable of 
being appreciated at a time when intellectual enjoy- 
ments are utterly ignored, except in the retirement of 
the cloister. 
Spatulate hands are valiant, industrious, and 
* active; ttiey have the power and the gemus of the 
hands of Cyclops ; Uiey forge impregnable armour, 
and cover the earth with battlemented castles whidi 
rear themselves upon the crests of rocky promon- 
tories, protected by deep waters and impenetrable 
forests. They build huge dungeons, theatres of oigies 
and terrible tragedies, haunts everlastingly ringing 
with shouts, haunts which they attack, defend, and 
contend for, with a ferocity which is terrific. At rare 
intervals, pointed- handed subjects devoted to prayer 

liv. xiii., p. 364} says; — " Le G^nie de I'Empiie 
Frankain, en remontant au ctel, laissait les peuples 
occidentaux i I'entrde d'unt; dcs plus longues et plus 
douloureuaes crises qu'ait eue A traverser I'humanit^, de 
la crise qui enfanta la soci6t6 f£odale." Eyre Evans 
Croy/el" I/isiory 0/ France" {London; 1858], vol. i., 
P- 38], speaking of the commencement of the ninth 
century, says : — " The development of wealth and the 
accumulation of mone^ came to give society a new and 
different impulse. That of the first ages of Ibe 
modem world was limited to the destruction of the 
classification of society which existed in the ancient 
world. In it men were slaves, citizens, functionaries, 
or emperor; the modem world came forth without these. 
It presented a territorial aristocracy, replacing the 
functionary, and exercising his authonty, nulli^ng the 
emperor, ignoring the citizen 1 and with an agncultund 
class of many grades, but never descending to die 
abjectness of a ^vc." 




and tn celibacy, opening the gateways of the monas- 
teries, implore the benefits of (he pcate of God. The 
roil peace of God, it has been properly observed, 
bclotqp to the twelfth century. 

If tbcae powcrrul hands had not conquered all 
women with whum they were thrown into contact, 
their reign would have been of shorter duration. 
They ralied themselves, and in a manner multiplied, 
by means of the axe and the sword, and It was the 
««e and Ihc sword which, precipitating them in turn, 
one after another, from (he heights of their rugged 
deserts, put an end at last to their brulal and savage 
dam i nation. 

In Ruaaia the nobles liavc acquired such rights 
[whether by custom or by law} over the women on 
their estates, that the population hardly resents at all 
the periodical enforced sale of all the young pciple 
in their villages. >•» Well, these nobl.s. a proud and 
rampant clasa of men, ostentatious itnd avaricious, 
full of vices and of cunning, tay that they arc of a 

• " It is especially in thp remoter provinces that the 
power of the rich nobles is imrestrained, and the 
(ippnsscd would aicuM- his oppressor in vain. The 
master am. if the c^kpricc so takes him, sell his serfs or 
change tiient like ahv olhci merchandise," etc.- -M. 
Cuorm. •■ Mtusit" (VxTis: i8j8J, vol. i.. pp. is and 
ji. The Martjuis de CuBiioe, in hh votW " JLa /fussu 
e« 1839" (Parw; iS-^j, vol. i..p j.;0. sayi :— " Thcsitf 
is the chattel of bis master ; enrolled from his birth 
until his death in ibc service of the same master, his 
lib represents to this proprietor of his labour merely 
a part of the sum necessary foi his annual capricious 
eapcndituir." Sir A. Alison, on the other band. 
"" 1 rather than otherwise of the instilulion of 
on the i^und that serfs wtere attached lo the 
, (hough ihcy coulil he sold witA it, they could 
•old aiiMout il.— "a privilege of incalculable 
prevettta the scp-italion of husband and 
parent and child.' — " liiilery of Euritftr" (Liin- 
|S)4}. SerHdoo) was aUiht^ed b)' Atcnondcr II. 
t6t. Alfred Kambaud t" Ifubtrj vf Auhm." 
" A 





nee superior to that of tiie people ; in ttiis wsy tbey 
ore bringing about the ruin of their influence by 
multiplying among the masses the number of in- 
dividuals, already not a few, to whom they have 
transmitted their spirits with their blood. The in- 
continence of the great is the hotbed in which ire 
developed the germs of the liberty of the humble.*** 

You can tell those people who pride themselves 
r upon a descent in the direct line from the hardy 
braggarts of the ninth century, and who at the same 
time pride themselves upon the possession of a hand 
which is fine and painted, that the two preteosions 
are incompatible. Every gentleman descended firom 
the old fighting nobility, has necessarily a apatulate 
hand. If his hand be pointed and fin^ he must 
search his pedigree for some infusion of gentle or 
ecclesiastical blood, or else he must resign himself to 
the presence of a bar sinister in his escutcheon, 
whether it be properly quartered or not*" 

Encumbered with untidy servants and yelping 
hounds, the habitations of the small landowners of 
Brittany exhale, just as they did in the time of 
Duguesclin, a continual odour of animals and litter. 
As ignorant of new ideas as are Chinese artists of 

translated by Leonora Lang (London: 187^), vol. ii., 
p. 393] tells usthat ''the new imperial commission , . . 
admitted the principle that the emancipation should 
not take place gradually, but that the law should ensure 
the immediate abolition of serfdom 1 that the most 
effectual measures should be takeu to prevent the te- 
establishment of the seignorial authority under other 
forms. . . . From these deliberations resulted the 
new law" [February 19th — March 3rd,iS6i]. 

■• The above was, of course, written before the 
abolition cjf serfdom in 1861. Since he wrote, the 
events foretold as above by M. d'Arpentigny have taken 
place, as he points out in this paragraph. 

"* Compare on this point n 10 and 154, and "A 
Manual of dmrosopky," ^^78 and toS. 



the [for Ihcin incumprchensibte] rules or perspective, 
fiimilie«, which I believe to be oxtrrmcly 
■I, wliieh drink to excess, which blow horns, 
i itndcntand their brond' shouldered horses, and 
nnoisseurs of their short-legged terriers, and 
! connni&Kurship stops shurt at these things, 
have always apBtulatc hands. 

The Tcherkesscs consider the chase, pillage, and ^ W*- 
military cxern*e» tu be the most honoiimbic ixrupB- 
doiu posmble for young men. Laws and obedience 
■re unknown to them, and they can be Rovcrned 
only by eloquence and by the inspiration of respect 
and admintion. A handsome woman, a line horse, 
an illustrious ancestry, a hardy constitution and 
■portlin^ nrcnuirements, all of which inspire one 
with rouraxc only lo Inolc Upon them, are in the eyet 
at the whole nation the most precious bem-lits thai 
cnn be conceived. There the nerf waits upon the 
free Duui, who wails upon the noble, who, in his 
mm, wait* upon the prince. The despotism which 
is exercised makes what tbey have lo suffer tnlembk. 
^NUuktc hands ! ^ 

Each type IuhIcs liir assistance in all its decisions 

of anjr importance to the resouircs with which it is,, 

Moa t richly endowed. Wc have seen that cicmenury ' 

•ibtain fnioi their physical iiierlia [as regards 

In law] the wages of innocence; whilst, 

lo address and t'l budJIy strength, hands 

are »patnlBto and hard think that tbcy are 

ng lo the Judgment of God. iVnd note lliia, 

■" M- Ir Cjpilaiiir h.i- I;ikiti hi- \:t"n- mi Hi.- 
keste* fwn M J », . 
Cautujsis" 'ilalW . iHr; 
cntlllril ■• Tabkiu fli^t 
n-apltt^ue. €t Pvlitsque 
/.imttnifhri irntre In ftwu' n .,: ivn.- 
Le^Hic: iB>7). on p. to »r which a minutr .n 
tlw Tciwrkcsse* and Uieir peculiar vie«« mn; '■ 


that, however much the salient charactenstlcs of eadi 
type may be, in the present day, e&ced by the com- 
bined effects of the crosung of nues, of civilisation, 
and of education, if, of two persons with whom you 
converse^ one is remarkable fer a profound apathy 
about anything which does not immediately concern 
him, and the other is remarkable for a spontaneous 
sympathy with prowess, whether virell-directed or 
not, and with physical strength, a hij^ly-developed 
palm will infallibly be the posaeauon of the firs^ 
and a spatulate, or at all events a square hand «riU 
characterise the second. 

In the same manner that if foxes and lions were 
members of society [as in the days of La Fontaine], 
the power would be in the hands of the most cunning 
among the former and the strongest among the latter : 
so each type when it is dominant, when it governs, 
never fails to select as its agents of all kinds, in- 
dividuals in whom its genius is the most perfectly 
reproduced. This is what 1 have just now [but in 
different words] expounded; but this eccentric tendency 
of each type of mankind, being the natural explana- 
tion of the differentiated civilisations which have 
governed upon earth, 1 have thought it necessary to 
emphasise my point to obtain for it the attention 
which it deserves. In the tenth century, which was 
the epoch of a civilisation directed by hard, spatulate 
hands, the all-powerful cohort of the ecclesiastics 
recruited itself from among the ranks of soldiers and 
mechanicians. Gerbert, who afterwards became pope 
[under the name of Sylvester II.], was raised from 
the rank of a simple monk to that of archbishop, 
because he had invented a clock with a balance 

"* This is, Ithink, too arbitrarily stated by our author, 
probably for the sake of forcible illustration. There u no 
doubt that, as C. F. Hock justly remariu : — "Getbeit 



TTie twelfUi and thirieenth nenluries were under 
the rule of psyctiologicfll id<Mts, the reins or ihc world 
were hdd by priests and iheulugians, such as Siigcr, 
St Bernard, Abtlnrd, and so forth.=»" 

Francis I. ond Leo X. urc reputed " great," because 
r tastes, chiming in with those of the age in which 
Uv«l [which was one in which civilisation was 

hr In advance of his see in the uxu-ntot his know- 
_..;^i and the aptitude with which he applied it ... . 
liiia scientific activity bore its fruits." [" /fistaire du 
Pate Syivtstrt II., traduit de Tallcniand par J. M. 
Aalnxer (Paris : n. dX p. 385]. Gerb«n was a monk 
in the monasleiy of ¥\eury, in Burgundy, who made a 
joarnry to Cordova, in Spain , for the purpose of learning 
toro« of ihnir foreiifn arts. He is said to have been the 
first to have introduced Arabic numerals into norlh- 
wvsterD Europe, as also the cluck with the balance 
action.* P. v. LauBser, in his '■ Gerbert. Stttdt 
Histvri^ue sur U- X"-* Sitdf" (AurilUc : 1866. 
pi. 1S0), tells us thai he put up a clock in thr cathe- 
dral ufRheiro^ \rilliamorMa1mesbury [lib. ii..c. la] 
ascribes to him various magicAt powcfs. " The 
ftm step thai be made into public life consisted 
in hts being named preceptor, first to Robert, Kin? of 
France, the non of Hugh Capel, .ind next to Otho 111., 
Ean>eror uf Germany. Hugh Capet appointed him 
atchbiihop of Kheima. but that dignity being disputed 
with him, he retired into Germany, and oecoming 
eminently a bvourilc with Otho, ho wa> by the influence 
of that prince raised, first (o be arcbbishup of Ravenna, 
and aAerwanlit to the papacy by the name of Sylvesiei 
II.— Wii. Godwin, •' Lives of tkt Nf<ronutncerK" 
(txMulon: 18^4), p- >ji. 

"* This Btaicmenl is amply carrieil out by subicquent 
writers. A. Hugnenin, in his " ti la Aionarcku 
franfaise au Xll- SUeU" (Paris: 1857), lays lh« 

SEatvsi puMible slicss upon tile enormous influence of 
gcronrer Lows VI. and the country in general. 0( 
his ctmncctiofl sdtii St. Bem.inl he says [chap, xxxvi., 
P- 110] :— " St. Btfmard and Suger, these two lights o* 
tbe Cbiuctt in the twelfth century, . . . »^rr destined in 



"On Isi 1 


governed by artistic hands^ led them to elevate above 
everything else beauty of external caastnictigii.*^ 

Vflth sqtiare hands at the head of afiaira, the genioa 
of material order and administrative science triumphed 
in the seventeenth century. No longer are artista 
sent forth as ambassadors, and no longer do tbey rise 
to the cardinalate. Colbert and Louvois hold the 
rdns of government, and on all sides we find etiquette, 
arithmetic, r^ularity, and tact : bow down to them, 

harmonise the two great iaterests of which they were 
then the representatives. . . . Suj^r was the most 
clever and equitable mediator in the interests of Europe. 
• ■ • Cp- 1741 Inventor of the science of politics in an 
age wnicn knew but very little of its real secrets, he 
applied himself to the renaissance of public justice. 
^ the help which he gave to St. Bernard he helped 
ecclesiastical refonns at the same time that he put 

rolitical interests in harmony with those of religion, . . . 
ut a gloiy which is due to him alone is that of having 
established the first foundations of public administra- 
tion and finance." Ab^lard was more of a philosopher 
than either Suger or St. Bernard, and it was as auch 
that he influenced the destinies of the empire in the 
twelfth century. Charles du R£musat \^' AMlard" 
(Paris: 1845), vol. i., p. 370] says of him : "Voltaire 
alone, perhaps, and his position in the eighteenth 
century, would give us some idea of what the twelfth 
century thought about Abfilard, . . . Scholarship, the 
philosophy of five centuries, cites no greater name than 

"' Concerning Francis I.'s love of art and his influence 
on letters in general, M. Capefigue's work, " Frattfois 
I. et la Renaissance" (Paris: 1S4.5), gives us volu- 
minous particulars. Martin, in his history [vol. 
viii., bk. xlviii., p. 125, op. cit.'^, tells us that a taste for 
an elegant, accomplished, picturesque, and versatile 
civilisation was the sole affection to which Francis 
always remained faithful ; he deserved the title of " P^re 
des lettres" far more than that of " Roi Chevalier," 
and paints out that, with all his faults, Francis never 
ceased to promote the interests of art. In the same 
way Leo X. \yide ^ 10, p. 36] was a great patron of 
the arts. " Thcclaimsof LeoX.," says William Roacoe, 
in his "Life and Pontificate of Leo X," [Londtm: 

" J: 



O yv people I for ihcy hold Ilic sci^lrc ul' udininis- 

To-day wv elect our smatiirs, our ministers, and 
our iiutL-amu], from the ranks of Uwyers, financiers, 
and public- catcrcnt. A very snmll proportion of prin- * 
cipl« is ftufGcienI fur the wmnU of human society i 
the aouth has discovered and proclaimed them 
to the world. It was its mission to do so. Now 
yme have arrived at an a^ uf practical actualities ; it 
b the task of the north, sovereignly endowed with 
the intelligence of Uiings tad. (u praciiac and incul- 
cate these principlin. Well, public caterer*, mer- 
chants, engineers, nod industrial labourers belong 
almiMt rxclosivcly to the types which govern in the 

In Fimcc, under the Empire, the advent of hanl, 
■{Mtulalc handa at the head of society was a mis- 
fortone, for there is only one class uf ideas which 
Stands lower in the scale of intelligence than those 
of which such hands arc the bom instruments. listen 
to the veterans of i)ie Empire, and yuu will undcr- 

1&46, vol ii 

enctNiraxemcnt afToided by him to every dep;tnmcni of 
poUie Utcratufe and cleg:(ni act. It i« this gn-at charac- 
iniidc *r4iich. amidst 250 successive pontiffs, . . . has 
disttnguifhed him aho^c'.ill the rest, and has given him 
a nmutalJirti which, nutwilh^tanilini; ihr diversity of 
poUlicjil. relipoun, and L-vrn literary npininos, hat been 
Bcknowledi^ed In all lountnes,' ' Cumparr also Kiasmas' 
opinion of (hit p»niifl{Ub. 1 , Ep. joj. 

" Anyone who rmiij. Vollairv's ■SifcU de Louis 
Xl\'." win apprrcmlc the bcl that the liymmetry and 
tegulari'y of Ih»' ("uti of \\,r\\ mnn.iifh wt-rr (o a vpty 

Vcnoilks wvrv mninly boilL 


stand widi what a small amount of bndns one can 
BTrive at fame and reputation, under die sovereignty 
of the Bword, and in the full blast of the apotheosis of 
physical force. And ye^ O you magnanimous sub- 
jects of the philosophic hand, Jouber^ Hocbe, Harcean, 
Lafayette, Desaix, KUberl*** you who founded in 
our midst both Uberty and equali^; you men of 
warm hearts and grand physognomien, at the same 
time progressive and conservative, minds whidi were 
grand and simple, austere disciples and fbllowers of 
those Dorians who prayed the gods to vouchsafe to 
them their worldly advantages in a beautiful form, — 
your glory, before which we prostrate ourselves, now 
that the sunbeams of liberty have opened our eye^ 
paled for an instant before that of these bureaucrats, 
so profound was the blind and stupid intoxication 
into which they had plunged us by sheer force of false 
splendour, of continuous action, and chronic uproar I 

"■ Of the philosophic type no better examples than 
these six heroes of the French Revolution could have 
been given by the author. A characteristic story is told 
concerning Marceau and Klfber. The fonner having 
been appointed commander-in-chief of the army in La 
Vendue, and having made it a condition that KI4ber 
should undertake the command with him, "Hold thy 
peace, my friend,'' said Kl^ber, " we will fight together 
and we will be guillotined toother." — Thisrs, " ffis- 
ioirede laRivoluiwnFraHfaise," c}\^'p.xm.,Ziicembre 


SPATULATE HANDS [AMtA'nWl/]. Contikihtioi 

Calholks and Proitstants, Lyricism, Mysticism. 

Lovers of art, of poetry, of romsncc, and of mystery, 5 M- 
pointed hands require a Deity such as they imagine ,yp^ 
him to be. Lovers of science and of reality, spatutate 
hands require a Deity fulfilling the requirements of 
their reason. 

For the first, with its festivals and its contemplation, ^Hl. 
we have Catholicism ; for the others, with its rigorous p|«eHuiisa 
deductions and its activity, we have Protestantism. 

Protestantism has increased rapidly in the north, p^^,?*?' 
where spatulate hands abound, and has hardly pene- ihc NorIi. 
trated Bt all in the south, save in mountainous 
districts, where the same hands, for the same reasons, 
are equally abundant.*** 

R^ard being had to the softness of the climate 5 "'- 
and the reUtive fertility of the latitudes where they ^^"^^Ij^ 

■ r«fc Voltaire's " Siiclede Louis XIV.." c\i. iiivi, 
in which, speaking of the expulsion of the Vaudois, the 
Albigenses, and the other Protestant cults, he says, "The 
EogUsh, endowed by nature with the spirit of independ- 
ence, adopted them, modified them, and composed of 
them a religion peculiar to themselves. Presbyterianism 
establiatved in Scotland, in the unhappier times, a kind 
of tepublic, whose pedantry and harshness were much 
mora intoleraUc than the ngour of the climate.' 


LI J»s] 

flourish. Catholic nations being as susceptible to love 
as the Protestant, I say that it can only be by reason 
of a chaste repugnance of the spirit, and to satisfy a 
craving for moral purity, which is more imperions 
with them than the mere pleasures of the senses 
that they impose upon themselves the inconveniences 
and privations attendant upon the doctrines of the 
indissolubili^ of marriage, and the enforce^ celibacy 
of the dei^. There is no doubt that the nations 
among whom these two institutions do Aot exist, 
however ethereal in other respects may be the atmo- 
sphere in Which their poets and their painters have 
their being, are gifted with less spirituality tiion those 
where they do exist 
^S84. It has been said that it was for the purpose of 

il'«''.'i^'Edk" r^Baining. by the sheer influenae of wealth, their 
of NantM. vanished political power, that the Protestants in 
France, after their persecutions in the time of Riche' 
lieu, applied themselves with such enthusiasm to 
the industrial arts and to trade. 1 do not hold this 
opinion myself. The same moral impulsion which 
had made them embrace Protestantism, and which 
made them cling to il, could not fail to urge them to 
the study of exact sciences, and to the practice of the 
mechanical arts.*** People of poetic temperament 
only require proofs in rare cases ; scientific minds, on 

* On this point vide Ch. Weiss' " Histoiredes Rifu' 
giis Protestants de Frattce "(Paris, 1853, ch. ii,, p, ^o), 
of which an English translation exists, entitled " Iiistory 
of the French Protestant Refugees" (London : 1854, 
p. 24) :~" The Edict of Nantes was for the Protestants 
the inauguration of a new era ; . . . obliged to apply 
themselves to agriculture, commerce, and industry, they 
took every advantage of this compulsion ; . . . the Pro- 
testant middle classes in the towns devoted themselves 
to industries and commerce with an activi^ and intel- 
ligence, and at the same time with an integrity, which 
have never been suq>assed in any countiy." The edict 
was signed in April 1598, but the parliament, fearful of 


the other ^an<t, balance everything, check everything, 

and rannni believe anything without proof positive. 

All over the world the Protestants, not by reason of ^"'•^"'J^ 

their training, but on account of their organisation, 

surpass the Catholics in mechanical, and are surpassed 

by them in the liberal, arts. Being the more active 

workers, they are the less capable of resignation. 

It is not merely two different ideas which are fSU. 
at issue in religious warfare, it is two diversified ** "" 
organisations, two chosen races of men, acting in 
obedience to instincts which are diametrically opposed. 
It is that which renders these wars so bloody and 

I must not forget to point out the foct that our ^tM 

inferiority to the English in industrial arts and Dwiunicmi 

scientific mechanics dates only from the revocation bxiiiwy. 

of the Edict of Nantes.*" Denis Papin, the inventor Dm'" IV"- 
of the high-pressure steam engine worked with a 

its consequences, delayed for a long time its reeistration, 
to the gi«at annoyance of Henri IV. I'ide Voltaire's 
'■ Histoire du ParUmeni df Paris" chap. il. 

** " Theresult of this despotic act was that rather than 
conform to the established religion, ^00,000 Protestants 
— among the most industrious, intelligent, and religious 
of the nation— quitted France, and took refuge in Great 
Britain, Holland. Prussia, Switzerland, and America. 
The loss to France was immense, the gain to other 
countries no less. Composed largely of merchants, 
manufacturers, and skilled artisans, they carried with 
them their knowledge, taste, .ind aptitude for business." 
— "Chambers' Encyc/opadia." I /rfir Voltaire's "SiMe 
de Louis XIV." en. jo, which is perhaps the best ac- 
count of the effects of Ihis step. The revocation of the 
edict followed close upon the massacres and persecutions 
known as Oragoitnades, of which no better account 
exists than a little work, entitled " A Xarraiiit of the 
Sufferings of a French Protestant Family at the 
Period of the Revocation if the Edict of Xantfs." 

d*D wu. 


pistoD, was obliged (being a Protestant) to take refuge 
in England at that epoch. **^ 

Italy and Gree<%, countries equally mapped out in 
plains and high mountains, have in all ages, to an 
extent which has led to their oomparatively utter sub- 
jection, been the theatres of intestinal quarrel and 
civil war; but alike in the pursuits of thought and of 
action, the grandest genii ^10 have glorified humani^ 
have sprang from their midst 

*" Denis Papin, the illuatrious descendant of a Rntes- 
tant bmily at Blois, was bom on the 33nd of Aug;ast, 
1647. Having been originally intended for the meiy- 
cal profession, he attracted the attention of Van 
Huyghens, and was t^ Bim summoned to Paris in i6;ri , 
where in 1674 he became demonstrator to the Acadfimie, 
It was whilst thus employed that he invented his high- 
pressure engine, of which, however, Colbeit, who was 
then comptr<Meur-g£n^ral, thought but little. It was 
prohably in consequence of the scanty, recognition of 
nis talents that he left for England in 167s. " Many of 
his biographers," says the Baron A. A. Eroouf, in his 
"Denis Papin, sa Vie et son CEuvre" (Paris: 1874), 
" have thought that this expatriation was one, and not 
the least regrettable, of the consequences of the religious 
intolerance of the Government, whose watch upon 
' ceux de la religion ' was then taking the fbin) of a 

Eersecution." The fact also that Huyghens, hia patron, 
ad returned to Holland probably contributed to his 
decision to leave Paris.* In London he suffered many 
hardships until he was protected by Boyle, as he had 

been in Paris by Huyghens, and became curator of 
' -^ ; Royal Sociel " ■' ' - ' 

1687, when he went to Marpurg, and married one 

e museum of the Royal Society. Here he invented his 
celebrated Digester [1681I and here he lived until 

of the French Protestant colony settled there. We 
find continual notices of his work in the journal des 
Scavants until the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 
1685, after which it is diplomatically silent concerning' so 

ie Nanles. On proposa, dit on, 1 HoTChcnc d 
rcEusa, d^daignant ae propter d'une tolerance qa 

reslcr ; mais il retusa, dtilaignant de prohter d'une tolerance qui 
u'survit ^te que pour lai. La liberty de penier eat nn d-^*- -* 
il n' en voulail pas a litre de gr4ce." — Note bj 



Among the ancients, the inhabitants of the mijun- ^ *•>■ 
uins had gods of their own, different from ihnsc of nij^iou, Hnu 
the inhabitants of the plains, and these gods only 
became aniBlgamatcil in proportion as the two races 
mixed their blood by inter- marriage. To-day Europe 
acknowledges but One Cod, who is adored in cere- 
monks which are frigid, severe, splendid, solemn, 
magnilicenl, or passionate, accotxlin^ as the worship 
takes place in Switzerland, Scotland, France, Ger- 
many, Italy, ur Spain. 

The Old Testament, whose every page (like those 
of the Sagas, ••* tlic Eddas,** the Havainal, and tlie °'^" 

ootoriouB a Protextant. At Cassd, whilhct he repaired in 
169^, he completed dll hii noted invi-ntions, but ended 
tiadly in coDitequi^nce- i>r tlic failure.- of hiHtteam -cannon, 

ud the coRsli-rnaiion caused by (he appearance of his 
steamboat, which was dc<iroyed by the infuriated 
watermen of the Wcscr. After ihix he relumed to Eng- 
land [1708}, but encountered the hatred of Newton 
[who was then president of the Royal Society] on 
account d( his fneodship for I^iboiti ; he returned lo 
Gvrtnany, having licen reduced to the greatest poverty 
in 1711, after which all trace of him 1* lost. He pro- 
bably died aboui 1714. 

■• -'-'■ " . I ' V I ! !■ (ir word, denot- 
ing' ■ wasnanded 
di>" iilyhislorical 
an 1 . . with the old 

heru' , .._■.. ..,,.. _ >.[]Iun([«. The 

saga^ tijic: btrirti '.i.'ll<'> !>'<.[ ,iiid < ijU\:lscd in a most 
[Btensling ralumc by Bishop P. E. UuUcr, entitlod 
" Smjpa BMmt/ui" (Copenhagen : i8it-io]. Dr. Wac • 
net's tntroduclioB to hm work " Asgard and tht Gods ' 
(l^oadoB: 1884, p. 1) tctis a charming tior>' in which 
" Saga " i* dc«cnbi;d as a goddess, " lunk in dreamy 
lluMgfM, while Odjn'i ravens fluttered amund her and 
whisperiil til hct (T 'lit past and fulun:." She point* to 
Ibr - iHcred round her, and ftays to het 

VI-' 1' last to seek intelligence of the 

wi. ; .nur anccston ? I have wriltcn 

OS 11. < . .< the people of that distant land 

tl»t.u<... ...-.1. ^nd that whkh they held to be 

eienial iiuiti." L^umpharr also pp. 10.48, ami 19 w/. n/.] 

" ThepriiBxy ngniGcation of the word 



Nicbelungenlicd)*" is ablaze with war, movement, 
energy, and action, is much more highly appreciated 
by the people of the North, and particularly by Pro- 
testant nations, than is the New Testament, which, 
written by a nation in a state of slavery, and, there- 
fore, interested in the depreciation of ihe virtues of 
actual strength in favour of those of weakness and 
resignation, exalts above all qualities selfjabnegation, 
servitude, repose, and peace. 

Berell as they are by their organisations of the 
^ sentiment of the plastic arts, the Protestants, discard- 

Wamford Lock, in " The ffome of the Eddas" (London: 
\i-ji),p. i),"'is&great-grandmo/her, , . . but the noun 
is no longer used in mat sense. It survives only na 
the proper name of two literary works, the finest and 
greatest classics of the Gothic, or, if you will, Teutonic 
races of men. The elder Edda. ihe Hdda par excel- 
lence, is occupied chiefly with skald-ship figures, and 
forma the Ars Poetka of the old Norse tongue. The 
younger Edda contains the heathen mythology of Scandi- 
navia, which equals in beauty and interest, and in 5ome 
respects excels, that of ancient Greece and Rome." 
These books are continually referred to by Dr. Wagner 
[" A Manual of None Mythology" (London: 1884), 
passim], and are known as the Edda Swmundar 
hins I'roda and Snorri Sturleson's Edda. Stemund 
lived between 1054 and 115J A.D., and Sturleson was 
bom in 1178, and was assassinated in 1274. The best 
editions for the student arc (hose of Biynjolf Svendson 
[A. A. Afzelius (Stockholm : 1818)] and of Munch 
(Christiania : 1847). yide also on this word J. B. 
bcpping's introduction to Th, Liquet's " Histoire de 
N^ormandie" {Rouen; 1835). 

■■ The '^ Nibelungenlied dates in its present form 
[from the earliest known MS.] from about 12 10 A. n. It is 
mainly a collection of barbarous and rude recitals of 
the warlike exploits of the old German heroes Gunther. 
Siegfried, Haco [or Hunding], and of Brynhilde, Knin- 
hilde, and Sicglinde. Its author is unknown : the best 
modem editions are those of Simrnck [Berlin; tS^}aiid 
Lachmann's. " Zu den Nibelungen, urtd zur Jutigv " 
(Berlin : 1836). It is perhaps in the form of Richard 
Wagner's opera, Her Ring des Nibelungetiy that this 
epic is best known in this country. 


ing images, have obeyed at once the taws of physical 
antipathy and the suggestions of a reasonable piety. 
As for the poetry of which all cultivation has need, 
and which they could not lind in artistic imagery, 
they found it in the Holy Writings translated as they 
an:, by their efforts. The Catholics, on the other 
hand, have not caused their books to be translated, so 
that they continue to pray in a tongue of which they 
are ignorant ; but their art speaks a language which 
they understand ; and the art works with which they 
fill their churches, suffice, in the absence of poetic 
elocution, to keep their minds In a continual state of 
enthusiasm and fervour. They appreciate to a higher 
degree than the Protestants, the seitlimeni of religion, 
but the idea of religion is more highly developed 
among the Protestants. Protestantism gives birth to 
more ttac/ttrs, whilst Catholicism produces more 
aainis. The former dispenses yiwA'rt, whilst the latter 
bestows charity; the former must be understood by 
the mind, it speaks to thinkers and to men of action 
and of intelligence ; the latter must be understood by 
the heart, it speaks to dreamers and to men of 
simplicity, and of resignation. Heaven is the domain 
of the latter ; of the former, the earth."' 

"* 1 am inclined to look upon the foregoing as the 
most interesting and the most talented chapter in 
M. d'Arpentigny's work. It appears to me to exhibit 
marvellous powers of analysis and of thouf^t. and as a 
compariton of the Catholic and Protestant religions it 
is perhaps unrivalled. 



English Hands, 

It is noteworthy that a grand and profound nlence 
reigns over the kingdoms of Scandinavia and the 
Cimbrian Chersonese, from the moment that the most 
*■ robust and most restless portion of the populations of 
these hardy countries had at last gained a permanent 
footing in England [and in some of the other quasi- 
southern tracts]. The present inhabitants of Norway, 
of Sweden, and of Denmark are the descendants of 
men who were comparatively weak and of peace- 
able dispositions, and whom their brethren, the pirates 
emigrating in search of adventures and conquests, left 
behind them. These freebooters, who without doubt 
were all of the hard, spatulate-handed type, mixing 
their blood with that of the old Breton folk, communi- 
cated to these last, their ardour for locomotion and 
action. Of all the nations of the earth the English 
arc the people who love most to take active walking 
and riding exercise, to cross the seas and to travel 
about, and it is among them that the spatulate type is 
the most freely multiplied. 

It is not without some show of reason that the 
Irish, loving as they do festivals and quarrels, votaries 
of the dance and of the bottle, excited or depressed by 


the merest trifles, a race gifted with an imagination 
which is at the same time active and highly coloured, 
and a mind which is not deep, but prompt, keen, and 
subtle, pride themselves upon a southern ort|in. I 
conclude that the conic type is extremely common 
among them. *'* 

TTie astonishment which the English display at our 
love of ornament, and o( that which appeals to the 
imagination and to the taste, is not greater than that 
which wc experience at their everlasting search after 
the comfortable and the useful. They combine art 
with nothing — art, I say, which is a means of en- 
hancing one's appreciation of nature ; fashion is to 
them all-satisfying ; that is to say, the necessarily 
evanescent authority of a material formality, reigning, 
as one might say, by itself, bereft of all reasoning 
acquiescence. Their houses, their furniture, their 
jewels, their accessories nf the table, of the toilet and 

" It is certainly true that the Irish scoul the idea of 
their havin? sprung from a common origin with the 
English, and, from whatwc know of ancient Irish history, 
it seems practically established that the old Irish stock 
is of distinctly southern or Oriental origin. Stilt, as 

Justin H. McCarthy says in his " Outline of Irish 
fistory/rom the Earliest Times to the Present Day " 
^London: 18A4), "As we peer doubtfully into the dim 
past of Irish history, we seem to stand like Odysseus 
at the yawning mouth of Hades. The thin shades troop 
about us, and flit hither and thither fitfully in shadow^ 
conhisioo, . . , Groping in the forgotten yesterday of 
Irish legend is like groping in an Egyptian lomb— we 
are in a great sepulchral chamber; and he brings 
before us in picturesque review the Ncmcdhians, the 
Fotnorians, the Firbolgs, and the Milesians, with all 
their weird legends and warlike traditions. "Modem 
historians, however, prefer to leave the Tu.-itha de 
Danaao and the Milesians undisturbed in Iht'ir shadowy 
kingdom, and content themsL-lves with suggesting that 
Ireland was at iirst inhabited by a Turanian race, and 
thai there were Celtic and Teutonic immigrations'* 



of the chase, their mathematical, musical, and astro- 
nomical instruments, display in their arid perfection 
such a pre-occupation concerning the possibly hostile 
influences of physical nature, such a poverty of 
artistic invention, and an imagination so prosaic 
and so dull, that we cannot choose but look upon 
them as a people distinct in themselves, speciaUy 
devoted to the enterprises and to the struggles com- 
manded by the taciturn requirements of material 

The English are commended for their love of a 
country life, as if it were with them a taste acquired 
by education : it is nothing of the sort. They like 
the country, because in the country, more easily 
than in town, they can satisfy their craving for the 
fatiguing exercises which are necessary to their 
natures. The Spaniards, to whom corporeal action 
and agitation arc highly antipathetic, prefer, to a 
greater extent even than wc [inclined as wc are 
by our climate and our organisation to a moderate 
form of locomotion], the life of the city to that of 
the country. 

Speech alone, is not, for nations of an artistic tem- 
perament, an all-sufficient medium for the expression 
of their thoughts ; they accompany every word as it 
were, with a gesture intended to pourtray clearly and 
rapidly shades of thought which mere words are 
powerless to convey ; the more artistic the people the 
more do they gesticulate in speech. Thus the 
English, who in conversation adorn nothing, and 
among whom enthusiastically to express a sentiment 
is looked upon as an afl'ectation, move their entire 
bodies all in one piece as it were, and hardly ever 
gesticulate in speaking. They have so little sense of 
the fitness of things as regards the outward form and 
inward signification of ihe embodiment of an idea, that 
ihey see nothing ridiculous or false in the spectacle of 


a clergyman dancing, — a thing which is very common 
in England.** 

In the matter of costume, and again as regards 
de|Kirtment [setting aside what is sumptuous and 
" correct " — qualities of which their natures afibrd 
them an infallibly sure instinct], they never fail to 
confuse singularity with distinction, gstcntBtion with 
grandeur, coldness and insolence with dignity. They 
pride thenisclves upon their love of strange feats and 
grotesque wagers ; upon their taste for strong meats, 
strong wines, and foreigners of eccentric behaviour; 
upon that calm ferocity with which they can find 
pleasure in the sight of tw<> men fighting for a few 
shillings. Kuropc, which is kept awake by the con- 
tinual hubbub of (heir clubs, their receptions, and 
their workshops, gazes from its windows to see them 
drinking huge bumpers, and becoming purple in the 
face, feasting t» excess, and exhausting themselves and 
their horses in the everlasting fox hunt and the never- 
ending race for money ; and they mistake the gloomy 
and silent astonishment which they provoke for ad- 
miration ! 

"The English," says Bulwer, "make business an 
cnjti>Tnent, and enjoyment a business ; they arc born 
without a nniile ; they rove aliout in public places like | 
so many easterly winds — cold, sharp, and cutting; or 
like a group of fogs on a friaty day, sent out of his 
hati by Uorcas for the express purpose «f looking bind 
at oHt atMlhtr. When they ask you, 'E low do ywu 
do?' you would think they were measuring the 
length of your coffin. They are ever, it is true, 
labouring to be agreeable ; but they are like Sisyphus. 
The sttmc they roll up the hill with st> much toil runs 

" One is reminded in n-adinj; the above pas!^!^!' of 
Dr. Johnson's remark, when he saw t-ertain reverend 
gentlemen enjoying; themselves, " This 
ot panons is eitremely offwisive " [! ]. 


down again and hits you a thump on the I^a. They 
are sometimes poSU, but invariably ufcivil; their 
warmth is always artificial, their cold never ; they 
are stiff without dignity, and cringing without 
manners. They oSer you an afiironl, and call it " a 
plain truth ; " they wound your feelings, and tell you 
it is manly "to speak their minds;" at the same 
time whm they have n^^ected all the graces and 
charides of artifice they have adc^rted all its blsehood 
and decdt While they profess to abhor servility, 
they adulate the peerage ; while they tell you they 
care not a rush for the minister, they move heavra 
and earth for an invitation from the ministei's wife. 
There is not another court in Europe where such 
systematised meanness is carried on, where they win 
even believe you when you assert that it exists. 
Abroad, you can smile at Che vanity of one class and 
the flattery of another ; the first is too well bred 
to affront, the latter too graceful to disgust ; but Men 
the pride of a noblesse [by the way, the most mush- 
room in Europe] knocks you dovro with a hailstorm, 
and the fawning of the bourgeois makes you sick 
with hot vrater."*"* 
1 SM. The conical artistic type is so rare in England tiiat 

in England^ ^^^ higher development of its instincts and of its 
reason, shocks the feelings of the masses. Byron, who 
belonged to this type, was obliged to seek among the 
poetic races of the East the justice, the esteem, and 
even the peace, that his compatriots, ui^ed by the 

■** This passage — the concluding paragraph of chapter 
Ixvi. ofBulwerLytton's"/'e/Afl»i — isreproduoedabove 
as Bulwcr Lytton wrote it, not as M. d'Arpentigny trans- 
lated it. It is, I think, one of the most ofensive 
speeches which the arch-puppy Pelham delivers durinff 
the course of that instructive work, and its use against 
us Iw a foreign author " points a moral," if it does not 
"adorn his tale." 




ban) and proHjc sjiiril of their Iniiliidc, obstinately 
refilled to «ccord lu hiin.*" 

Our nation owes to the anistic typ<;, which is ex- 
tremely widely diffused among us, the caprii-e and the 
brilliamcy which t-hamctcriscs it ; but as rcgftrds 
ibc disdain which Itiis type evinces Tor all that la 
merely uacful, we owe to the artistic ty|>c the spirit 
of frivolity for which wc are reproached. 

The English, continually prc-occupied concerning 
their KHM!rrM/ai/tuNV(t^, continually alter and improve , 
their machines iiid th«ir Induatries ; to us, who arc 
blest with a less inclement atmosphenr, material 
innovations are as repugnant as moral innovations 
■re to our neighbours. The reason of this is, that 
material improvements require a continual physical 
labour, whilst the moral ones require a constant in- 
tellectual labour. Wc are progressive in iU*af. they 
in lAinffs. Our iibllity exhibits iiscK in the lojpe of 
theories ; theirs, in utilitarianism and the opportunity 
for applying their larultics. We sacnpice interests to 
pnndples, liuy sacrifice principles to tnicrests. 

The cxpiuiiiion of the English mind prorecds like 
thai of water, outwards rather than upwards ; whereas 
nor intellectual progress proceeds like thol of tim, 
upwards nUher than outwards. The fCnglish aim 
at well-being by the increase of the domination of thc 

"* Out author twcms to disreg;trd, or to 
of. the (oct that Byron first went to CJreete in 1807, 
in the niidM of the s>um of praise and adulation which 
aaoailed him ou the af^aiancr of hi« answer tt> Lord 
Braugfaam'* attork in the Edinburgh Review, upon bt« 

Mil).. .' 
lived 11 

hi*t MtHulonghi in April itt\. 


man over physical forces. They gave birth to Bacon, 
and they carry on the plan of the Romans; they 
people and they cultivate the world, w* civilise it"* 
We gave birth to Descartes, and carry on the plan of 
the Greeks; we aim at good fortune by the multiplica- 
tion and thie progress of things which interest the 
mind.""" Where our neighbours swid traders, we 
send missionaries; where they cany utensila, we 
carry books and art-treasures. 

Let the artistic type multiply itself in England, 

' and we shall see the last [up to a certain point] 

of its eccentricity, and, as a natural consequence, of 

a great portion of its power. The governing principle 

being left without universal acquiescence, she would 

"• " The Kin^ome of//ir(7r'eM is compared, not to any 
great Kernel or Nut, but to a Graine oS. Mustard seede i 
which is one of the least Graines, but hath in it a Proper- 
tie and Spirit hastily to get up and spread. So there are 
States great in Territoiy, and ytt not apt to Enlarge or 
Command ; And some that have but a small Dimmension 
of Stemme, and yet apt to be the Foundations of Great 
Monarchies." F. BaCON, " Of Greatnesse of King- 
dotnes and Estates" (London ; 1625). 

■" R^ne Descartes [or Renatus Cartesius], bom in 
1596, has been justly c^led one of the reformers of philo- 
sophy. At an early age he became dissatisfied with all 
the accepted teaching of the schools, and all the 
methods and dogmata of existing philosophy, and set 
himself resolutely to discard the teaching of the sfavants 
of his day, with a view to developing a new method of 
study and analysis. His processes and their results 
appear in his " Discours sur la Mithode" (Amsterdam ; 
1037) and the bases of his philosophical system may be 
found in his " Miditatwnes de Primd Philosophia" 
(Amsterdam : 16^ i) and his " Principia Philesopkue " 
(Amsterdam : 1644). From 1621 to 1649 he hved in 
Holland, in which latter year, having repaired to the 
court of Sweden at the invitation of Queen Christina, 
he died in 1650. In " An Oration in Defence of the . 
New Philosophy," spoken in the Sheldonian Theatre 
at Oxford, in July 1693, by Joseph Addison [printed, in 
English, at the end of the third edition of Gardner's 
translation of Fontenelle's work " Oh the Pltiraii^af 


thea have, like us, mort nationalism than pniriulisin, 
thai M [o M/, in.)rc inert foir c, thnn power of orlinn. 
where aaivity and lianiliness dearly 
Ik the spirit or the masttos, and shine nt the *^ 
all their attributes, people atc ashamed uf 
ly, because it indicates, up to a certain point, (he 
r Ihcse qualities. This is what one sees 
in England, where the avowiil of misery is painful, 
and equivalent to the confession of a crime ; every 
thinJu that he raises himself in the cstinidlion 
of others in naying that he is rich. In Spain, where 
neither activity nor hamlinesa arc Inborn charactcris- 
gf the people, poverty is for no one a brand of 
In France, where knowledge is more 
than hnndiness ; meditation than at-tion ; and 
liilriltfviua] cupaeity ntitxl unly deaionstnitt: 
itaeH to gsihcr riches, poverty is acknowledged with- 
iNit much scruple. 

Goodwill [■.(., liberty uf action] and liberty, says ^41 _ 
Bcehmr, are the same thins, but goodwill and sociability "^^^^^^^ 
ant two very diRcrent thing*"* One la more free but 
kaa Midable where liberty of action is strongly de- 

198] « 

1 the folloor- 

ril thf tmih anintl the united force broui;hl on tht" rtaRc a new 

...... A t;r<uit man indeed he 

i-nvy FitANCK. He solved the 
[ SI- almost as wc:!! as if hv had 
, iftc., utc. [A moat inlerevtlng 
II of icience which occutreil in 

;i-!lT n-hrnrf M, d'Arpenfi]ptiy 



veloped, u in England, where originality is hi^ty 
esteemed ; one 19 more socuible but less free wfan« 
liberty of action is restricted, as in France, where 
' conformity is appreciated. The English drum is 
passionate and farcical, whereas ours is restrained 
and humorous; they exhibit more poetry and con- 
trast, whilst we exhibit more art and harmony. 

You can apply these principles of chdn^ncmical 
' philosophy to the study of other nationalities ; as fer 
instance Germany, a blonde and cold country, which 
extols the triple intoxication of contemplation, music, 
and tobacco. There people live seriously, and dream 
enormously; there they drink oat of huge goblets and 
read out of huge books. The enormous folios of the 
Encyclopfedia open uniform with equally minute 
dissertations upon the words God, universe, and 
dandelion. It is the country of inflated poetry, of 
rigid military minds, of enthusiastic metaphysicians, 
and of phlegmatic postillions. The ideas which are 
honourable there, are too positive for us, or are not 
sufficiently so, for we experience as much repugnance 
for people who are absorbed in the esoteric essences 
of things and whose minds attach themselves only to 
the incomprehensible, as for people whose thoughts 
cannot soar above the levels of absolute matter, Ger* 
many would not offer the afflicting spectacle of a 
noble and learned nation governed by absolutism, if 
the reasoning portion of its population was more 

without the Darkness in itself; and the Flash which 
there is the Separation and the Sharpness and the Noise 
(or Sound) is the Dwelling of the Will free from the 
Darkness. And the Flash elevates the Will, and the 
Will triumphs In the Sharpness of the Flash, and the Will 
discovers itself in the Sharpness of the Sound in the Flash 
of the Light, without the Darkness, in the Breaking, in 
the Infinity," etc., etc., etc. 'Tie WbrHs 0/ "fycod 
Bcehmen'* [or Behmen], "The Three PrinciiJes of 
the Divine Essence " (London : 1764], vol. i., p. 136. 


capable or action, and if the active portion of its 
population was more capable of reason. She is full 
of worthy folk who, gifted with more soul than 
intelligence, are more fit for good fortune than plea- 
sure. Self-contained In their joy, and lyric in their 
moments of intemperance, they surpass all other 
nations in freedom, in innocence, and in good nature. 

With them comedy is a matter of senliment; fWB. 
pathetic and expansive, it pourtrays man directed cJ™ »^y 
by his heart and by his instinct With us it is a 
tnaUer of Judgment; discreet and restrained, it ex- 
hibits man as he is formed by education and by 
society. Romantic and synthetic on that side of the 
Rhine, historic and analytic on this. In France it 
aims at the tnu, and proposes to redress evils by 
mockery and laughter ; witty rather than tender, it 
amines, and, appealing to the mind, it inslrucls. In 
Germany it aims at the btatUifut, and aims at the 
redress of evils by tears ; tender rather than witty, it 
imterrsta, and, appealing to the heart, it improves. 

From which data I conclude that comedy is the ^WT. 
domain of conic hands in Germany, and of square 
hands in France, Sec only, in the vestibule of the 
Theatre Fran^ais, the busts of Molitre, of Regnard, 
of Dancourt, of Lesage, of Marivaux. They have all 
of them the aquiline nose, which almost invariably 
accompanies a square formation of the fingers. 

CdoihIt ■TTUtu" 


SPATVLATE HANDS [eontimmnl^. ' 

The Hands of tkt North Amtriaua. 

To a higher degree even than the English, from w^om 
they originally sprung, the inhabitants of North 
America pay the greatest attention to that instruction 
which teaches them how to act upon matter so 
as to utilise it. Listen to the description of them 
by Michael Chevalier in his " Dixiime Lettre aur les 
fetats Unis:"— 

"The Yankee is reserved, concentrated, defiant. 
His humour is pensive and sombre, but unchangeable. 
His attitude is without grace, but modest and without 
baseness. His manner of addressing one is cold, 
often but little prepossessing ; his ideas are narrow 
but practical ; and he appreciates what accords with 
-the fitness of things, but not what is grand. He is 
absolutely devoid of chivalrous feeling, but yet he is 
adventurous. He delights in a wandering life, and 
has an imagination which gives birth to ori|pnal 
ideas,' — ideas which are not poetic, but eccentric. The 
Yankee is the prototype of the hard-working ant ; he 
is industrious and sober, economical, cunning, subtle, 
cautious, always calculating, and vain of the tricks 
with which he takes in the inattentive or confiding pur- 
chaser. He is rarely hospitable: heisa readys] 


- l1*o»l 
but at the same time he is not a brilliant orator, but 
a calm logician. He tacks that largeness o( mind 
and or heart, which, enabling him to understand and 
appreciate the natures or his fellow-men, would 
make him a statesman ; but h$ is a clever adminis- 
trator and a man of huge enterprise. If he is but 
slightly capable of managing men, he has not his 
c<iual in the administration of things, in the arts of 
classifying them, and of weighing them one against 
the other. 

" Though he is the most consummate trader, it is ^ 410. 
pre-eminently as a colonist that the Yankee excites ^^^ 
our admiration -. impervious to fatigue, he engages in 
a hand-to-hand stru^le with Nature, at the end of 
which his tenacity always renders him victorious. 
He is the Rrst mariner of the world, the ocean is 
his slave. The most tender passions are stain in him 
by his religious austerity, and the prc-occu pat ions i>f 
his wurldly profession. To the spirit of trade, by the 
aid I'f which he derives advantage from what he gets 
out of the earth, he joins the genius of labour which 
makps it fruitful, and of mechanics which give form 
to the fruits of his labour."*** In a nation such as this 
there cannot exist any but hands which arc spatulate, 
and fingers which arc square. 

The good which has been done to the jHoir by ^ 411. 
spatulate hands in Russia, in England, and in America ^,^ " 
has been verj- small. In Sclavonic Russia, where Hm^ifc 
they have reigned uncontrolled since the invasion hy 

„ - - -/..//r^J 

rAnUrique du Nord " (Paris : i«)6. 2 vols.), of which 
there exists a translation, t-nlitled " Alannrrs and 
Paii/ics in the United States. iV/h^- .t Scries of Letters 
on Xortk America," translated' from the yA Parir 
edition (Boston: i8}9). on pp. 116— 17 i>f which tl 
p»— ?lf quoted may be found. 


die Scandinavian Rurik,"* and where the elementary 
lund, which is that of the masses, is in a state of 
slavtry, the soldier, harshly subjected to the punc- 
tilious exigencies uf an iron-handed discipline, har- 
assed in turn by the evil genius of barbarism and 
by the evil genius of civilisation, dares not to allow 
his glances to wander beyond the limit proscribed by 
the ever-visible shadow of the knout. In England, 
where the great majority of the people have no other 
pole-star than the comirtissarriil, (he insatiable voracity 
of. ttie great, leaves but very inadequate relief for 
that of the humble. In puritanical America the 
woricmau's life is a frco one, but repose and pleasure 
are interdicted to him. The life of a Catholic con- 
vent is not more gloomy or rigid than that of the 
maoufactories of Lowel for instance. At Pittsburg, 
work ceases only at necessary intervals for food ; 
and the longest meal during the day does not last 
more than ten minutes. Man there is reputed only 
to possess a stomach and two arms. The rest of him 
does not count. 

In the same way that the l^plander could not form 
, any idea of a paradise without snow, the Yankee 
could not understand happiness without labour. 
Pursuing the same lexical method as ours, when we 
relegate political power to Ikinkers, i.e., to the [>eople 
of physical leisure, who are always few in number. 

"• It was at the call of the Slavs in 86i that Rurik, 
Sineons, and Trouvot [whose names signify the PeacefiU, 
the Victorious, and the Faithful] crossed the Baltic 
from Scandinavia, and established in Russia a mle 
which lasted down to the reigfn of the son of Ivan tiie 
Terrible in the siiteenth century. Vide Alfred 
Rambaud's "History of Russia" translated by L. 
Lang (London : 1879), vol. ix., p. 56, and compare " Za 
Chronique dt Nestor " [a Russian monk of the 
eleventh century], traduiie en fran9ais par L. Paris 
(Paris: 1834), vol. i.,p. zo. 



[because in our opinion pre-eminence belongs to 
thought], the Yankee has granted the same power to 
workers, who always constitute the larger half of the 
community, because, in his opinion, pre-eminence 
belongs to labour. 

In his love of labour he has branded as immoral 
everything that could hinder his work, even to the 
pastimes which we regard as the most innocent 
and the most allowable. 

As yet the Americans are simply a nation of super- 
cargoes, of pioneers, of farmers, of mercers ; their 
laughable pretensions to high tone and elegance of 
manner are a sufficient proof of this. Cooper has 
written whole pages where this punctilious self- 
sufficiency is spread out in long and heavily- worded 
periods, in a manner which, symmetrical and pedantic, 
is strenuously opposed to the freedom and toleration 
of good society. 

'Whilst the French, a nation relatively lazy, deprive 
themselves of a quantity of material comforts so as 
to bequeath to their children the means of living an 
idle life, the English, on the other hand, spend and 
consume their substance with a commensurate lack 
of scruple ; having no fear of penury themselves, 
they do not consider it a misfortune for their children 
to be made heirs of necessity. 

From which facts I conclude that our good qualities 
as well as our vices [if such we have], oppose them- 
aelves with equal force to the increase of the pro- 
ductive instinct among us. We consume — and, by 
consequence, produce by manual labour — less than 
the English, but more than the Spanish, who, in their 
turn, do less work than us, but more than the Arabs. 
It has always been thus ; and in the same way we 
must seek in the instincts peculiar to our nation, and 
not in the continually recommended imitation of the 
materialistic procedure of the English, the countr-^*^ 

n 4«a] 

If 418. 

American love of 




French and 


IT 416. 

French. Knglbh, 
and Spanbh 




[Kjtae of the remarkable increase of power and pros- 
perity which they have derived from the more 
complete development of the genius which is peculiar 
to them. 

The same thing may be said of tbe types as of 
plants—/;*., that they fin ""t shine forth in all their 
brilliancy, and do nol ; (brth all their fruits, 

excepting beneath certt titudes. Where mort/ 

requirements are more i Jed than ^Aysi'n?/ neces- 
sities [and this is what I ns in the rich and fertile 

countries of the South] i 
to the types of men i 
Where, on the other hani. 

? has given pre-eminence 
cterised as " southern.'' i 
iys7cal necessities require 
e attended to than moral [and this is what 
occurs in sterile countries and in the North], nattire 
has given the pre-eminence to "northern" types ctf_ 



Tfie yentmticm of All Ptopk for Pointtd Fingers. 

All nations, however diflcrcnt [physically and 54U. 
morally] they may be from oin; another, whatever '^'J^H^'^ 
may be the form of their government, the spirit of < 
their culture, or the nature of their ideas upon beauty, 
worth, truth, and usefulness, agree unanimously in 
giving pointed or conical fingers (o pictorial or 
sculptured representations of angels or good genii, 
with which each race, according to its education, con- 
siders the heavens to be peopled. Even down to the 
Chinese and Japanese, unprogressive nations which 
measure beauty, goodness, and good fortune by the 
extent of the corporeal development,'" and for whom 
the fine arts and liberty, as we understand them, do 
not exist, all peoples are agreed in this i.-onimon 
admiration. The entire human race sees nothing but 
beauty and elegance in a pointed -lingered hand. 

"' •' The people of China are divided into four classes 
or categories of citiMns, according to the merits and 
hoouurs that custom and the law of the land attribute to 
each. These classes are the literarj-. the agricultural. 
the manufacturing, and the commercial. Such is the 
ordei of the social hierarchy in China. ... In point of 
fact, the two classes esteemed and honoured are the two 


.T* M. The fiwt 15 that our one great loss [aanctioaed by 

- - ** - the necessity of labour] is above all things exhibited 
to us ^ this cruel and humiliating necessity ; and it 
is hence tliat arises our instinctive respect for leisure 
and the sentiment which impels us to presuppose, as 
the attributes of the beings which are the objects of 
our love and adoration, hands which to our minds 
convey the impressions of the ideality, and qua^- 
divine instincts of contemplation and repose. 

Among barbarous tribes, as among civilised nations^ 
in the eyes of the masses, the man who does least 
for himself excites a respect which is secondary only 
to that paid to the man who does mttkitig. Is tiiis a 
circumstance without significance ? 

first; they constitute the aristocracy of mind and of 
labour. Our nobility could only inscribe upon their 
blazon a pen — i.e., a paint brush — or a plough: in one, 
Heaven for field ; in the other. Earth. . . . The Chinese 
hierarchy is not founded upon seniority, but upon merit. 
The degree fixes the position, and the higher the posi- 
tion, the higher must be the merit of its occupant" 
TCHENG-KI-TONG, " T/ie Chinese Painted by Them- 
selves" l^oaAon: 1885, pp. 61 and 6g). The national 
characteristic of the Chinese hand is itsextremepointed- 
ness,— a formation [vide flfl 136-7] entirely in accordance 
with the contemplative psychological mind of the 


SPATULATE HANDS [rwA'nma/]. Cohtihuatii 

RomoH Hands. 

Suck hands aa I described in the last chapter were 5 Ul. 
not, such could never be, the hands of the Sovereign ^^]ty "^ 
People. Devoted to war, and to continual move- Rumui 
ment by the peculiar organisation transmitted to '"''*■ 
them by the heroes and the warriors who came 
together at the call of the child of the Brazen Wolf, 
the Romans have received as their portion, the talent 
of the arts necessary to men of action ; they excelled 
in bodily action and in the handling of arms, in the 
construction of aqueducts, of bridges, of high roads, 
of camps, of engines of war, and of fortresses. For 
poetiy they had but a reflex and passing fancy, for the 
fine arts merely a taste bom of vanity, despising 
speculative notions, and respecting nothing but war, 
political eloquence, history, jurisprudence, and sensual 

As soon as the powerful hands which they had I'M!, 
kept for so long gripped upon the enslaved world, ^»»^,"^"»*= 
turned at last from their specialty by Christian caJmn nm 
spiritualism, began to be raised towards heaven, the '»Bit 

world escaped from their dominion. And it is mere 
repetitioa of an opinion which has frequently been 
1, to aay that Platonism was not more fatal 


to the Greeks as a nation devoted to the cultivation 
of (he beautiful, and governed by ideas proper to 
artistic hands, '^* than was .Christianity to the Romans 
as a people governing the universe by the power of 
ideas proper to square and spatulate hands. Speaking 
politically, the murders of Socrates and of Christ were 
necessary acts of justice. Regard being had to the 
good which their systems of morality have since 
produced, the human race takes no thought of their 
socialist incendiarism ; but Athens and Rome, mortally 
wounded in the ideas upon which they existed by the 
ultramontane spiritualism of the principles of these 
two reformers, — principles which aimed at nothing 
less than the substitution of individual intelligence 
for that of the masses, aristocracy for democracy, — 
were bound to condemn them to death. Among the 

"■' This is not a place in which to discuss the effects 
of Platonism, or even of Neo- Plato n ism, upon the Greek 
character and constitution. " The ethics of Plato," as 
Mr. G. H. I-cwes says in his '■ History of Philosophy " 
(London: 1880. vol. i., p. 271), "might suit the inha- 
bitants of another world ; they are useless to the in- 
habitants of this." It was, however, JVifo- Platonism 
which led to the downfall of the Greek Empire, rather 
than Platonism : for ihe latter, following as it did, and 
becoming to a certain extent mingled with, the tenets 
of the Stoic philosophers, produced a system of philo- 
sophy than wnieh little could have been more perfect. 
"Stoicism," says Lccky [" History of European 
Morals" by William Lecky (London: 1877, vol. i., 
P- 325)]' "placed beyond cavil the great distinctions 
between right and wrong. . . . The early Platonists 
corrected the exaggerations of Stoicism, gave free scope 
to the amiable qualities, and supplied a theory of right 
and wrong, suited not merely for heroic characters and 
extreme emergencies, but also for the characters and 
circumstances of common life." It was when the 
Neo-1'latonists, such as Apuleius, Ammonius Saccas, 
Plotinus, Porphyrins, and the rest of them, began to 
preach their doctrines, that the evil influence of the new 
school began to make itself felt, — doctrines which as 
Lt'<ky B.iys [p. 328], "made men credulous, because they 
suppressed that critical spirit which is the sole barrier 




I thirty tyrants which Anytus, tJie enemy of SotTale*,*" 
asaistn) Tlimsibulus In overthrow, there were /AfW 

I dl^dples nf thai philnsophcr; well, is it nut well 
kniiwii that these thirty spilled in eight tnuntlH mure 

I limucent blood than the people had shed during many 

\ centuries 7 

Xenophon hu written upon the Athenian republic 
some rcOec'tions whiirh. to my mind, utterly rerutc the "SSSSS 
(pinion which he has eipressed upon the injustice of 
the iondemnation uf his illustrious tiuister : — " There 
urc men," uys he, " who are astonished to see that, 
«s a rule, they favour [m Al/trts] nrtizans, the (loor, 
and the common people more than the honest dlizens. 
It a, however, the surest way to preserve the popular 
condition of things ; in fact. If the poor, llie plebeian, 

< and lower classes are happy, they increase in numbera, 
and there you have the stmtgt/i of a democracy. If, 
n the contrary, it is Ihc rich and the well-bom who 

I ar« ttie must considered, democracy raiocs againrt 

I beraclf an inimical power. They say that we ought 

I lo the e^"^rT.e^cInach!nlf imaijinatinn ; 

B Stoii 


- The early 3 

■ It very urotigly 00 mcnuU J 
< "lical ti.f.. a> prauiical aa 
wo* A'«o-PM/ttmism which was 

. 4£CaUUi/U nlikll btuu^ht litUh lllc ,;lu 





not to allow all men iDdiscnminately to In 
and to be members of the council, but onl; 
who are distinguished by the most talent 1 
most virtue. There is, howevef, nothing 
wise than to allow even the lowest pleb 
speak in public. If the first citizens only I 
exclusive right to harangue and to sit in < 
it would be a benefit for their class, b 
for the populace; instead of which the hi 
artiian, being allowed to rise and harang 
assembly, brings before it ideas and suggestion: 
conduce to the welfare of himself and of bis c 

"But," people reply, "what will a man of ti 
say which can be useful either for himself or 
people of his class ? In the opinion of the 1 
this man, be he whom he may, with his ign 
but with his zeal for the democracy, is wort 
than a well-to-do citizen with grandiose views ai 
penetration, but perfidious intentions. 

"Perhaps this plan is not the best possi 
least it tends to the perpetuation of the dem 
The people requires, not a learned adminii 
which would enslave it, but liberty and sove 
in itself. Given this, the constitution may be ' 
but that is the least of its troubles. What st 
you to be defective in the political system, is pi 
what makes the people powerful and free."*'* 

■" The above paragraphs are condensed fr 
" Atheniensium Resfublka " of Xenophon, ai 

sist of the passages cited below.* 

• "'Eirdra U, ii Inoi ecuini^pivir Srt TorrttX'O wXiar 
fl TOfs ^T^irraZti i" aOrt^ fpafoOrrat r^y iuiiiOKpoTloM Siat 
Ql fiiv yip it^ierjTe xai ai flrj/^ai fai oi xc^of , tC rpiTTt 
iroXAoJ ol 70io5^TQi yiytufitfoif r^ S^f/orparlar aO^v^ir " 
" K( liif yip ol xpij'To' /^FTiw ""J ifiovXciJiiirTOTBii iiuU 
ain-«ifl» dyned, TOii St t^/iOTiKcli oit' iyaSi," VIC, eU:., 
" iyip ai roiiitia win itroittivBcu, aCrii iririAnv lirxtt 
Koi iXtiStpi, ^oTU'."— AeHNATON nOAITEIA, n^. i 



A nation ought tostrivc to discover what are itsspedal 
aptjtndes, and this having bc«n done, to aoi upon this 
knowledge, and not to embark upon lines which arc 
foreign to its special powers. The North Americans 
■re especially fitted for the industrial arts which assist 
th« lesser vcicncesj the Frencti excel in the Industrial 
arts which lend to the liberal nncs ; the English arc fitted 
for industrial arts which assist llie higher sciences, — 
is there nut enough in these specialties to satisfy the 
activity of these three nations? The ittomi graft 
taking etfed as it does up«n certain individuals whom 
it causes to produce Trulls oT (heir labour foreign lo 
their natures, could not obtain a hold upon the musses 
of a nation. The spirit uf a nation may be modified, 
bul it cannot be completely transformed. Then let 
Engbnd, rich in spatulate hands, cover continents with 
her colonies, and seas with her ships ; let France, 
rich as she is in artistic and philosophic hands, 
scatter broadcast her ideas as the former nation does 
ber men I But the practice of the line arts by the 
survivorB and perpeiuator* of the Carthaginian spirit, 
and the practice of industry by the perpciuators of 
the Creek genius, will be, for botli of these nations, 
for a long time at oU events, nothing mure than an 
indigent snnree of negative glory, of cqui vocal success, 
aiMl of doubtful profiL 

There are focutiie* and qoolltics which arc held 
In high esteem, which we do not all of us possess, 
vrhich we should all like to appear toposscM. There ■> 
w oihers which we practically do already possess, 
but of which we dare not to be proud, as if everything 
was not worthy of consideration when kepi in its 
proper place. This is ihe sunken rock nn which ih<we 
who, after otudyiiig these cheirognumics] theories, 
nuy tmderlake to put ihcm into prscitce are likely to 
tuike. They will often Itave to rely upon the oasur- 
•ncc of third pcnons to the tSkti that Ihe^ hav« 


properly pronounced upon the geolua vrtilcfa is 
attached to any particular hand. Often this denial 
of one's true character is made in good flutfa, for 
how many men are, and always will be, tgnonnt 
<^ themselves ; but often it will result from wounded 
self-esteem. No one, for Instancy in the polite world 
expects to be told that he has the talent of msnasl 
labour and not of the fine arta^ and that the temple 
of the muses is dosed to him. There must intervene 
Prometheus, who, having stolen fire from heaven, 
tau^t the use of it to man ; *** Dndalu^ iriio in- 
vented the saw, the aze, the sails and masts of shipa, 
and by these means added wings to die shoulders of 
human genius ;*'* and Papin*" and Fulton,*" those 
modem Promethei; and Csesar, who in his Com- 
mentaries dwells more lovingly over his labours of 
engineering skill than over his strategic powers as 
a general and his prowess as a soldier ;■** and 

■* Vide ApoUodonjs, I. and ii, 

™ M. d'Arpentigny's remark in this place coincides 
with the opinion which has been expressed by many 
learned commentators ; i.e., that the flight of Ozdilus 
and Icarus from Crete with wings may be accounted 
for by the fact that, being the first to use sails, it is not 
at all improbable that the ancients, seeing them for tfae 
first time or from a distance, took these contrivances for 

"' Vide note ■*, p. 248. 

"' An American engineer, bom of Irish parents in 
Little Britain, Pennsylvania. He may well be compared, 
on account of the versatility of his genius, to Frome- 
theuB, having been in turn a landscape painter, a watch- 
maker, and a mechanician, and having been equally 
successful in each vocation. He came to London at 
the age of twenty-two. He was the inventor of many 
great mechanical works, and was the first projector of 
Ote "Nautilus," or submarine boat, and also of the 
torpedo system of warfare. In 1807 he started the first 
steamer on the Hudson. He died in 1815. 

*" This can hardly be said without reservation j bnt 
certainly the minuteness with which Cxsar continually 


[1 ^M] 
Charlemagne, who used a doctrine as if it had been Chuiausn*. 
an aie;**" and Peter the Great, who used the axe as P««r tbcGnu. 
if it had been a doctrine;"' and Macchiavelli, who Mm:W»«lfi- 
teaches us to make use of men as if they were so 
much working material, and in whose eyes any- 

enters into particulars of the construction of various 
appliances of his campaigns is one of the Treat charms 
of his work, t^ide, for instance, the descnption of the 
Venetic ships [" De Btila Galiico," iii., 13], of his 
bridee over the Rhine {op. cit., iv., 17], his plans 
for uie special ships to oe used against the Piruslse 
\pp. cit., v., \\, the description of Trebonius' engines 
of war ["/V Bella Civili." ii.. 8], and a number of 

* We find a good instance of the proselytising opera- 
tions of Charlemagne in his secretary's account of his 
life [" Vita tt Gesta Karoli Magni per Eginkartum 
ejus Secretarium deicripta" {lApstx: 1616}, p. 11], in 
the account of how he bound over the Saxons, after he 
had conquered them, to abjure iheir worship of daemons 
and the superstitions of their ancestors, and to embrace 
the Christian religion.* 

™ As, for instance, in the punishment of the inhabi- 
tants of Streliti, who had revolted against him. " Le 
cruel, du haul de son trOne, assistedun iblI sec a ces 
executions ; it fait plus, il m£le aux joies des festins 
lliorreur des supplices. Ivri de vin et de sang, le verre 
d'une main et la hache dc I'autre. en une seule heure 
vingt libations successives marquent la chute de vin^ 
tCtes de Streliti, ou'il abat k ses pieds, en s'enorgueilhs- 
sant de son horrible addrcsse. Quaire-vingts Strelitz . . . 
soDt train^s 4 Moscou; et leurs iCtes, qu'un boyard 
tient successive men [ par Ics cheveux, tombent encore 
sous la hache du Ciar."^ M. DE Segur, " Uistoire tie 
Russieetde Pierre le Grand" (Paris: 1819), liv. viii,, 
ch. iL, p. ja8. 

" No one ever lived who more than Nicolo Macchia- 
velli governed his lifL- on the Horatian text " Rem. facias 
rem — recte si possis ; si non, quocunque modo rem." 
It is probable that his unenviable reputation for absolute 

* " Kaqoc cuoditione a rcf^c prvposito, ri ah illij MiiCcpta, 
imctnin per to) anniH bclliim coiuui vat finiiam. ut ibjecto 
TlaTiK'niiTn cnllu. et reliciii puriit cerimoaiii, ChriMianx 6dei 

a pcrcipiant." 



and F. Arago, who resolutely deny, the one, every- 
thing that his subtle logic cannot explain,*^ the other, 
everything that his winged figures cannot reduce ;"* 
[oogeandWast. and Monge** and Wast, icr.X., all those giants of die 
racial hand among spatulate subjects ; these glorious 

unscnipulousness and unrestrained cunning' is due 
almost entirely to the seventh and eighth chapters of " II 
J^HCtpe** (Kome: 1532}, in which he lays down the 
asdoms categorically that any means may without 
scruple be adopted for the attainment of power and the 
government of states,* that good governors are often 
established on their thrones by evu means,t and that 
honesty and good faith are merely " spectres, raised to 
frighten fools?*} 

"" Denis Diderot, the illustrious author of the " .£W- 
cyclopidie'^ [1749-67], bom in 1713, died in 1784, was 
perhaps one of the sincerest and most pronounced 
atheists that ever lived. One of his most celebrated 
sayings sufficiently illustrates the above citation of his 
name, viz. : — ** The first step towards philosophy is 

■" I presume our author means D. [Dominique] Arago» 
the celebrated astronomer and natural philosopher 
[bom 1786, died 1853], who, with Gay Lussac, confirmed 
the unaulatory theory of lieht which had been stated 
and expounded by Young and Fresnel [ Vide **A Manttal 
of Chetrosophyy** ^ 63]. 

** Gaspard Monge, Comte do Peluse, an eminent 

* " Dipoi, gli Stati che vengono subito, come tutte le allre 
cose della natura che nascono e crescon presto, non possono aver 
le radice e corrispondenze loro, in che il primo tempo avverso 
non le spen^ ; se gia quelli tali, come 6 detto, che si in un 
subito son diventati principi, non sono di tanta virtu, che quello 
che la fortuna ha messo loro in grembo sappino subito prepanursi 
a conservare ; c quelli fondamenti che gli altri hanno fatti avanti 
che diventino principi. gli facdano poi. lo voglio al' uno e Taltro 
di questi modi, circa il diventar principe per virtu o per fortuna, 
adurre duoi esempii stati nc' di della memoria nostra ; questi sono 
Francesco Sforza e Cesare Borgia.*' — ** // Principe e A lire Scritti 
Politici di Nicole Macchiccuelli''^ (Firenze : 1862), ch. vil, " De 
principati nuovi, che con forze d'altri e per fortuna s*acquistano,** 

p. 41- 

t Op. cit., p. 54., cap. viii. ** Di quelli che per scellera- 

tezze sono pcrvenuti al prindpato.'* 

X Op. cit., p. 112, cap. xv-iii. *'In che mode i prindpi 

debbiano asservare la fede." 

nuncs, 1 repeat, muM be i-iieO lo many subjccls before 

thejr will recognise in llicmsctvcs tlic talents which 

arc indkated by Uiese spatulaie fingers. 

. It is the same with nations and with individuals ; 

I here you Snd the same ignoranee, and there the same 

' Mnsitiveness. The Italians of the present day, do ■ 

tbcy know what they want, what is best suited to 

tbeni ? The Belgians, a nation of shopkeepers, ditlt, 

rc8tic«e Tctich -wu rah I ppers, perpetually on their knees 

before the golden calf, do they not liiok upon them* 

•elves 89 ■ model nation? And the Russians, because 

Ibcy understand the use at paste jewels and pinch- 

, htxk, and because they cheat at cards and disdain 

ivomen, look upon themselves as civilised I 

Thb must be iindcrstCH^ lo refer to masses, for 

I everywhere, oiul amnng all types, there exist indi- 

l vidual cxreplion* — I'indar, Hesiod, Pluiardi, and -aiio"*' fl 

I Epaminondas were Boratians.*** The great Corncillc 

I vna born in Jtouen,'^ tiic town of mean and niatcrial- 

I ntk intercaO ; there arc people of a generous, brisk, 

' French mathemsticinn and physicist, foundrr of the 

, £tait I\)ljUthHiqtit, which give* him n claim to the 

' abuve cititioa- Bom in IT46. died ia 1818; for an 

arcooni u( his life and laoours viiU Uupin's " Etiai 

/tistari^itf lur In Sm-tcr.! ft Us Travam* SctetUijtfua 

tie Manxr" ^Patit i iSig). 

* f^nitur was hcim nl Thcbii', PluCanh at CoroniM, 

Hesiod at Aftcra. and Ep.irninuml.i*. at Thebes. Not- 

williMiiiuIiii^ Ihc fiirl thai IhfM' mm wen- horn, and 

IldicoQ, ihc moiititain /ar rxcelU-nir of the Muien, was 

L Mtaated, in Birtitia, Uii* inhabitants uf ihal province 

I alwaya looked upon as particuUrly boorish and 

— Ho, an anotiiitly whirh has been rri:ord«d by 

<c \"EpiiMartim " ii.. 1., I. 1.^4] in ihi? lines 

Xl \ieim fl ul hire Muunim itoni vimm 

.\A BCBlXDin 111 iTUHIJIII.IIr, jirrt Dltlini,' 

* On fit h June, itoO. The i>nly ljualificjilioa which 
till* tiMm hAi (or the contempt with which uur aulbur 
aQoda to It is the lad that it in perhap* tbe jfTcatest 



itnd subtle disposition to be found in Belgium, 
us have heard an Englishman sing in tune ! L 
was born in dreamy and romantic Brittany— 
vince which the wits of the seventeenth cenlu 
named, on account of its want of practical inte 
the French Boeotia.** 

Glory be to spatulate hands ! Without the 
'^ and powerful society could not esist. Withou 
of glass manufacture, to go no farther than 
without the invention of chimneys as wc ha' 
to-day [an invention which goes no farth 
than the fourteenth century],*" both of th 
productions of spatulate hands, we shou 
be hardly more than semi -barbarians. Ket 
as it were, in a forcing-frame, these two in' 
have placed civilisation, the spontaneously g< 
(lower of warm (climates, beyond the reach 
external influences which in our inclement 1 

manufacturing [own in France. Vidt ' 
"CorneilU et son Tempi" (Paris: 1851): 
translation (London: i^S^). and E. Desjaidit 
Grand Cor neiUe" {Pa.ns: 1861). 

** Alain R^nfi Lesage, the author of " Gi/ 
Santillaiir" (Paris: 1715), and "Le Diable B 
bom at Samcau i658, cued 1747. 

™ Vitie note ". 

™ M. le Capitoine d'Arpcnligny takes us, intl 
graph, far enough up the vista of past time, see 
glass manufacture is represented pictotially on E 
mummy cases of the twelfth dynasty [B.C. i8< 
is mentioned in papyri of ^e fifth and sixth dj 

*' It has always been a matter of dispute whe 
artificial means of drawing off smoke from thei' 
was known to the ancient Romaus. Our author i 
in attributing the invention of chimneys to the f» 
century ; in Rochester Castle there are clcmen 
I me chimneys dating from \circa'\ 1130, and a 
date there are many perfect specimens of Iho 1 
proper. The beautiful stacks of clustered cl 
such as are seen to such perfection 00 some ol 
Kentish housesrdate probably from the fifteenth 



1d a word, ll is Herat^lcs whuni spatu late-handed 
lii«D tnuM set up ns a model for themselves. 'I'hey 
will tiwni have nerves Id Imnnony with their tem- 
penuncnt, which is sanguine, and with their bnncs, 
which will be big and strong. Let us talcc a 
cou;>k of illustrations. Chnpin, the pianist, with his 
»p«lulati: hands and ima/l Ihumbs did out fulfil 
these conditiuns. Ilia nerves, q( an extreme Gne- 
n«B, were not in proportion to his powerful fmmc- 
woric ; he was like n violoncello strung up with 
viuiin sirinfp. Thus he failed tu produce the 
tooea which expert physiologists felt that he ought 
V» hav« produced. They expected vigour, energy, 
and precision, and instead he wrsppcd himself up, 
like velvet- fingered artists, in snuill and checked 
bartnonies. A prey to two tcndenrics, which were 
constantly dragging him in opjiosita directions, he 
knew not to which to pay attention. What his blood 
urged him, his ncrvcs would not allow him to do; 
he aimed ai activily, and enervated himself in repose ; 
be cried after chargers, and rode upon clouds ) he 
longed to howl like the tempest, but an inward 
monitor, the sheet lightning of beautiful laces, and I 
knuw not wlut yearning after the crested puncls uJ* 
ttac beraMic tabard, compelled him to chauni in ■ 
aoOb voa. Courteous and smiling, with a strange 
ahadow in his eyes, he was one '>f those creatures 
wbom the slightest thing startles. He luu), with 
rcprti to the world, lo the bosom of solitude and to 
the lunelinra* of Ibc centre of the earth, upiiations 
rvplele with restless hopes, with dreamy madness, 
and tender proftrations, which rcprrMluccd themselves 

-wilfa cbasic and pueiic grace 

his I 


a finer organ iwtion he would have been 
, be wuuld have had Icm talenL Vxs> 


cliarm proceeded from his 
principle of vitality is in 

suiferings ; and, 
he nerves, Chof 

the spatulate and large -thumbed type; but 
wanting in physical construction and not i 
power. His nerves were as strong and solii 
body was thin, mean, and deformed.*** H« 
his brain, the activity and combativeness w1 
well-formed and highly -en do wed spatulate 
has in his blood. He loved perpetual int 
strifes and contentions; he fenced with his p« 
he could not do so with hia sword. His eyes : 
at the recital of a battle-scene, and his spatula' 
would keep beating a tattoo during the ni 
Mathematician, and highly-versed in all tht 
sciences, — litterateur, theologian, and philoso 
had [like M. de Cobenzl^ "horses ready-sac 

" Frederic Francois Chopin, the celebrate 
pianist and cocnposer, was born near Warsat 
8th February, 1810. His biographer, in Fetis 
tioiinaire des Musiciens" speaks of '■ the delii 
grace of his execution, the result at the same 
his physical constitution and of his sentimental c 
lion." It was in 18^7 that his fatal malady mi 
for the first time seriously felt, and from this ti 
his death it continually increased in virulence. 
after the outbreak of the French revolution, h 
England, and returning to Paris in a dying c 
ended his days there on the 17th October, 1849. 
was in the genius of Chopin," says his biograpbf 
and there an energy, but it always seemed tc 
itself, and his delicate consiituiion continually 
his talent within the small compass intended fbi 

•■ Larousse \_" Diet, du XIX' 5tfir/f "] desci 
as "n^ avec un vice de conformation," bul 
Castille ["Portraits Histortques" (Paris: it 
A. Blaise {" Essai Biografttitiue sur M. . 
mfiaii" (Paris: 1858)] record that he was 

"* It is not clear to my mind which roemb 




«very kind oTexerdw." But,— like "woman and the 
■It of lying,"**— knowledge and doubt were born on 
the ume doy > nnd the end of it u*u^ that, turned away 
fnm his Taith in his »td sundard, by science, the good 
AbM one mornin)( found thai he no longer knew 
from whom, — from the individual man or the commu- 
Bliyof men, from the pope or ihc people, — to derive 
the principle of authority, huving found as many dis- 
tinct asMvenitions of the human and conventional 
Iniallibililyorthe pope, as of the Divine and rc^al infalli- 
bility of ihc people. I shuuld add that at the same 
6me he wav as obstinate as a mule and as sober as a 
camel, and that by his figure and style of eloquence 
be retailed lho»e haggard and %'chcment prophets that 
in old times JudKs, always greedy of burning phrases, 
barboured among her nx-ky wastes and dusty fig 

Coboiil family i« here referred to. Hwlfer, in Uidoi's 
"Bmgrajihu GiiOraU" (Puis: 1853-66), mtntiun» 
ihnnr of the family to whom, on accouni of thi-ir rare 
venattlily, M. d'Arpcntigny might refer with the simile 
that ** they had horses ready-Middled fur every kind 
of exercise." Charles de Cobenil (bom tjn. died 
1770) wan the founder of the •• Academic dcs Seicnees ' 
of BruMeU and of Ihc free Art School : his sun, I.ouis 
de Cobenzl (born 1753, died 1H08) is, however, most 
probably Ibe one who is here referred to ; he was minister 
•occcssivelv to the vourls of CopcnhAgrn [1774]. Bi-rlin 
f t777]. aaaSl. Pelcnburg [1779-171)71 " He insinuated 
nimieu.'' Eayn his bioirrapher, " into Ute good graces o( 
Catherine 11. m much by bib diplomatic ability as by 
his amiability . ... be com[>oscd Anxaxs for the imperial 
Ibealre, andeven acted in them himielt" The auihur 
of the " MeiKotrtS dr Sigur" (Paris: iSij, vol. ii., 

Ki. 36<; and 180). makeii him out to b« a kind of 
accbiavclli in politics. whiUl paylni; a high tribute lo 
hit Miclol qualities. 

" ViJe aim \ 66i, and note *. p- aoa . "No 
raliriMu* cetemooy fur women xbuuld be accompanied 
by Mamtroi — with these words the rule of right is lUed ; 
fur «aa»en being weak creatures, and having no share In 
the mmntrm. are falsehood itself. "—" Tk* Ordinmnat 
^ Mamm " [vidt iwte •. p. joi], leti. is., ver. 18. 


trees. He dieii old; when he was young the chase 
and fcncing ha<l been his chief ddights.**' 

Anomalies of this description exist in all the typt-s, 
l^and it even sometimes occurs, rarely no doubt, but 
often enough to make this warning necessary, that 
the principles laid down in this volume are abso- 
lutely contradicted and denied by starthng exceptions, 
so far is physiology from being even a campara- 
ItDtfy exact science.'" Thus : conical were the hands 
of " I'Homme de Brumaire," ** the enemy of liberty, 
whose instincts were shocked by psychological ideas ; 
who took the public instruction out of the hands of 
the great Fourcroy, to confide it to those of the inepl 
Fontaiice, who substituted discipline and money, the 
means of Cscsar's successes, for enthusiasm and 
glory, the mainsprings of the republican power, and 
who, in a word, left France as poor, as ignorant, 
and less important than he found her. For the mA, 
this man's sadly overrated hands were neither line 
nor delicately cut j they were, on the contrary, strong. 

" " Pale, mean-looking, and sickly," says Eugene de 
Mirecourt ["Les Contemforains" pt. v. (Paris: 1856), 
p. 36], " M. de Lammenais was bom to be the Bossuet 
of our century. God had crowned his brows with the 
aureole of genius. All the splendours of intellect illu- 
mined his soul " [p. 94! He was bom 19th June, 178a, 
and died in February 1854. 

"* I have only on three occasions found the science of 
cheirosophy to oe absolutely at fault in every particular, 
in reading a hand. In each of these instances lb« 
"subject was a prominent member of the dramaric 
profession, ^n two instances gentlemen, in the third 
a lady. It is not without interest and significance that 
I have only found the science powerless to interpret 
chataciers in the cases of members of a profession whose 
sole rahim d'itre is the concealment of their own per- 
sonalities and the assumption of characteristics not 
their own. It is more significant and intere stinif t 
we bear in mind that "habit is second n' ' " 

" FK/cnote", p. ai?- 


thick, and very short. He was also a man of detail, 
and one who, if his objcrts were grand, aimed at 
obtaining them by petty means.** 

•Compare John Gibson Ijx:khari's " fiislory of 
Napoleon Buonaparte" (I.ondon : \9ii\'), passim, i.nA 
Thiers' " History of tht French Refolution " (Tendon : 
1*77). PP- S^iad Jin. 


C|)e Conic Cppe. 



This band, according as wc find slight modifications In 
It* rnmution, belnya three very different tciidencica r 
— Mppte, with a «nall thumb and a piilm fairly, but 
not excessively developed, it has u the object of its 
endeavtiun beauty of fonn ; lar^e, thick, and short, 
whb a larRe thumb, it seeks after wealth, ureattiets, 
and good (brlunc [Napoleon's hand was like this: 
yt4it ^ 43j] I large and very Rrm, it has a strong 
tendency to fotalUm. All tlirce act by inspiratipn, 
and are rclutivcty unRltrd for mechanical arts. The 
Aral proceeds by cnthusiaam, the second by canninj^ 
and the third by the siiKgcstions of [de«sure. 

The large, short, ihidt hand la very mfutnon in 
Normandy, the country uf legal quihbles, witcre the 
judgment ta culd and the iinagiiMliun worm [for 
Inaginaiiun b after all the «pocia) chamrtcristk of 
~ y artistic haod,whatcvef maybe its developments}. 
I refer In the diaptcf cvntxrnins mixed hands Uie I 


considcfBtion of the Norman hand, and will only deal 
in this place with the radal artistic hand, which ia die 
most gifted with the true instincts of thf typc^— of 
the hand which has as its object beanty of fond. 
Its fingers, thick and large at the fiist phalanx, 

' become gradually thinner up to the third, which 
presents the appearance of a more or leas drawn out 
cone. Its thumb is small, as I have just said, and its 
palm is fiurly highly developed. 

Whoever has a hand thus formed will attach 
himself instinctively and without reflection to the 
[Hcturesque aspects of ideas and of things ; widi bim 
the priHopU will be swallowed up by the fitnm of a 
thing. He will prefer, as Montaigne used to say, 
" that which pleases to that which pays." So long as 
a thing is beautiful, it does not matter if it be true or 
not ; greedy of leisure, of novelty, and of liberty, at 
the same time ardent and timid, humble and vain, he 
will have more energy and enthusiasm, than force 
and power. He will pass suddenly from the loftiest 
exaltation of mind to the profoundest despair. In- 
captable of command, and still more incapable of 
obedience, attraction will be his guide through life, 
rather than duty. Inclined to enthusiasm, he will 
live in constant need of excitement, and the activity 
of his mind will render regular domestic life heavy 
and uninteresting to him. In a word, he will be a 
man of sentiments rather than of ideas, appreciating 
the colours of a thing rather than its features ; he will 
be light in character, he will have ingenuousness and 
eagerness, an imagination of fire, and, too often, a 
heart of ice. 

A largish palm, smooth fingers, a weak thumb, still 

'' more conical finger-tips, t.«., large appetites for sensaal 
pleasures, without sufficient moral control, and a mind 
lacking the strength to subject the senses to its 
dominion, the whole built upon a foundation of only 


slightly api ritual ideas,— such in, unkss I am deceived, 
the character of artists as a general rule. Beauiy is 
tlic unly thing they can prefer to pleasure ; thus the 
nymphs only withdrew the muddy nred curtains of 
ibeirnativc swamps so OS togiue upunihcsun. Subjects 
of the arlislii' type do iiol share ihe ideas* of the other 
types either upon righl or wron^ upon what is good or 
wImi is useful; they have/diVA, because it save* Ihem 
the (ruublc uf rtaxtming, without robbing their senses 
of any pleasurable feelings, but tlicy will iim brook 
pnlitical despotism, because its essential principles 
are (he levelling of ranks, unilbrmlly, and quietude, — 
conditions, nil of them, strongly oppoised to Ihdr 
mturcs ; thcim tlierefure is generally nlrUiVf liberty^ 
such as that which is found under aristocratic govern- 
inenls, rather than under others ; for such powers 
have alwuys used as tine of the levers of conttnand 
)iuur>'. pleasure, magnificenoc, display, art, natural 
capociiies, talents, imd high birti). 

The artistic instinct is essentially and singularly 
exclusive and autocratic. Among so^ne nations, oa 
among certain individuals, it manifests itself before 
any uUier instinct. Travellers have found sculpture 
in high esteem in countries where the most elemen- 
tary principles of agriculture are ignored, notably 
aninng Dtc aboriginal negroes of Austraha, and among 
some of the still sn\-iige tribca of North America. 
The artistic iiutincl is particularly rife among the 
South Sea Ulondcn. **" 

■* " We cannot pasi over without « wotd the taste 
and inclination fur btulfitun' which H ■Aoira m the 

ofnamenlalii'Ti ■' ■' ■' -■,-,. ^^j tyvtt 

anontf certain i ii only lijr 

the UtHBani^' >i;ia«, the 

natives of the )' . d the other 

iaUadsnf l^iljii. > > : ,J:> 4borigliial 

Beffroe* ot Australia, ij.i!IiluLiiI) ihi iiibabiiAnli of the 
Arcbipebgii of New tvngland and of Solomon'i, whooc 



Defects of the 


Aititdc faaadi 

in lim Frendi 



The German 



An Illustration. 

It is among people of artistic oiigaiiisatioii Hiat one 
finds the most subjects possessing only the dtfkis of 
their type; which defects are, sensuality, idlenesBi 
egotism, singularity, cynicism, dissipation, intelleetaal 
ineptitude, cunning, and a tendency to e ia ggeratlon 
and falsdiood. 

Our armies are full of artistic hands of all kinds ; 
they owe to these hands their venturesome, un- 
questioning, and picturesque activity, and the enefgedc 
and prompt enthusiasm which distinguishes them. 
They are governed by eloquence : — " Pleraque Gallia," 
says the elder Cato, ^'duas res industriosissime per- 
sequitur, rem militarem et argute loqui." ^ 

Inert and gluttonous, the German army is full of 
elementary hands, and its apathy can only successfully 
be coped with by brandy and corp>oral punishment. 

One day in a blazing sun, when Holland, delighted 
at the warmth, had thrown open its windows, I had 
the good fortune to catch " in the act " a major of the 
pure local t3rpe undergoing the process of digestion 
after his midday meal. Even at Rotterdam the 
formidable development of his corporation was a 
theme for admiration ; half asleep he smoked, filling 
with clouds of tobacco the rooih where continually 
seated he passed his life with the crushing immobility 

sculptures are sometimes masterpieces of elegance, ~a 

singularity which we have had occasion to remark in 

. speakinc^ of the savage tribes which live on the west 

coast of North Amenca." The above passage, horn 

paragraph, ine leamea autnor goes 
to speak in the highest terms of the decorative effect of 
the tattooing of the natives of Tasmania and Polynesia. 
Compare Levaillant's remarks, note '•, p 156. 

"' M. Porcii Catonis ** Fragwenta,** ex libro ii., 
fragm. ^4. ** Claris,'* ii., p. 202, k. M. Cato, "O^ijr- 
num,*' ii. Vtde H. Peter's **Historicorum Romanorum 
Fragmenta " (Leipsic: 1883), p. 49. 


f1 44.1 

of an Egyptian monolith. This vegeto-military 
phenomenon was said to absorb six thousand pints 
of beer per annum, and was said only to become 
conscious of the existence of his soul when he had 
drunk largely ; at other times this same soul lay 
curled away somewhere, inert and dead^ in the 
abysses of this huge ganglion, like a ship in the basin 
of a dock when the sea is at low water. 

Governed by the instincts of material advantage If 448. 
and heraldic fetichism, the English army is full of ^^^ 
hands which present scarcely anything but the defects SpaiuUu handi. 
of the spatulate type, which are, coarseness, intemper- 
ance, moral inertia, temper, and so on. For them 
war is but a trade, pay is its sole object, and the 
appetite its motive force ; it is by the merit of 
hecatombs of the slain that it expects to be victorious, 
certain of defeat if the roaring of the bull Apis be not 
heard amid the blare of its trumpets. Subjected on 
account of its brutality to a degrading discipline and 
corporeal services, it would stand in danger of destruc- 
tion in the atmosphere of liberty and gentleness which 
surrfiunds our armaments.*** 

Beneath our flag the siiul sustains the body, 5 ^^ 
beneath the English and German flags the body ^^cJ^'*' 
supports the soul ; we obey the spirit and act \vith armie* 
intelligence, the Germans obey the ie/ftr and act 
automatically. We are the flrst marchers of the 
world ; is it not a recognised axiom [of Maurice de 

** The whole of the above para^^^ph is absurd, and 
its presence is especially to be rcj^tted as, taken as a 
whole, M. d*Arpcntij?nys ch.ipteron '* English Hands** 
fxii.] is a clover and intorestin/^^ pitnre of analytical 
WTitmjj. Wliat he means by his allusion io tht- hull 
Apis I am completely at a loss to ct»mprehen<l. The 
passavre runs in the ori^jinal : ** C'*est piir le inrrite des 
n^atombes qu*elle pretend :\ la viotoire ; eertaine d'etre* 
vaincue si les mugissements d'Apis nc se m^lent au 
bruit de ses clairons." (!?!) 



Saze] that battles are won not with the hands but 
with the feet ? "^ As a nation we are warlike nther 
than military;'^ the Germans are military nther 
than a nation of warriors. 
^ Generals who have the elementary hand pique 

Dtary themselves upon little points of discipline and 
^- management ; they know how many blades of grass 
go to a truss of hay ; they attach importance to the 
manner of carrying the armSi and the perfect con- 
dition of the imiform ; they admire a harsh voice 
and clownish manners; like the spider in the shady 
corner of a dusty barni they are only happy where 
there is no splendour. They tend to Caesarism and 
their doglike loyalty recognises^ as Tacitus says, only 
the hand which feeds, which fattens them.*** 

'" I do not find this axiom recorded as coming directly 
from the Mar^chal Saxe in any of the accepted 
biographies of this g^eat soldier, such, for instance, as 
those of Scilhac, N6el, Espagnac, or P6rau. In his own 
work ** Mes Reveries f'' par Maurice, Comte de Saxe 
(Amsterdam: 1757, vol. i., book i., cap. vii., p. 144), 
we find the following : — ** M. de Turenne has always 
gained a superiority with armies infinitely inferior to 
those of the enemy, because he could move about with 
greater facility, ' * 

'^* Ivan Tourgu^neff has placed practically the same 
sentiment into the mouth of M. Francois in his " CEuvres 
DerniereSt^ ** M. Francois ; Souvenir de 1848 ** (Paris : 
1885, P- 103), when he says : — ** We are not a miUtaiy 
nation. That astonishes you. We are a brave nation, 
very brave, but not military. Thank God, we are worth 
something more than that.'' It is interesting to note the 
parallel which exists between these passa^^es of d'Ar- 
pentigny and Tour^6neff and the dissertation of Bacon 
upon the same subject in his Essay ** Of Greatnesse of 
Kingdonies and Estates^'' to which the reader is par- 
ticularly referred fW. Aldis Wright's ed. {^MacmUUifg)^ 
1883, pp. 125-127J. 

^ M. d'Arpentigny refers, I presume, to the remarks 
which Tacitus makes concerning mercenaries, and 
upon the methods of buying the favour of the common 
soldiers. Vide ^* Historiarum*^ lib. iii., c. 61, and 
Ub. iv., c. 57. 



Tactics, nuineeuvres, encampments, sieges, estiiiutes, 
military and naval archiletlure, (he siraicgy of tcm- 
porintioR and delay, are the especial qualities o( ' 
hands wliicli arc spatulatc and square; I'hey have 
theory, method, and science, and they care more for 
Buu:eia than for glory. 

Ccncrati of die conical artistic hand proceed by 
Inspiration, and move by sallies ; they arc gifted with ^ 
pmwew, promptitude, passionate instincts, boastful- 
neas, and the talent of acting impromplH; — they 
attach equal importance to sui^cess and to glory. 

Uurel, at the battle uf Smulensti, commanded a 
regiinenl of heavy ca%-alry, mounted on a grand black 
stotlion, full of strengtl) and grace, calm, caparisoned 
in gold and cuvercd with the long shining locks of his 
□lam!. The king wore a helmet whose golden creU 
W3S urnamcnted with n white plume ) immobile, h« 
watched the battle froni afar, letting hisjewelled sabre 
trail in the roadway with an air of haughty indiffcr- 
enre. Suddenly he beramcs excited, his eyes flo^, 
he raises himself \n his sbmips, and cries in a loud 
vwi-e, " Left turn I ^uick march I " Then the earth 
trvmbted, and a noise as of thunder was heard, antl 
thonc black aqtiadronn. Hashing as if with lightning, 
rushed (orwanl like ■ torrent, as if they had been 
(Iragiced forward by this slender white plume Tha 
victory of that day was in great part due to thla 

** Joachim Murat, Mar^'faol de France and King; of 
Naples, born ijth Match. t;;i. and khot at Pino ijtb 

October. 1-1^, -.., .,Mmi,..l lhi.i.U'K.n,'[,.- {nr 



and at the batiii.-* ui the l*yramuU ami i>l iivt 
SiBi>lensk, and Moskow in the Kauion canipji>;i 


^419. MunBt, the most lyrical of the warriors of die 

jnaot imperial epoch, had, like Junot,'*' the other hero of 

audacity, hard conical hands. 
T MOa. In their calm audacity the Greeks of the brightest 

wk battles. ^^ ^£ antiquity, before attacking the enemy, made 
solemn sacrifice to the Muses, — f>., to the gentle 
deities viho open to men the holy gates of persuasion, 
of concord, and of harmony.** 
'i^' The Etruscans chastised their slaves to the sound 

thdr music, of the hautboy, so as to soften their anger, and pre- 
vent them inflicting a severer punishment than justice 
^461. ~ AlexanderDumas, one of our greatest word-painters 
"j^^^' in the matter of descriptions of battie-scenes, has also 
(as I have said elsewhere) an artistic hand, only, being 
a poet of infinite variety, his hands are very supple. 

»" Andoche Junot [b. 1771, d. 1813] was a native of 
the C6te-d*0r, who, raising himself in the French army 
— ^which he entered as a volunteer in 1792 — by his grand 
audacity, became successively Marshal of France [1807] 
and Duke of Abrantes. It was in the Holy Land m 
1708 that he particularly distinguished himself, routing 
a force of 10,000 Turks with a body of 300 cavalry, after 
a conflict of fourteen hours* duration. He was defeated 
in the Peninsular war [at Vimeira] by the Duke of 
Wellington. Having been disgraced in the army, he 
went mad and killed himself in July 18 13. He was the 
husband of Laure Perron, Duchesse d* Abrantes. 

»* This custom of the Greeks, especially obser\'ed by 
the Spartans, is recorded by Pausanias in his EAAAAOZ 


** Vide the** Fragments qfArisfo^le,** ii,, 606, Julius 
Pollux also tells us that the Etruscans not only fought, 
but inflicted punishments under the same influences. 
Vide Julii Pollucis ** Onomasficum** (Amsterdam: 

* AAKONIKA, I. Z\— "*Ey dpurrtpf ^ rrfi xoX^noucov Momtw 
ISp^avfio UpbVf &n ol AoKidatfidifioi rdf 4(68ovt iri rdf ftdxiu od 
/icrd adKwiyyiiw ixoiovPTOy dXXd ir/>6s re avXCa^ f^'f ko* iw6 \6pas 
Kai tciBdpat KpoOapLoaof.** 

t Tv^^ipoj di T(fi *Apurrori\ovi \6y(pj od rvicre&ovffip i&r* uShf 
fjL&woifj dXXd ical fMumryd;0'i, etc. — Segm. 56^ lib. It., cap. vit 


In 1823, before Pampeluna, the Spanish army passed ^MS. 
their nights playing the guitar, smoking cigaritos, "^^ ^T^ 
chanting litanies, and telling their beads ; by day lying peninsular War. 
in the dusty grass they chatted, chewing the young 
shoots which grew around, or slept in the sun. At 
the screech of the mitrailleuse you might have seen 
them like a flock of frightened geese flying in all 
directions, crying out and reproaching their saints. 
In vain did their officers try to rally them ; old thread- 
bare 1^ capes, old three-cornered hats of blood- 
stained leather, white shakos with red tufts, leaders 
shirtless and perspiring beneath the weight of their 
ornaments, olive-hued and sun-dried almoners, haggard 
vixHmdieres, stunted scribes and soldiers in tatters, — 
all disappeared in an instant, swallowed up by the 
clouds of dust The Comte d'Espag^e, who com- 
manded them, avowed that this rabble, at the 
same time eager and feeble, ferocious and cowardly, 
could only be terrible to the enemy on account of 
their robberies, and their piratical and bohemian 

The Comte d*Elsi>agne was himself a little stunted ^ 4M. 
man, broadshouldered, and wiry, dressed more or a*E»w«n^ 
less like a butcher-boy, very active, ver>' cruel, very 
courteous, who saluted with an air every time he 
heard the cannon of the town, and whom we saw 
everywhere half bully and half captain, always dis- 
coursing, lecturing, and violently agitating his little 
tuft of feathers. Artistic hands. 

The reign of hard spatulate hands was a reign of ^ 4M. 
materialism and of hatred ; that of the artistic, directed 1^,^^ ^j^ut, 
by the psychic, hands was an epoch of relative spiri- •«»*> •'tiMic and 
tualism and of love. Inaugurated by .Abcilard and Tf^mhto* 
St. Bernard, it commenced with thi* twelfth century, f«»rt«nth 
and lasted down to the close of the thirteenth.'^ 

"• Vide note ■•, p. 241. 


Psychic hands spread throughout the nation, and 
scattered everywhere the torrents of enthusiastic 
mysticism which Ihey had amassed in the contem- 
plative leisure hours or the cloister, under the reign 
of the turbulent and spatu late hands. Everything is 
taken up and worshipped with ardour, — God, woman, 
and war; but war for a great and pious idea, and 
not for a material interest. An enthusiastic poetic 
spirit coursed through the veins of the nation, aad 
as she had the temperament of heroism and of art, 
art and heroism became part of their manners and 
customs. It was the era of splendid costumes, of the 
courts of love, of the crusaders, and of chivalrous 
epics ; like real life, history became tinged with the 
colours of romance. Dante, Petrarch, and Gerson 
were pre-conceived,"' [he ideal woman, veiled unlil 
then, revealed herself, and the worship of the Holy 
Virgin was established.^ By the establishment of the 
orders of begging friars, the Church is opened to the 
lower orders, whose instincts, better understood than 

"' Dante Alighieri was bom in Florence in 1265 ; 
Petrarch and Gerson, however, were neither of (hem 
bom until the fourteenth century, the former in 1304. and 
the latter not until 1363. 

■" M. d'Arpeatigny gives way to a regrettable loose- 
ness of diction, when Tie says that the worship of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary was established in the twelfth 
century. \Vhat he means, of course, is, that it was in 
this century that the worship of the Virgin, already 
long established, received an enormous impetus from 
the establishment of the orders of Mendicant Friars, 
of whom especially, the Cistercians at the beginning 
of the century, introduced their custom of dedicAting 
everji church to Ihe Blessed Virgin Maiy. and diis 
introduction of the worship of the Virgin was enor- 
mously assisted and supported at the end ol the same 
century by the introduction and propagation <if thit 
rosary by the Dominicans. For the rest, the worship 
of the Virgin Maty, which had been seriously weakened 
by the invasions of the Goths and Vandals, flourished 
again when the Franks got once more the upper hand 

fDrmcriy, were powtrfully rehabilllalcd." Artistic 
handa^ bappy and triumphant, although constrained 
within the region or psychulogical ideas, cxdtc them- 
Mivta in all directions; the statues of angels and 
virgins M-ith whielt the imagituUions of the people 
wrere gorged, spread their wings of stone, and, palni 
In hand, flew in clouds tii the churches built to receive 
them ; all men realised the grac« and the beauty of 
the varirgnted garments, the daxzling stained glass, 
the trian^cs of liglit which at the feet of the sun- 
beams passed across the shades of the cnlhedral, 
symbols of a woraliip of pastoral origin. Ecclesiasti- 
cal architecture, which flourishes only when a whole 
oatiMi feels, thinks, and believes as one man. 
aoddcnly obtained a sublime development ; the 
fraiidetif and the Kpirituality of the traliment of 
the times found its reflection in the grandeur and 
•piritutklity of the magnificent cathedrals of the 

[a.D. 4io]. C-lovis built the first church to the Virjjin 
at the ennlrm i'Mr«Tnity of Pnri*, »* alw thr Church 

of Ot.r l-xtv ..f \r -.t,,,,! l-„..F,i,nL- ri„l,„.n,- 

Brii>d5 I't <..,;h.ilK Hi,I,>ry iii:iv <:>•■ t..Lii.ii m l)i. I- . C. 
Dscnbeth's •' Hiitffry 0/ tk* hUiitd Virgin Mary" 
(l.ondo«i : nM.). 


It has been said it was hy means of the violence 
'" exercised by kings upon the pcopli-. tliat ihc gigantic 
monuments of Memphis, of Thebes, and of ^Ethiopia, 
of Babylon, and of India, were raised ; but in the first 
place they took centirries to build, and violence, as 
I understand it, is not compatible with the idea of 
long duration. I would explain these marvels as 
they have explained the existence of the mediaeval 
cathedrals, viz., by the general consent of all to an 
unique idea. These peoples pursued architecture, 
because it was the talent of their day, just as to-day 
industry is the talent of ours. Strange people thai 
we are I we can conceive a nation of haberdashers, 

I have said that the artistic mind is essentially 

^ exclusive, and when it is common to an entire nation, 
and nothing stands in the way of its full exercise, 
it develops such extraordinary manners, and such 
eccentric customs, that they become incomprehen- 
sible to the other types. Voltaire, who alone in 
himself represents exclusively in its highest develop- 
ment the philosophic type, as presented to its by the 
eighteenth century, denies Babylon and her customs 
as they have been described to us by Herodotus ; he 
denies the existence of the ancient Egyptians, as wc 

had, therefore, two alternatives, vi«., to work or to beg. 
" The minor brethren, and the other new religious orders 
of the thirteenth centuiy, chose to beg ; they were not 
monks, but were doomed lo wander about the earth, 
working at the conversion of sinners from whom they 
might expect to receive alms; and besides, their wander- 

ing life, and the necessity of preparing what they pro- 
posed to say to the people, did not seem to them to be 
compatible with manual labour. . . . The Venerable 
Guigues, in the conslilullonal code of the monke o( 
Chartreux, and in the Council of Paris in laii. desires 
men to give errant Friars the means of existence, so that 
they need not go begging, to the disgrace of their order." 
We have seen [note '*, p. 156] what was Erasmus' 
opinion of mendicant friars. 


[1 456] 
know of it circumscribed within a winged circle by 
the hands of her priests, hovering on unprogressive 
pinions within a circle of bull-headed gods ; he denies 
the Indian nations, who without doubt would in their 
turn have denied him by reason of their not being 
able to understand him.** 

To every century its own generation of men, to 1^467. 
every generation of men its own physical organisation, characterisd^or 
to every organisation its own peculiar talents. Each i « >»«tioiw. 

** Speaking from a fairly intimate knowledge of the 
works of Voltaire, I think that M. d*Arpentigny has 
entirely misconceived the opinion of Voltaire upon the 
architectural phenomena of which he speaks, as any 
one who will take the trouble to glance through the 
1837 edition of the " CEuvres Computes de Voltaire'' 
will readily agree. It is true that he ridicules the 
accounts which are given us by Herodotus, especially in 
••/> Pyrrhonisme de Pl/istoire'' (ed. 1837, vol. v., 
p. 73), where he says of that author, *' Nearly all he has 
told us on the authority of others is fabulous ; . . . when 
Herodotus retails the stories which he has heard, his 
book becomes nothing but a romance resembling the 
Milesian fables.** Again, in the " Fragnunts sur 
V Histoire'' he says, ** Amateurs of the marvellous 
say, * These facts must necessarily be true, because so 
many monuments support them.* I say, ' They must 
necessarily be false, because the vulj^r have believed in 
them.* A fable is told a few times m one generation, it 
establishes itself in the second, it becomes respected in 
the third ; the fourth raises monuments to it. There was 
not, in the whole of profane antiquity, a single temple 
that was not founded on a folly; ** and again he cites 
the history of Herodotus as an example. Voltaire had 
the greatest respect for the monuments mentioned by 
d'Arpentigny. In the *' Dictio^naire Phitosophique'' 
[ed. 1837, vol. vii., p. 681J, he says, " To know with 
a certain amount of certitude something of ancient 
history, there is only one method, i>., to see whether 
there remain any incontestable monuments; ** and he 
then quotes as authentic instances Babylon and the 
monuments of ancient Egypt, and in his ** Essai sur Us 
Mcntrs** [ed. 1837, voL lii., pp. 13, 15, 22, and 27], 
he discourses interestingly and at length concerning 
Babylon, Egypt, and the monuments of ancient India. 


age, therefore, as it extinguishes itself, carries neces- 
sarily away with it the secrets of a notable portion 
of the ideas which animated it. 

Herculaneum and Pompeii, rediscovered afteT' 
seventeen centuries with their obscene signs 
audacious frescoes, beneath the ashes under which 
they both found a living tomb upon the same day, 
have furnished us with more details concerning the 
inner and familiar life of Che ancients, their tastes, 
their current ideas, than aJI the books which they 
have left to us.^" 

The most important details of the habits and' 
customs of an epoch are the points which arc 
least remarked by the people whom they signalise;; 
they do not record them, and posterity can only obtain 
information concerning them, as it were by accidenL 

From an artistic point of view, what could be 
finer than the organisations of Sardanapalus, of Nero, 
of Heliogabalus, of the Botgias [father and son], and 
of Catherine 11. ? As they remained to the last day erf' 
their lives faithful to the logic of their type, I do not 
think they can ever have known remorse. 

Carpocras of Alexandria, and Basilides, the founders 
of the sect of the Christian gnostics'" [a species of 

" Those of my readers who have visited Herculaneum 
and Pompeii, and who s.-k familiar with the museum at 
Maples, will recognise the exactitude of all that our 
author says in this paragraph. 

"* I should hardly have cited either Carpocras [or 
Carpocrates] or Basilides as founders of the enormously 
divergent creeds know;i as Gnosticism. Gnosticism 
was the immediate outcome of the universal and highly- 
organised systems of dissent from the old nainnv 
Judaism, which obtained in the first and second cen- 
turies after Christ. The old pagan creeds and the old 
philosophies made— to use the words of the writer of the 
article in " Chambers' Encyclopedia "—" a last stand, 
and produced in their and the ancient world's dying 
hour gnosticism. The wildly-opposite ideas of pnio. 
theism, pantheism, monotheism, the most recw 




iUuminati\ so far from proscribing sensual pleasures, 
looked upon them as a direct means of communication 
with God, and ranked them among the acts recom- 
• mended as wholesome and meritorious.'*'^ 

Some of these ideas exist to this day in Abyssinia,^** ^ *^- 


philosophical systems of Aristotle, Plato, Pythagoras, 
Heraclitus, Empedocles, etc., together with the 
awe-striking mysticism and demonology which after the 
Babylonian captivity had created in the very heart of 
Judaism that stupendous and eminently anti-Jewish 
science of Kabbala — all, it would appear, had waited 
to add somethii>g of their own to the new faith which 
could not hold its o^^^-n under all these strange influences.*' 
Simon Maeus was probably the earliest recorded 
gnostic, and after him Menander, Cerinthus, Nicolaus 
[the founder of the Nicolaitans], Satuminus of Antioch, 
Bardensanes of Edessa, Tatian and Valentinus of Rome, 
and a many others founded more or less celebrated 
schools of gnosticism. Basilides of Alexandria [^125- 
140 A.D.] founded a school which inculcated principles 
strangely in accordance with those of the modem cultus 
of Thcosophy, as laid do^n in A. P. Sinnett's remark- 
able work ** Esoteric Buddhism ** (London, 5th edition, 
1885), and founded mainly on the Kabbala. Carpocras 
was the chief of a non-localised school of ^osticism, 
so I presume that the affix "of Alexandna** in the 
above paragraph is given him accidentally instead of to 
Basilides. Vtde Lewald's '* De Doctrind Gnosticd** 
(Heidelberg: 1818); Mohler^s " Ursprun^ des Gnosti- 
ctsmus ; * ' Maker' s * * Histoire du Gnosticisme ' ' ( Paris : 

** M. d'Arpentigny has illustrated his work in this 

place with an account of some of the more immoral 
rites and beliefs of certain of the schools of gnosticism, 
of which the most immoral was perhaps that of the 
Nicolaitans. The passage, which I have omitted as un- 
necessary, comes nrora L'Abb^ Fleury's ^'Histoire de 
PEglisey ** Mceurs des Chretiens,'* chap, xiii., 
"Calomnies contre les Chretiens" (Paris 1739).* 

■• Vide James Bruce's ' * Travels to discover the Source 
of the Niit'' (Edinburgh : 1790, vol. iii., p. 292), or, for 

* "Get soupoons 6taicnt appuyes par les abominations que les 
KDOttiques, les Carpocratiens et d*autres h^rctiques commettaient 
OUM loirs anembiees et que Ton a peine a croire mcme sur le 
ivcit do pcfcs. 



and they have been re-discovered among the nations 
who inhabit Ihc South Sea UUuds. 

Platonic affections, filial, patemaJ, and puental, wet 
much less accentuated among artistic hands ttum 
among the square and spatulate types. 

a minots if somewhat unpreftentable oompandiiuii oCaS 
Aat has been aald upon the manners slid cnstoma of 
Abvsshiia in this connecdan, rafr a rather ran wofki 
enoUed "£es Alnssiniennes, H ksFkmmKidm SnUmm 
Oriental, d'aprh Us RelatiMU A JBruet, etc., cHr." 
(Turin: 1876). 



AUTISTIC HANDS [eOHtlHUeii]. Cumiihatiu 

TAt Artistic Hands of the Sixteenth Century. 

WiihK nnc says that an acra is essentially religious, it 5 4H. 
is synonymous with a statement that it Is nnly JjjJJ|^'^J|HJ^ 
slightly sensual, and consequently more poetic from the ihintmih 
the esoteric than from the exoteric point of view. ''™ "''' 
Thus ilie cathedralsof the thirteenth century arc more 
remarkable in the ideas revealed by their plans, than 
in their execution. Like many of the barbaric lyrics, 
whilst they strike the soul with wonder, Ihcy i>ftcnd 
the taste; grand as a wh'ilc, they err in points of 
detail, and arc more ploasing to synthetical than t» 
analytical minds ; for the hands nf the masses make 
tht-msclves apparent in their cinisiruclion, rather than 
the hands of the individual, llicy glorify the whole 
body of their constructors, and not individual work- 
men ; at the same time it is the psychological hands 
which have mndo ihem-tclvcs apparent mther than 
the otlier types ; a^ fur tlii.' nrtisilc hands, they have 
evidently only worked under the direction of the 

But at the period known as the Ronnissanct' these * 4 
test hands took their revenge. The art which had ""'^"" 
been attracted by Greek sensualism, suddenly ^mU^ 


with an intense desire of liberty, made a rapM 
transition from the symbolical immobility la which 
it was kept enchained Ijy mystidsm, in^ the world 
of palpable realities and of purely human fantasiea. 
Like the turbulent barons of the dme, art profe a aed 
an absolute independence ; it was no longer beau^ 
which touched the soul, and the glory which comes 
from God, that the sculptor and the warrior sou^ 
for in the solid stone and on the field of battle ; it 
was beauty from its piOurtaqut aspect, and glory auch 
as the world can give and as it is comprehended by 
sensualism. Directed by psychological hands, art 
produced nothing but temples; under the free artistic 
hands it produced only, or excelled in producing only, 
palaces. Without folding its wings, it moderated its 
flight, and forsook the gods to pay tribute to men ; it 
became less grand, but more eloquent, more graceful, 
more brilliant, and more exquisite than in the middle 
ages. It passed from public to private decorations, 
from the service of the masses to that of individuals. 
Finally, if, as in the times which preceded this 
epoch, art did not glorify any particular individual, it 
was because, as formerly, it entered more or less into 
the oi^anisation of all. A considerable number of 
excellent specimens of the sculpture of this period 
remain among us to this day, of whose sculptors the 
names are unknown ; if by the incontestable superi- 
ority of their talents they had astonishtd their con- 
temporaries, it is to be presumed that their names, 
consecrated by gratitude and by admiration, would 
have been transmitted to us by historians or by 

Art, therefore, in the sixteenth century, was the 
gift of the majority ; but it was not practised for the 
benefit of a single idea. It had the enthusiasm, the 
movement, and the individuality of this epoch of 
duels and of cWil wars, of wild love-adventures and 



nf jittering ovalcadn, nf cnrousals and or dcHs or 
daring, [lerrormpd by little bands nf adventurers. 
Formerly, an had had more solid basis than visible 
esfcriur, now tht conditions were reversed ; the 
people or whom it wa^ almost (he unique industry, 
Invcd it for its own sake, and nlsn Tor thut nf the 
material good of which it was the source. Women, 
wlinin it adulated, gave it their love in rciiim ; and 
it alTordeiJ ihc main delights of lho!>e kingit clad in 
velvets and satin so spruce and so sensual, by whom 
the France of that period was so well represented. 

Art, by reason of its variety, and of its Immensity, 
not bdng a thing that one can teach, that one cai 
incukaie Into tl)« masses like a common industry, it 
b necessary, in order that a whole generation should 
highly appreciate art and practise it with succecs, 
that it should be bom arliitir; and I liay thai, having 
minds organised fur the development of a single rnd, 
viz., art, ita hands will also be constituted for the 
same end. 

The hand of Krancis I. was artistic in this sense, 
thai its palm was large, the thumb small, and the 
fingers smtwth (I'tcfr the Maine of this prince at 
St. Denb], but Ihc Btigcrs were quite appreciably 
^•lulated. Such is the hand of men who are active 
and fond of horscn,*** who are gnvemcd by their own 
Euitasies, and whose changeable hutuuurs lave no 
nthcr motors than tiie suggestions of their tempem- 
ments. Tlicse inconstant niinds submit more than j 
olben to the influences of their surroundings. Well, ' 
titc sixteenth century being essentially the age nf art 
and literature [by reason of the immense number of 
utislir hand* that existed then in the south of 
Etmipr], Francis t. encouraged the IndivMuals who 
pnurtiscd iheric callings, not on account of the 

- fiat % i&i- 


possibly resultant intellectual pngpcn, — that irti the 
least in his dioughts, — but on account of tte pi la wire 
which he expected fiuni them, and whioh in eflect 
they gave him.*" 

The nxteenth century was the epodi of,q>tendid 
oligarchies of baronies and ot grand aeignenn, of 
aristocratic republics and monarchies, of bcdy vnz%—- 
i.t., of strife concerning forms of worahip, — of political 
tricks and ambuscades, of bold voyages «bA di» 
coverie^ of sorcerera and of astrologers, of eooniKnH 
vices and 'debaucheries, and of kni^ts without ftar 
rather than without reproach ; — in a word, of hwiible 
slaughters, where the manner of killing was <tf greater 
importance than the mere death itself; an epoch foil 
of contradictions, at the same time serioua and 
bantering, clad in embroideries and in rags, running 
after finely -executed missals and chalices, reading 
Rabelais and Gcrson, surrounded by outlaws and 
artists, ivory crucifixes and mythological nudities, 
whilst miserable and deformed dwarfs, and beautiful 
girls played about upon gorgeous carpets with tame 

Passionate love of order, prudence, and usefulness 
' is the gift neither of nations nor of individuals who 
are governed by the artistic instinct. 

In its capricious grace and its florid opulence a 
' palace of the Renaissance is a sort of temple raised 
to the glory of some deity, incarnate indeed, but in- 
accessible to the wants of human nature, the in- 
fluences of cold and of heat, of shadows, and of 
dampness. It suggests grandeur, power, and riches 
rather than contains them, windows, staircases, 
galleries, colonnades, terraces, and porticoes, — all 
are arranged for display and nothing for comfbr^ 
as we understand it to-day, when the humblest 

" F»^ notes *', p. 342, and*", p. 311. 



ol ihe time 


rdlacd than tlic 
ofChaHu Vin^caU wilh a Toik laihcr than with 
bia fingrn. So the inilcpcndL-nt classes have long 
sitiw aboodoned to ihu luw«r urdcrs tliuse abodes so 
richly sculptured, carved, starred, and cmblaioncd, 
in whkh, amoaK dcticntc statuettes and bcnentli 
asrikJ turrets, Ibc Bristocrscy rif brilliani ap[»nag«, 
but atill of the rude and coarse hands, nf the six- 
teenth century uicd to struggle and fight as was 
tbeir wont 

Under tile last ol the Valoia it w-as Uie same of 

as of architecture ; il was more Important ^ 

jantly than to be thoruuKhly dressed, Tliey 

attention to their ornaments than to their 

and they prcrerred the b'ldily discomlnri of 

ird liuhion of gaiilients tii the uSence which 

would be eauBcd to titeir taste by an inelegant vesture. 

Still, eoatumes am not invented, they are bom 

■punUncously, and, like legal institutions, are the ' 

neoeMary results of tlic luture of thinfEB."' Frands 1. 

and Voltaire— typical icprcscntntiwcs nf their re- 

Bpeetive eenturies— were in turn so completely ex- 

presasd by their costiunes that one could not imafcine 

Francu in the costume of Aroutt, or ArouM in tlic 

Ciiatuinc of Francis.*** 

* CampAre the cxplan.ilion given tn Colonel Cheng 
Ki TaaK b> the lady tu wbum hL- complained nf ihc 
plamneu and unifurmlty ol miidcm dmiiB, to the eSecl 
that "a plain ci>at i« much more convenient 10 ttirti. 
She obM-rvt-d thni formerly the costume designalod a 
poliiiol party, and if the hiihion remained lo-day, men 
would ruin (hem*eives with dreis!" — "The Lktnest 
fimiBM 6j Thrmseh^s," pp. i6i-i. 

** Then- arv but few works on couumc that do not 
: Francois 1 . and Francois Marie ArouH [belter 
[ known Ol Voltaire] as nponents <^ the coMumieni' an 
I ia tbeir tespecttve centuries ; but both overdid the 
LiBJinet, and dresaed with an extra va^ancr, in advance 
I CVm 4>f (be extraVoicance which reigttcd idpeome amund 

nt lo type among peoples who arc u ri- 
ch; able and in institutions which pride them- 
selves upon oon-progress, like the Romish Church, 
costume is continually changing among changeable 
peoples — not by rerison of a concerted will, but by 
the necessary eRect of a contemporary moral state ; 
for matt alone is capable of thought, man alone 
is gifted with the sense of decency, and man alone 
dresses himself. 

There is this to be said in favour of the fashio 
they encourage uniformity. 

The nakedness of niggers, regard being had to 
their colour, which clothes them as it were in a 
shadow, and serves them as it were as a garment, is 
less immodest than that of while people. The negro 
does not come into the world wholly clad like the 
animals, but quasi -clad, — a circumstance which 
places him between the ape and the man in the scale 
of creation.^' The Hindoos, almost as dark in colour 
as the negroes, are similarly nearly as stationary as 
the latter. Immobility is the supreme attribute of 
the animal world.-** 

Uniformity, so dear to the Russians, is disdained 
by free nations, because it classilies and restrains. 
Our costume, because it represents the most en- 

. ■■ L)r. Benjamin Moseley["j4 Treatise on TYofiical 

Diseases" (London: i8ot), p. 492] has observed that 
"Negroes are void of* [oodily] " sensibility to a sur- 
prising degree. They sleep soundly in every disease, 
nor does any mental disturbance ever keep them awak«. 
They bear chimrgical operations much betterthan white 
people ; and what would be the cause of insupportable 
pain to a white man, a Negro would almost disregard," — 
a curious illustration of thu theory that high develop- 
ment of one sense is generally accompanied by absence 
or deterioration of another. 

■■ The colour of the negro is not without its constitu- 
tional advantages. Attention has been drawn Inr Dr. 
William Ogle to the fact that pigment occurs also tn **» 

^^^^V THE 309 ^H 

^^^^ n^f^f^M 

^VUghteoed wdaJ state in the univcne (II), b precisely ^M 

^H Die (wc wbirh is the least suited lo ihc blocks, and ^H 

^H to people who \a\e rcuuuoed primitive. ^| 

^H Spalulatc-handcd subjects viewing things as they "IWl 

^B art, and conic-handed subjects viewing things us tliey ^^T " 

^H imagine them lo be, the former dress tlicnisclvcs in ,1 

^H the manner which actually becomes them bc&l, the ^^H 

^H latter In the manner which Iliey think suited tu tlieir ^^| 

^B inuginary attributes ; whence we get the extnvngant ^H 

^^ cotttumes o{ the flowing- haired artist, tlic pruvincial ^^H 

poet, and— the restaurant ham! all lAm of n race ^H 

which Is eccentric and cqnir. handed. ^^M 

People uf real action and of clear good sense have, , 1 ^'^^^l 

aa we have said, «s a rule, spatuUte han<la. ("now ^^^h 

the nude, Ihc an and litrraturc of the time recalled '' "'*^^| 

tboM: of the Greeks, who lived semi-nude [as a ^H 

matter of taste, not on account of coarseness of mind], ^^| 

|i «nd wuv always ignorant of the prudery and fiUse ^^H 

^^1 Flaunting, alert, sensual, and scantily clothed, the jVJ*'}'^ 
^HCrcnch Muse "f that century, ncher in words and .».«.' ,. 
^B Idiono, more liishly coloured, less bashful and less h| 
^^K pedantic than she of the seventeenth century, teems ^^H 
^Hwith the strung and liwty youUi of a nation preile» ^^M 
^* lined to every claw of success. ^fjl 
In those days the ideas of the South being in a ^ T^, , 
Dugority, France naturally sought her models of art ■». 
^^ in Spain and Italy. Now, Northern ideas Iicing in ^11 

^HoUactUcy tejpons. awl he traces to this bet an Increase ^^| 
^VlH !(••• aeuM>Ttr<>. of <.m<-ll fV OkI*- a)inb<ites the ^H 

r ^i J 

^K«km- KtimtHM " (I^ndon : 7th cdn.. 1883). ^^^H 



the majority, we seek them in England and in Ger- 
many; French genius is like the Janus of the 
ancients, it has a dual intelligence and two faces. 
^488. The Paris of to-day, regard being had to the in- 

Pans. telligence proper to the nations of the North, is well 
off as she is. This intelligence gives to the nation 
the kind of moral strength which suits the manners 
of the present day. In the sixteenth century she 
would have been better off had her situation been 
more southerly. 
1(484. In 1793 the. Revolution, turned by the brilliant 

in 1*793. "* oratory of the Girondins from the object prescribed 
to it by the needs of the epoch, would infallibly have 
perished, had it not been for the Mountain, whose 
members, born nearly all of them in the North, saved 
the situation by dissipating the clouds of romance in 
which it was becoming enveloped, and by restoring 
in its midst the sentiment of reality.^^ 
f 486. Art, among highly-civilised nations, emanates from 

ui'sIToTart *^^ individual or from universal reason. Among 
nations governed by instinct it emanates from God or 

*^ The " Mountain " [Les Montagnards^ were the 
"ultra" party in the Convention during" the French 
Revolution. *' The partisans occupied the right side of 
the assembly, the national guard, and the club of the 
Feuillans ; the Girondins possessed the majority in the 
assembly, but not in the clubs, where plebeian violence 
carried the day ; and, finally, the most extravagant 
demagogues of this new epoch, seated on the highest 
benches of the assembly, and thence named '*The 
Mountain," were all powerful in the clubs and with the 
mob. " The moderate party " were called the Plain in 
opposition to the left side, which was styled the Moun- 
tain, where all the Jacobins were heaped up, as one 
may say, one above the other. On the graduated 
benches of this mountain were to be seen all the deputies 
of Paris, and those of the departments who owed their 
nomination to the influence of the clubs, and of those 
whom the Jacobins had gained over since their arrival, 
by persuadmg them of the necessity of giving no quarter 
to the enemies of the revolution. In this party were also 



by inspiration. Immature in the eighteenth, which 
was the most humanly-intellectual century, it was 
highly developed in the sixteenth, which was the 
most divinely-intellectual century. Art flourishes par- 
ticularly at the f>eriods when the nations on the 
march of progress have one foot upon the territory of 
barbarism, and the other on that of civilisation, when 
they believe as much in miracles and in occult 
sciences as in daily occurrences and exact sciences. 
Art is then sufficiently human and sufficiently Divine, 
and develops itself by reliance equally upon science 
and upon inspiration. 

Barbarous nations afl'ect festivals and splendour, 
civilised nations substitute luxury and good taste. 
Such was the court of Francis I. at a time still rude, 
but already civilised ; and such were the accompany- 
ing appliances of civilisation, that it took five days to 
go from Paris to Fontainebleau.*^ 

In the centre of an oval lawn, surrounded by trees 

n 485] 




of graceful growth and massy foliage, there rises in .^^ ,,^ TuUeri« 
the gardens of the Tuileries a pedestal on which is Rar«]en«. 

included some men of distinguished abilities, but of 
precise, rigorous, and positive characters, who dis- 
approved of the philanthropic theories of the Girondists, 
as mystical abstractions. — Thiers, *' History of the 
French Revolution " (London : 1877). *' ^^ Lepsla- 
tive Assembly,'* «h. i., and " The National Convention," 
ch. L 

■" Exempli gratid^ the meeting of Francis I. and 
Henr>' VI 11. of England, when, as Adolphus says in his 
** History of France'* (I^ndon : njd.) *' the magnifi- 
cence which was displayed by two princes equally 
n>2endid, profuse, and vain, made the spot on which 
tnev met retain the name of the " Field of the Cloth of 
Gold " [vol. ii., p. 75]. '• The magnificence which accom- 
panied him through life deserted him not at his death ; 
his fiioeral obsequies were performed with unusual pomp ; 
ADd the proclamation which announced his death dis- 
played his character ; * a prince mild in peace and 
victorious in war ; the father and restorer of learning 
and the liberal arts.* '* 



an excellent replica in marble of the beautiful group 
of the Dioscuri. These immortals are undraped, — the 
elements had no power to injure the gods, — their 
movements have the appearance of being slow and 
graceful, time, and the causes which drive men to 
hurry and to physical exertion, being non-existent for 
them. They are equal in age, as in beauty, but one 
of them, more self-contained than the other, wears a 
more imposing air; it is the one who reverses his 
torch at the moment of descent into the kingdom of 
the dead. Farewell, for a time, to the fleet coursers 
and the native stream, beloved of swans and of 
rose-laurels. Exempt from our cares, freed from our 
solicitudes, their life, very different to ours, prolongs 
itself in the absolute calm which is given by their 
aethereal natures, and in the cultivation of the attri- 
butes of unending youth; carried away by an unlimited 
and mutual love, they enjoy it without reflection in an 
indolence full of security, with a gentleness which is 
as innocent as it is profound. They are naked, as I 
have said, but their heads are covered with flowers, 
as if in symbolism of eternal happiness, and the 
eternal fruitfulness of the race of immortals. From 
whatever position one contemplates this group, we 
find nothing but harmonious lines accentuating their 
calm, their eloquence, and their suppleness ; but 
strength makes itself startlingly apparent, underlying 
this attitude of repose, and one realises that these 
are indeed the tutelary deities of manly exercises, 
in whom the Greeks honoured the celestial pro- 
tectors of her athletes, of her horsemen, and of her 

**' This g^roup, which will doubtless be remembered by 
many of my readers, stood near the Terrasse du Bord de 
I'Eau, close to the Orangeries ; it was destroyed by the 
Communards in May 1871. Vide note **•, on Castor 
and Pollux, p. 130. Those who know the Eternal City 



The inspired, reflcclivc, logical, enthusiastic, exact 
[ mniwt to whom we owe this masicrpiecc h^d without 
I aiiy doubt lingers with developed juints, a large 
I ttiuinb, and conical finger lips. Nor was it an urdiiiary 
in, who, going back to the rustic cradle of the gods 
the heatticn m>'th«log>', and inspiring himscll' with 
I ■Denu>ncs of antiquity, placed this group upon a spot 
I Rcalling the iimbragous arcnic of Olympus and the 
I koly pduturcs of " the verdant Klis, abounding in 
\ tiorsea," 

In France the action of the Southern conical type 

Kjvpon those of the North, is naturally less than that of 

; Northern types upon the Southern. The result 

Kt>llow« thai tilts artistic type, t'H> much modified, lias 

■ Hot among ua the value of specialism which di»- 

ihes il in countries wheiv, instead of b«ing 

■civly tolerated, it is encouraged ; as for instance 

1 haly. 

Nattons among whom— as among u* — aU the typc« 
•re laif^ly represented have more jihades and 
gisdaliona of character than fixed and determinate 
duirKterisiics, Thoi>e among whom two types alone 
■ on itnmetiK majority have moic lixed peculiar!- 
t, aad more originality of procedure than shades 
r character. We an: more nasy-going and tolennt 
I these last, because it has been given to us to 
mtify ourselves without eifort with all characters — 
g tmpiMtihle to the mosses nf n population, who 
K canied away by the ascendency of a too exclusive 
nim. Ttu: mf/ti/nrsf of what strikes one ■! first 
I bnng merely btaiili/ul entirely escapes the 
BTv^lion of the spatulnic nations of the North ; and 
pnver*ely, what Is brauliful in thingii which appear 


mlBflnl \'fJim. 

] ivmember the onVina 
y bmn the Villa ofPoi 
« ol the Church 

il i^roup, which, taken origi- 

npoy. stands now at the lop 
seeps ol the Church ot Sta. Maria Araeadi, in ' 
dd Cainpidogliu, on the CapitoUnc. 



at first to be merely uM/itl, escapes the comprriieiisNl 
of ttie nations of the South."* 
*!y- . If you hate interminahle wara of wonla, those . 

"ofiypo. ' loquacious and sterile battles, you will avoid throwing 
tc^ether, not only people of different Qrpea, but even 
people representing two distinct shades of an identic^ 
type. Each of them being penneated with sentiments 
Of which the other knows not how to fofln an exact 
idea, the misunderstanding will be unresolvable. 

iThus among persons of an identical type small hands 
generalise too much, whilst large hands do not do so ' 

i sufficiently. In the eyes of Victor Jacquemont, the 
naturalist and geologist, — for whom art and poetry are 
as nothing, and who, surrounded by the luxury of the 
nabob, regrets the little chamber of his lather, where 
he partook of the humble family dinner,— Asia, the 
vaunted of poets and mystics, is the most miserable 
and unfortunate continent of the globe. In like man- 
ner CEConomists judge of the prosperity of a country 
by the number of its machines, and of its artists by 
the nuittber of its monuments, and so on with the 

'^ *^' . There are more elements of contradiction, of dis- 
EngLi>h cussion, and consequently of moral agilafion in France 

chiiacier. than in England, where the quasi-similitude of tenden- 
cies is proven by the quasi -uniformity of types ; and 
as a too great conformity of ideas is not a slight cause 
of boredom, it follows that the English, who at home 
are verbose only upon matters of interest, are, when 
not surrounded by the turmoil of voyages and 
of business, the most bored people in the world. 
Mv h "^ ™^ were not the most civilised and the most 

*" This reminds mc of a celebrated axiom of one of 
the moat celebrated leaders of modem xsthedc taste, 
to the effect that " a mind cannot be said to be really 
artistically appreciative, until it can see beauty in the 
perfect construction of the common wfaeelbamw,*' 


n 493] 

cultivated nation of Europe, i.^., the most voluntarily 
subjected to the rules agreed upon by reason, we 
should be the most turbulent and the most divided. 
And it is this high state of civilisation, this lof\y 
abnegation of our individual instincts in favour of 
reasonable measures, which causes less advanced 
nations than us to look upon us as over-refined almost 
to the point of being factitious. 

If it is true that we enter more readily than any „ ^ ^^ 

, , . , , . . ^ 1 Frmnce the most 

other people into the charactenstics of other nations ; perfect nation 
if it is true that there exists no nation that docs not '" '*** ^7^} 

Caoaet of thk 

prefer us to any nation other than itself, it is evidently (cominoed). 
because beneath our medium sky there is no type 
either of the North or of the South which is entirely 
foreign to us. A point of moral conformity reveals 
our relationship with all peoples — a relationship which 
the Romans, having mingled with all races, have 
transmitted to us with their blood. Why, such is 
the case even to the savages, whose fantastic humour 
we have understood, together with their bizarre 
instincts, and this to such a point that our fortunate 
colonists, for the purpose of establishing and ex- 
tending their influence in the New World, have not 
been obliged, like the Anglo-Americans, to come to 
the terrible expedient of a war of extermination. 
English approval is suflicient for an Englishman ; as 
for us, our amsciences are nnrasy if wc do iu»t obtain 
universal approbation, whence our nation derives the 
generous duty, which she imposes upon herself, of 
referring more to the inspirations of universal chivalry 
than to those which are suggested by national indivi- 
dualism ; and whilst, ai\er having inoculated Italy 
with the sacred fever of lit>erty, and having broken 
the fetters of America and of Greece, we conquer 
Algeria only to regenerate her, thr English have 
never interfered in the affairs i»f foreign nations save 
to render them tributaries to their commerce and 


their industry. It has been said that Germany is 
Ihe htart of Europe ; so be it, but we are the head. 
Our son illumines ihe march of Ihe civilisation ol the 
whole world, and this continent, of which we are at 
once the hope, the light, and the joy, acknowledges 
that it has made a new conquest when art, acjence, 
or liber^ have advanced a step among ms, ibr alone 
of all nadona we know how to impress npon our 
conceptions the seal of universality (II). 



Cbe fefluate Cjpe. 

"•••> — ,J^-*JV 


uuruL iiAiitis. [PUtc V'll.] 

r ia nf median) sbcc, but Urge rather than sinoU, 

r SngEfs, the outer i>halanx square, ih«t is tu 

, its bwr sides nttcnd parallel to ihr tip [ynu 

t Bkr any notire o( the curve which nearly 

hft'ays flnishfs off ttie puints of the fingers^ a Uigc 

rumb, with the ball ihcrotf well developed, the palm 

r medium ilinitiisioii, holliiw anil rather lirm. I do 

prupoac tu consider the*c hanH* wttli » small 

mb, (m tb« muon 1 have given al the bead of 

|ub-S«)cli<m IX. 

\ IT 1 have made ntyiKir cicarl,-' understood, the 

idcr win bave gathered that a tj'pc riianKlehaes 

icir no IcM bj- lU lepujinancea than by its inclina- 

by it» defects than by ite qualities. Well 

icn, prrvvrrsnrc, fnrcaight, and the >pirit iif urdrr 

I eons'i:iiti;<Ti.-iliiy, whli'b I have poinled i>ut ■> 



hands which the beautiful and the pleasant occupy 
far more than the serviceable and useful, — abound^ 
on the contrary, in the intelligences signalised by 
square fingers. 

497. To organise, to classify, to arrange, and to render 
e Kiuare* Symmetrical are the mission, the duties of the useful 
yp«- hand. It has no conception either of beauty or truth, 

apart from theory and conventionality. They have 
for similitude and homogeneity, the same love which 
conic hands have for contrasts. They know wherein 
things which differ are similar, and the points in 
which things that seem similar in reality differ ; which 
faculty, as Montesquieu says, constitutes the spirit 
in which the various degrees of hierarchy range 
themselves in clearly-defined lines, and in which, 
according to them, lie the principles of political power 
and wisdom. They intentionally confound discipline 
with civilisation,^**^ i.e.^ prescribed with agreed order. 
They feel things harshly, or at least severely, ranging 
all things as duties, subjecting thoughts to thotighty 
men to man^ and only tolerating such impulses of the 
mind, the soul, and the heart as reason [considered 
from its narrowest aspect] accepts and permits. 

498. One law of all others is dear to them, that of con- 
^^^ ' ' tinuity, and it is above all things according to that 

rule, that is to say, by tradition and transmitted 
law, that their extension takes place. 

499. Such intelligences, otherwise vigorous, have no 
imited wings ; they can expand, but they cannot rise. They 
: tj-pc. are shod with seven-leagued boots, but the fiery chariot 

of Elijah is foreign to their natures. The earth is 

*'®" If the people is kept in order by fear of punish- 
ment, it will be circumspect in its conduct, without 
feeling ashamed of its evil actions ; but if it is kept in 
'^'- order by principles of virtue and the laws of social 

politeness, it will feel ashamed of a culpable action, and 
will advance in the path of virtue.'* — {Confucius), — 

AuTHOR*s Note. 


n 499] 

pre-eminently their abode, they can see nothing 
beyond the social life of man ; they know no more of 
the world of ideas than what the naked eye can know 
of heaven. Beyond this they are always ready to 
deny all that they cannot feel or understand, and to 
look upon the limits of their understanding as the 
limits of nature.*'** 

In France it was not until the seventeenth century, 1 *^* 
the period devoted especially to method and etiquette, the seveoteenth 
which were at this time reduced to a science, that ceniury. 
the ideas of which square hands are the almost 
exclusive active instruments began to manifest them- 
selves in the usages of society.*'* Architecture under 
their sway no longer represented themes of poetry 
or of imagination, as it had in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries,*'^ but displayed a tendency to 
symmetry and material usefulness ; like the man of 
the world who marries and settles down, architecture 
cut her connection with fantasy, and settled down into 
the cold lines of stern reality. 

The monuments of Louis XIV., stripped of all ^501. 
architectural idealism, half palaces, half convents, and uiS«r"* 
part barracks, grand in surface but not in character,*'* !-?«»» ^'V. 
suggested by their uniformity and by their aridity the phiiipp« ii. 
spirit of the inexorable and vain despot, whom the 
care of his own person and of his false splendour kept 
all his life far from the battlefield, far from the ways 
of heroism and popularity,*'^ and to whom toleration 
and clemency, those virtues of great souls and of 

** How often, whilst putting into practice the science 
of cheirosophy, will the cheirosophist recall this para- 
graph ! 

*^ Vide ^^112 and 502 and the notes to those para- 

•^ Vide^^-ji. 

"" Vide note ■', p. 24^. 

"* M. d'Arpentignv is not quite accurate here, for 
Louts XIV., as is well known, led his army in person in 


great minds, were as unknown as they wei 
Hiilippp 11,'^^ 
"y^ ■ "The mind of Louis XIV.," says St. Sinion, ' 

jfgj, XIV. I'bIow mediocrity, glory was for him throughoul his ! 
life more a foible than a taste. Born moderate ' 
secretive, and complete master of his tongue, his love I 
rf order and regularity were immense, and he v 
always on his guard against high merit and supe- 
riorly of mind, talent, or sentiment. He judged men , 
by their love and aptitude for detail, sunk as h 
bimsdf in trifles, and losing his time, as he did, 
eMm illation of minulia;. Loving symmetry, he fancied ' 
hiniaelf gifted with an appreciation of the beautiful. I 
He settled every morning the work of the daj', and ' 
gave bis orders with precision, keeping punctually 
to the hours which he had prescribed. Whatever 
happened, he took physic once a month, heard mass 
every day, and took the Sacrament five times in the 
year. He liked walking and riding; he sat his horse 
well, shot magnificently, danced well, and played 
racquets and billiards to perfection. His smile, his 
language, and even his looks were always under 
control ; his politeness, always full of gradations, was 
unvarying ; to ladies he removed his hat entirely, but 

Holland and in the reduction of the Fraache Comti. 
IVuie (Adolphus') "History of France" (London: 
n.d.'), vol. ii., p. 443]. Still, his biographer \op. cit., 
p. 502] says: — " Though he frequently took the field, and 
reduced in person Franche Comtfe, and several of the 
strongest towns of the Netherlands, yet his personal 
courage has not escaped imputation ; and in repeated 
campaigns he never exposed his life or reputation to the 
hazard of a battle." 

"' It is true that the discipline and infiexibility of 
Philip II. were such as to have become proverbial, but 
at the same time France had not seen, until the time of 
Louis XIV., a ruler whose statesmanship, or whose - 
patriotism and splendour, were greater thui those o£ 
this monarch. 


reamved it ttKirr iir ietu Tar atrording to their runic. 
To the lower ordrrx of nobility he held it in the air 
or close to liix head lor a few motnetits, oircf'ully 
prc^Cbitsidcrcd. To knights or persons of luwcr rank 
he mntcnlcd hiuixelf with touching his hni with his 
hiuMJ i to princt^s of bloud royal he uncuvcn^d utt if 
Cu a lady ; at mcaU he half rose for each lady-in> 
waiting whu arrived. He ntqmnd that his mlstrcaaes 
and the ladies of the court nbauld cot heartily — for 
do one was ever Ictis romantic than he -when it 
was his picnsurc to «cc them /tnf. Wlien he was 
tnvcIltDg he did nal Ukc tlieiik to feel either lieni or 
cold; ihcy ingratiated tliemsclves with him by nn 
evcr-eqoabtc lempcniment, and he required tlial Ihcy 
stiuald be alwayH gay, and rrady b* walk, dance, nr 
fullow him whcrrvt-r he piciucd fi go. lie was 
always drcioed in inuic or less quiet colours, with 
very little urnamcntalion ; he never wore rings or 
Jeweb oC any kind mvc upon the buckles of Iiis sliops, 

i garters a"d habt ; he wore iiin ordeis miidrmat/A hia 
cttU, excepting on special or festive occasions, when 
he wore iheni outside, jewelled to a value of from 
d0it to ten milliotis of francs." *'* 

ir the large-thumbed square type «T hand [which 5fM 
ra the only one tu which these chamctcrislics can ^^j^^H^^^i^ . 
betuog;] bad not been in ait iuimcnoc tnajohty in ' 

I Franco during this reign, the name of t^uis XIV. 
WouUI ncK have come duwn to us §urTiiunded by stich 
a mass of eutogy. The men tif this generation, simibr 
in mipmiaaticin and in temperament, wvn: also simiUr, 
not wUy in mind, but also to a great extcni physically ; 
if we read ifacir works, and look at their portraits, 

■ The above U esltxcted from a i[uanlily »[ dillennt 
I place* [pp. 11, 15, 118, 119, vol. i., etc, etc.] in the 
[ ^Mhmrnns dr M. U Jhtr dr Si. Stmvn, I' OkimNttnr 
1 VtridtamttmrtrftigitfJrlMiuX/V'VUMAK^-.i^^ 


' 503] 

they might all be members of a single family. They 

have all the same large aquiline noses and stem 

mouths, the same positive, methodical, reasonable, 

• and restrained minds. 

504. Round faces, tip-tilted noses, free glances, lively 
dghiftenth behaviour, both physically and morally, belong essen- 
jntury. tially to the philosophic race of the eighteenth century. 
^^^•, And noses like eagle's beak, faces like the lion's 

o of the 

eteenth muzzle, round eyes like wild beasts, and glowering 
■tiuy. eyebrows, belong to the warlike and turbulent times 
of the Empire. 

505. Even in literature what of ideality these useful 
type.° ' * hands can comprehend stops short at a very nar- 
row limit. They keep away from idealism just as 
they do from boldness of thought or novelty of form. 
Their timoroi.s and conceited muse, whose knowledge 
is far ii. .. ^.lance of nei bceming innocence, never 
adventure- .. .-.c;ir save upon well-worn roads, pre- 
ferring u- .irviceed by memory, rather than by senti- 
ment, being spirited rather than imaginative. Such 
subjects prefer words which describe objects with 
referenc: to their use, rather than those which merely 
describe their /or»i [thus, for instance, they will 
use the generic terms *' bark," or *' ship," rather 
thanja:;iv, sh>op, brig, eto.J ; whence comes, of course, 
the want oi" iLH-ai jolouiing that we find in their 
wrii'.i^r,. -i- ihc >r>/6 >:' what they call poetry, 
thej like above cvx-yt.uug else clearness and cor- 
rectness, ih^ihin. the- oaianoe which results from 
cartful arrangement xnd combination ; in social 
reiati ii.^ ihcy n^qvl'f: security and exactitude; in 
.ife, moHeratioii. 

506. Ci: :i.i:'.<i2tct. n.J -ar-sceing, they like what is 
j^"y^^^'^ clear.'y ivi:- J..';- •. - :.uipcci the unknown. Bom for 

.he .? -•^rv' •n".': :i !^::^.]\\n-i ideas, they pay less atten- 
•:ic:. . t.^^c -^ L-.'. "• -c.ii I'lau to the apparently real; 
=.-, j-o^rvrr- . ' he- \)y their good sense, 





ntber tbao by their genius ; by their spirit and 
culiis-aicd talents, rather ttiati by the faculties of 
imagination. In their eyes — eminently fitted to give 
kn opinion on ihc point — the most sociable man is 
not the one who appreciates most llic good quahties 
of his fellow-men, but the one who cares least about 
their defects. They do not seek after beauty, which' 
b a requirement of the soul, but after good, which is 
ft miulremcnt of the mind. ' 

Thi» kind of tt^ng despotism, which has tlaj 
source in the love of order and regularity ; hypocrisy ^ 
fttid conceit, which result from an exaggerated lave 
of reserve and appreciation of good behaviour ; Hits 
•on of pedantry, which is b<im o( respect of persons ; 
coldness, witicli resembles mixlemtion ; flattery and 
ftdulfttioD, vices peculiar to spirits endowed with the 
hknrchlcal instinct; stilTncss of manner and bearing; 
harshncMt of punctuality; and abject submission in' 
view of the objects of one's ambition — these are the 
principal defects of persons belonging to the useful 

Such subjects will accept none but the man who 
i» cultivated. Well tnusht, disciplined, moulded, and ^ 
trimtaed upon a trertain pattern. Where the man of 
learning show^ himself in all his glory, they go to 
seek their models and their examples. When the 
nalloB, Ukr an open'handcd parvenu, desired al length 
to speak a language wortliy of her fortunes and the 
beighl of her glory, 11 was not to Ihc hidden sources 
of ihc rhivnlrous epics of the middle ages, ihal the 
aqnare hands uf the seventeenth I'enturv appealed ; 
they turned their rye* towards Athens and Rome, 
towards the sanoifled names uf Euripides, uf Vityil, 
ef Demosthenes, and of Ciccnx From tliat time forth 
power, rdnforced by the talent of the universities, 
had Its own liiervlurc, just as ii had its own 
architecture, both nf them chancterised by imitation 



■Dd rdkctioa of other stj-les."' Bu( in the country, I 
tbe nttuial stronghold of elemenlary liberty and I 
trntli, men held fast to the mgetiuous poetry of tbe J 
hmif and despising the strange gods of tbe capita^ J 
raouuBed Gaulish, Christian, and romantic."' 

"Everj- country," says Philip de Commines, speaking J 
in oodif his works of the long sojourn of the Englidi f 
in France, and of the Germans in Burgundy, " ' 
ever men may do, ends invariably by remaining th« J 
prapefty of the /i-rtsiiK/ry, i.r., to the nationalists." ' 
It is tbe aame of tbe scbools ot' btowurs. 

' ** Voltaiic says of Ais centniy : — " In domenc^t ', 
poetiy, litentttre, and in books of morality, fbe enoA 
were the l^slators of Europe. . . . Preachers quoted 
Viisil and Ovid ; bairisteiB quoted St. Aiwustin and 
St. Cerome. The mind that should give to the French 
language the turn, the rhythm, and the clearness of style 
and grandeur had not yet appeared. A few verses of 
Malherbes showed that it was capable of grandeur and 
of force, but that was all. The same genii who had 
written in excellent Latin, as for instance the President 
de Thou and the Chancellor, were no longer the same 
when they dealt with their own language /'and he goes oa 
to point out that it was in this century that the works of 
Voiture, of Vaugclas, and of L.a Rochefoucauld, really 
commenced the regeneration of the French language. 
— " SiicUde Louis XIV.," chap, xxxii. 

*" An interesting and curiously parallel passage to 
this commences the opening chapter of Waiter Pater's 
recent work, '' Marius, the epicurean " (Lontbm : 
1885, ch. i.. p. i), which reads as follows :— •' As in the 
triumph of Christianity the old religion lingered latest in 
the country, and died out at last as but paganism — the 
religion of the villagers^beforc the advance of the 
Christian Church ; so in an earlier century it was in 
places remote from town life that the older and puier 
forms of paganism survived the longest. While in 
Rome new religions had arisen with bewildering com- 
plexity around the dying old one, the eadierand Ampler 
fiatriarchal religion, 'the religion of Numa,' as people 
oved to fancy, angered on with little change amid Uie 
pastoral life, out of the habits and sentiment of which 
so much of it had grown." 
" Compare the last note. Philippe de ConBiaM 


Townsmen rather than citizens, men of the square- ^ WO- 

... - ••■ •■ Soculwin of th4 

handed type, prefer ccrtam prtvt leges to absolute ,ype. 

liberty. Authority is the base of all their instincts, 
the authority of rank, of birth, of law, and of custom ; 
they like to feel, and to impose the yoke. " Anything 
which hinders a man," say they with Joseph de 
Maistre, " fortifies him ; he cannot obey without im- 
proving himself, and by the mere fact of his thus 
conquering himself, he is the better man." 

See, for instance, what a deplorable influence the If 511. 
troubles of the Fronde exercised upon the square- uSTxiv. 
handed type of men under Louis XIV. In the fear 
of seeing their troubles recommence, they hastened 
in their fanatic love of order to invest the king 
with autocratic [x>wers ; they intoxicated him with 
splendour and voluptuousness ; they lost themselves 
in the dim necessitudes of servilism ; they raised the 
throne to the level of the altar, and proudly pro- 
claimed themselves to be the apostles of monarchical 
fctichism.*® From the gentle and convenient God of Pr«M:her». 
Montaigne and of Rabelais they passed to the iron- 
handed, harsh-voiced, and intolerant God of Pascal ^^ 

rbom 144s. died 1509] entered the service of Charles, 
Uuke of l^urgundy, in 1464, and left him to enter that of 
Louis XI. in 1472. The earliest knoi^n MS. of his 
woric entitled ** Cronicque et Histoire faicte et com- 
posit far feu Messire Philippes de Commynes, 
Chevalier^ Seigneur (T Argenton, dates from the com- 
mencement of the sixteenth century. The first printed 
edition appeared at Paris in 1523, and complete editions 
appeared m 1528 and 1546. The best modem edition 
is that entitled ** Choix de Chroniques et Mimoires 
sur r Histoire de France** (Paris: 1536J, edited by 
J. A. C. Buchon. The remark quoted by M. a'Arpentigny 
occurs in book iv. 

For an account of the •* Guerre de la Fronde " 
xndt Voltaire's ** Histoire du Parlement de Paris** 
ch. Ivi. At the end of the disturbances the parliament 
ceased Dractically to exist, and Louis XIV. held auto- 
ctaticauy the reins of government [op. cit., ch. Irii.]. 
"" PSmcaI, the philosopher and Jansenist. the author 



and of Bossuet" They lacked the gift of persuasion, 
and their preachers, highly appreciated at court on 
account of their magnificent language, could only con- 
vert souls in the Cevennes with the aid of the 
utentara. arquebuse and halberd.*^ We find no impartiality, 
liberality, or appreciation of antique times in the works 
of their historians; no lyricism among their poets; 
beneath the learned tissue of their style, beneath the 
parsimonious sprinkling of metaphors and ornamental 
Latin quotations which decorate it, one catches a 
glimpse of souls trembling beneath the vigilant scru- 
tiny of literary, religious, and political pedantism, to 
which, by virtue of the oiganisation which governs 
them, the sublime flights of enthusiasm and liberty 
must remain for ever strangers. 
^ 512. Thus, on the one hand, plastic art no longer existed, 

Art in the same fQj. plastic art is as nothing where the consent of the 

pcnod. II. 

masses is not regarded as important ; and, on the 
other, real poetry was not yet existent, for the grand 
Angel, w^hose forehead is diademed with stars, and 
who sits at the right hand of God, — the angel of lyric 

of the celebrated ^* Pensies sur la Riligion et sur 
quelqtus autres Sujets *' (Paris : 1669) [complete edition 
(Pans : 1844)], was the author of the ** Lettres Provin- 
dales ^^^ preached under the pseudonym of Louis de 
Montalt, in 1654, which Voltaire calls the first book of 
real genius which the century had seen. 

*" M. d*Arpentigny is wrong in attributing these 
characteristics to the dogma of Bossuet, whose style of 
preaching was always sublime and poetic to the point of 
real pathos. Our author would have done better in 
citing his successor Bourdaloue, of whom Voltaire tells 
us: — " He was [1665] one of the first that introduced 
reasonable eloquence into the pulpit. ... In his style, 
which was more nervous than fiorid, without any 
imagination in its expressions, he seemed to desire to 
convince rather than to touch, and he never aimed at 
pleasing his congregation." — •* Siecle de Louis XV." 
ch. xxxii. 

*" Vide note '*•, p. 247. 





foetry K\d sublime thoughts, tho angtl whom Racine 
would luve invoked had his age permitted it, had not 
yet h»vcrcd on his fier>' wings over France, pre- 
occupi«d as she was by the cares of government, 
and the religious scruples of her king. Ttic artistic 
hand had departed, and the psychic had not yet 
arrived ; it ivas the tcra of letters and of wits, of 
shades, of senliDicnl, and of literary subtlety ; of 
gmt laltntf no doubi, but not of great hgkts. Coustou, 
Coysevvx, and Pug<et— the latter especially — still gave 
life to the dull cold marble, but they did not give 
to it beauty.*** Poets, too great not to be misundcT' 
stood, Le Pous&in exiled himselT m Italy, Lesueur 
shut himself up in a cloister, and Claude LorraJn in 
(he contemplation of nature. No oflidal of this 
period possessed the true sentiment of the beauties 
of nature; in the laying out of gardens, geometry 
was substituted for design, and symmetry fur grace. 
At the theatre excessive restraint, conventionality, 
and artificiality, proved fatal to the drama and chilled 
iL Tlie tragic muse — like the nation ^seriously 
sfaackkd, refused to move forward, and seemed to 
realise the fact that beneath the crushing load of 
lis iotmmcrahle niles, she must act without gracw; 
at the nme time comedy, fable, and moral romance, 
compositions of a medium nature, and IcR more 
free, probably for this reason attained during this 
epoch their highest limits of perfection. France, 
which tocether with the spirit of the artistic hands 
had foal her hatred of conventionality and regularity, 


. of c. 

doubl thow; among m>' i 

gtnutoe idmitalinn upnn thi- 

fl ; there are no 

matter nt opmton ; there are 
^' rimli-rn B-Ko ha»* looked with 
\u:-i o( Cou»tou in iha 
LutrmboiirK- and hn jn^ouj. ' I hr Rhon* and Stu>mt" 
at the fountain m iho i kiI. ri.ri Gardens; as aUo 
I CovievDx'i sroupt u( " Mfi-iurj and Famr" oo the 
1 puLusofihcgate which tends into the sABMgardew boat 
-' "la do la Concorde, 


her brilliuit energy, her light refraiiia, and the caintie 
wit 90 dear to the contemporaries oT " le rire de 
BrantOme," "* advanced only with heavy and messurad 
tread ; she had disciplined even gallantry, and had 
theoretically tamed the course of the atream of Lt 
FkttiM dt Ttndn;"^ she had assumed a gnve and 
magisterial air, and a voluminous peruke; she was 
busy, and must not be disturbed. , Upon science, 
whose bold and logical deductions are regarded askant 
by the authorities ; upon history, whose inquiries cause 
th«m annt^rance ; and upon warlike courage, the blind 
ardour and adventurous enthosiEsm of irtiicb have so 
often compromised them, — square hands impose as an 
untransgressible limit, as an inevitable starting-poinb 
and as a curb, official confidence, tradition, and tactics. 
If the instincts of recalcitrant and innovating minds 
urge them towards the subUmc horizon of the world 
of ideas — so much the worse for them ; this terrible 
square type count among their arguments spoliation, 
exile, fetters, and the scaflbld. 

Such was Baville, who only saw one bad point in 
the public tortures and slaughter of the Protestants 

* Pierre de Bourdeilles, Abb6 and Seigneur of Bran- 
tAme, chronicler and writer, bom in 1527, died in 1614. 
He passed the greater part of his life in the professions 
of soldier and courtier. Gentleman of the bedchamber 
to Charles IX. and Henry 111., he seemed destined, tnr 
his character as much as by the adventures which befell 
him, to become the chronicler of his epoch. He has 
been called " Le Valet de chambre de I'Histoire," a 
title well earned by his works, of which perhaps the best 
known and most notorious are, " Les Vies des Hommes 
Illustres et Grands Capitaines de son Temps " (Ley- 
den ; 1665) ; " Memoirs con/enans les Anecdotes de fa 
Cour de France sous Henri II., Francois II., and 
Henri III. et IV." (Leyden: 1722); ^nd." Memoirs 
contenans les Vies des Dantes GalanUsdeson lentps" 
(Leyden : 1603). 

■■ The " Pays de Tendre " was an allegorical conntiy, 
a good deal referred to by Roraanciatsof the aeveoteentt 



at Montpellier,*' and that was — the compassion with 
which they inspired the mob. Such was Dominic, 
whose fanaticism suggested the idea of the extermina- 
tion of an entire people ; ** such was the Due d'Albc, 
who vaunted himself as having caused 18,800 men 
to perish upon the scaffold.** Such was the calm 
Robespierre, petrified by logic, legality, and incor- 

n 5.3] 



century, — a country entirely devoted to the pleasures of 
love, a kind of elysium of lovers and their lasses. This 
is the stream referred to by Boileau, in his tenth satire 
** Des Femmes," in the lines : — 

*' Puis bientdt en grande eau sur Ic^tuve dt Tendrt 
Naviger 4 souhait, tout dire et tout extendie/' etc. 

■■ Montpellier was one of the most redoubtable 
strongholds of the Protestants, by whom it was fortified 
in the seventeenth century. It was, however, besie^d 
by Louis XIII. in August 1622, and fell in the following 
October. The massacres of Protestants which followea, 
and the atrocities committed by the conquerors of 
Montpellier, form one of the blackest pages of the 
religious history of the times. 

"■ Dominic, the founder of the monastic order that 
bears his name, having despatched 1,207 n^onks into 
Languedoc to collect proofs of the heresy of the Albi- 
genses. and having found contradictions in the evidence, 
besought the authorities to exterminate them [Eyre 

la t^te de ce moine, qui passe pour le g6nic dc rinquisi- 
tion incam^; . . . il s'imagine scr\'ir Ic genre humain en 
poursuivant sans piti6 les ' suppots de Tenfer qui 
perdaient tant de milliers d*^mes,' et crut ob^ir d la 
voix de Dieu en 6touffant les murmurcs de sa conscience 
ct Ic cri de ses entrailles." 

"" This is what we find laid down in so many words 
in Joannis Meursi ** Ferdinandus A than us, sive de 
Rebus ejus in Belgio per sexennium gestis Libri /I '.** 
(Amsterdam : 1638).* 

* **Gloriatu» alibi dicitur ; uno illo sexennio suo, lictorb 
mamt, xviii. d9 ac d:> roori jussive, praeter cos qiio» bella aut 
pnendk li«ii^biseDt**~Lib. iv^ p. 86. 


n 513] 

Louis XIV. ruptibility.*^ Such was Louis XIV., whose cramped 
spirit could never rise to doubt'** 

. . . *' non men che saver, dubbiar mi aggrata." "* 

^518a. An excellent portrait of Cardinal Richelieu by 

RichcUeu. phiUppe de Champagne, belonging to the Museum of 
Caen, represents that prelate with pointed fingers. 
It is a gratuitous piece of flattery, if indeed it was so 
meant, for the hand being represented in profile the 
fingers could not appear otherwise than pointed.*** 
Cardinal Richelieu, who recommends in his will that 
all men of a too delicate sense of honour should be 
banished from the conduct of public afiairs, had, as 
we all know, a comprehension of social and politic 
ethics as broad as his moral sense was narrow.** 
More attentive to the interests of heaven than to 

*" " Robespierre, who distinguished himself in the 
constituent assembly by the severity of his principles, 
was excluded from the legislative by the decree of non- 
election. He entrenched himself now among the Jaco- 
bins, where he domineered with absolute sway, by the 
dogmatism of his opinions, and a reputation for integrity 
which gained for him the epithet of the tncorruptwle** 
[Thiers, ''History of the French Revolutions^ (Lon- 
don : 1877)," The Legislative Assembly,'' ch. i. ]. Perhaps 
the minutest and most unbiassed account of the life and 
character of Maximilien Robespierre is to be found in 
Lamartine's '' Histoire des Girondins'' (Paris: 1847), 
of which an English translation was made by H. T Ryde : 
" History of the Girondists y or Personal Me?noirs of 
the Patriots y etc.'' (London : 1849), from which to a great 
extent Mr. Lewis* '* Life of Maximilien Robespierre** 
(London : 1849) is taken. 

*" Vide ch. xxxvi. of Voltaire's ** Siecle de Louis 

XI vr 

®^ Dante, ''Inferno** canto 21, fin, 

«« Vide^^gS- 

^* " Testament Politique d* Armand du Plessis, 
Cardinal Due de Richelieu''* (Amsterdam: 1788), 
chap vi. [p. 211] : — " C'est ce qui fait qu'au lieu de lui 
representer les avantages que les princes r^ligieux ont 
pardessus les autres je me contente de mettre en avant 



of the earth, he only look up arms against 
the Proteslatits to deprive them of ihcir matcriiU 
Mrcngih.** Though he had the niania of verse, i.e.. 
of rhytlim and measure in speech, he had nni the 
tcotinietir of poetry developed to ihc altghlesl degree 
He w«s a deeply considered, and bold enemy of inde- 
pendent and audacious instincts, and he was a leveller 
ID n-hosc eyes two things alone were ncred — unity 
and authority. 

Certainly, like AriMotle, that paragon of the squan; 
type; like Boilcau, the prototyjjc of rhythmical poets; 
like Turcnne and Vaubaii, generals of tJie bcicntiSc 
school, Kichcllcii had square lingcr-lips, and not 
pointed ones. 

Versailles, where everyttiing is arranged in straight 
ItiKs^ aod effaces itself in a lyraiinical and wearisome ^' 
symmetry ; where the houses like stalely dowagers 
Mand in rows, ci>1d and sliR', uniformly omiunentcd 
with niasalve facings of red brick in imitation of por- 
phyry ; — Vcraailles, where one feels Hint one ought 
only to walk in one's best cluthes, and at Ihc pace of 
a prtKCsaion ; when:, bi analyse the feelings to which 
tlte splendid poverty of its bastard iuvh iter lure gives 
Mrth, the mind lunis to arithmetic rather than to 
ptKlry;- -Versailles, I say, with its gardens and iu 
p«Uce,will always be for large-lhumbcd useful hands 

i)uc la devotion qui est n^r-ssaire aui Rois doji tttv 
Ic do H-nipulc : Je le dis, sire, parcc que la detica- 
de la conscience ilc V. M. lui bit suuveni craindrc 
ter Dieu en taisani ceiulneti choses doni aM>u^^- 
dte ae ^auroti t'abMenir &nnK pfchj."— Chap. 
. tea. iii, [p. J4fi.]:— "Ij pn>bii6 d'un Minislrc 
Pnblic no suppou pas une conscience crainlive el sera- 
pnlrusr : au tuatraiie il n'y a rien de plus dangcruux 
Au Couvernrmcnt dc I Eiai. etc ; and the same qiirlt 
conlinuall)' pervade!^ the maxitns contained in (his 
catnotdioaiy litilr volume. 
- ««rtift4 




the most perfect exemplification of monumental 
beauty, as it is understood by them. • 
516. The man who is a publican by nature, the bureau- 

^fwrwint. crat " moulded to the true type of his race, has 
necessarily square fingers. Satellite of the science 
of arithmetic, he gravitates around its arid sphere 
and draws from it its faint refulgence. His harsh 
and sullen pen deals only with matter of law and 
rule, for he is permeated by the fiscal instinct, which 
with him takes the place of all natural feeling. Living 
outside the pale of thought and of events, tar from 
the clashing of opinions, of interests, and of swords, 
all his sensibilities are concentrated upon himself, as 
is also everything in the way of combinations that 
his mind can grasp. He is so constituted that he 
cannot feel a passion for anything ; the crowd suites 
and murmurs in the street, — it is the king who is 
passing; immediately he wreathes his lips into a smile 
of compulsory cheerfulness, which will disappear like 
the flame of an extinguished candle when his master 
has gone by. In his eyes the best government is the 
one under which he can live his careful life ; he 
knows beforehand at what age he will marry, and 
how many children he will have. Having no hope 
of achieving glory or distinction, innovation of any 
kind being absolutely forbidden him, he never loses 
an opportunity of decrying it when it is being vaunted 
by popular enthusiasm. For all professions which 
are not literary, he has the same contempt that the 
peasant has for the trades which do not entail hard 
work. In his estimation man has only been the 
superior animal since the invention of paper, and he 
considers as problematical and hypothetical the renown 
of the pretended great men who have never learnt to 
read or write. He considers the ranks of the priest- 
hood and the classifications of the social scale to be 
far more worthy of consideration than the poet, the 


■ right i 

t, or the pliiloaopher, patrii^ians by Di 
Ik rxprrts ihnt iniitatinn and assimilatlun will givi^ 
hiin u fki-tifinu^ nri^rocracy, n rank, an importnncr 
that Itp can nrvcr cxpi.-ct to deHve from Ihc eminently 
plebeian nature uf his labours, 

In France the uniformed writer whose duty it is to 
Fe«ulate the renovation of the soldiers' shoes, and to 
count the survivors after the buttle, has a right lo the 
Mine decorations, dixti tin ions, and emoluinfrnts as the 
geacral who has headed the soldiers into victory ; in 
thit caw ink has the mhic value as blood. Wc have 
Caagcn and catercnt, who hold tbc rank of colonel, 
\ who wear decorations, stars, and ribbonit. 

In China there is an insignium of honour conferred 

' upoti men of letters, and upon the highest slate ' 

' officials, which France «fiould adopt fur the dis- 

I llnelion iif her bureaucrats— the peacock feather.** 

The wiliiicr npprccisted by the subject of tlie »puUi- 

ate type is toll, with broad shoulders, a ruddy com- 

I picxion, on equable tcmpenunenl ; he is gay, frank, 

I martial, and deliberate in manner. In the cnuntry, 

the chickens come of their own accord tv forage for 

theni*elve» in his haverwick ; like tlie veterans <>f the 

Empire, he will not believe in the traditional goose 

> with the golden eggs, nr the crirJcet of gmd ntnen, but 

I he has imptiirit oiiifideni^c in the ptiwcra of hts sword 

I and hi* brandy R»ak. So long as he t* strung and 

valiant, one may for^\e hts inicmperaiKC, 

The general whnsc large hands have square finger- 
lips requires that he shall be exact and orderly, 
always cii-an, carefully attired, and scnipuloiKly rami. 
I He will not allow him the pleasure vi an CKisuional 



: not be hungry or thirsty cx- 
eepttoK at the njgimental and prescribed houre. No 
t he will be brave and nibu»l, bat lieforc all h« 

^ ^ d^^flt ftn'l,?irt<jf ti? tlw ji^iTajnurtii . 

n Sao] 


will be obedient and submissive to discipline; he 

will have clear judgment, but his wit will be neither 

brilliant nor refined. 

Y 521. According as a man belongs to these two types, as 

Constitution of they at present stand in France, an army ought only 

ftn &nny« 

to be an instrumient whose perfection consists in being 
strong and supple, that is to say, of soldiers more 
vigorous than intelligent, and of inferior officers of 
greater docility than capacity. A highly-developed 
capacity in subalterns is to them more a drawback 
than an advantage ; it is pretended that it brings 
them infallibly to a state of scorning the details of 
things, to presumption and disregard of discipline; 
and while in this connection one may cite Sallust, 
who has written that the soldier who affects the fine 
arts has necessarily a feeble understanding.^^^ A 
high compliment, indeed, to the independence of 
artistic natures. 
% 622. In the barracks, towards the end of the reign of 

^^^*^y !JP^^'' Charles X., the guards with their elementary hands* 
lived by themselves, calm, empty-headed, and 
characterised by a vulgar and inoffensive appearance. 
Corpulent and inert, they sat their horses boldly, 
but without grace ; whilst some regiments made an 
ornament of their uniforms, for them it was but a 
garment. They rose at daybreak, and went to bed 

■^ The passage referred to is the one in which Sallust, 
describing the army of L. Sulla in Asia, states that they 
were completely demoralised by luxuries, and by a taste 
for the fine arts.* 

* Sallust. '-' Bellum CaHIinarium^'* cap. xi : — '*Huc ac- 
cedebat quod L. Sulla exercitum quern in Asia ductaverat, 
quo sibi fidum faceret, contra morem majorum, luxuriose nimis- 
que liberaliler habuerat loca amoena voluptaria, facile in otio 
feruces militum animos molliverant. Ibi primum insuevit 
exercitus populi romani amare potare ; signa, tahulas pictas, 
vasa coelata mirari. . . . Igitur hi milites, postquam victoriam 
adepti sunt, mYv\\ aUc^ui vlctis feccrc." 



eftiiy ; their windows were garnished with flowers ; 
ihey u»ed to go for Jong silent walks iwo and two, 
from which Ihey would bring back a bouquet of 
viotets, or ■ briinch nf May-flowers. When Ihey 
came in they paascd a wet comb through their hair, 
and net to work to brush their clothc§. A wicker 
cage shaded by a bunch of chickweed, their portraits 
painted in oils by a house-painter, a net for quail- 
CKtchlng, and a green china parrot, with a curtainlcss 
bed, a deal table, and the chest of drawers, and 
three chairs provided by guvemmcnl, completed ihdr 
modest furniture. They married women of their 
romcn with large feci, of masv-ulinc prnpor- 
is, of equable temperament, drinking everytliing 
I knowing liica them how to march in line, and 
who shared with them their admiration for the great 
porringer of the Invalides. 

These useful- handed guards went in for the free 
I educational courses iipen to them, in the murky 
[ domains of the Latin tongue ; Ihey frequented bbo- 
, amphitiieatrcs, and libraries, and always 
1 sciences with avidity; tlicy numbered her- 
d collections of insects among their possessiunSL 
[bl cousult them as to the time, us if ihey had 
Pdtils; as to the dale, as if they had ticcn 
calcndan ; ttie day of the week, as if they had been 
almanacks i-~ it flaltcrcd them. They pnded thcm- 
tel«-e« on being trussed at all poinu conformably to 
the prescriptions of the rcgfimenul code. They couU 
stammer dead langiuKes, and on great occasions they 
would fire great names at you like bonbons out of 
a pea -shooter. 

Enthusiasm, turmoil, and the outdoor forms ol life, 
nn the contrary, were the domains of the youngvr 
guards witli Kmiioth spatulale fingers i luVars at the 
bottle, hardy and elegant horsemen, tliey were pre- 
tty the (nccs of their pcnons utd v^v^ua.- 




ments ; they dressed beautifully, and alone of all men 
carried their whips " with an air." One met them 
everywhere : like wasps to the ripened fruit there 
flocked to them the idlers of the cafes^ the eternal 
sippers of absinthe and of white wine ; and the 
English, grown tired of ale and red-haired beauties ; 
and the baronesses of the Holy Empire with their in- 
satiable requirements ; and portionless damsels in 
search of a beau, wearing their hearts on their 
sleeves ; and the frisky and impudent members of 
the ballet, and all the rest of them ! In their rooms, 
rather less bare than those of which I have just 
spoken, one might see a guitar, some flowers, an 
assortment of pipes, a volume of Pigault-Lebrun, 
and silhouettes of women framed in gilt paper. 

Whenever a nation advances in a particular direc- 
tion, every influence combines to forward it in that 
direction, even those to the detriment of which, the 
movement is accomplished. That is what one sees 
under the reign of Louis XIV., when the spirit of every 
class tended towards material order above all things, 
so as to merit the favour of the governing type, which 
made use of them against themselves just as navi- 
gators make use of a head-wind, and make it carry 
them forward. 
^626. One is struck by two things in reading the ** Lettres 

The"Letires Edifiautcs ; " firstly, by the strength of will and the 
their authors. Spirit of sclf-ahncgation and of patience, by the 
courage, and the knowledge of the missionaries who 
wrote them ; and secondly, by the childish faith which 
they reposed in the efficacy of the last ceremony of 
the Catholic religion. They seemed convinced that 
whoever was not of their Church was not only not a 
Christian, but was a positive Atheist. ^^ So narrow- 
niimlccl, so impious an cxclusivencss, and thi* disdain 


All things 
contribute to 


*** Vide wviVvi ^^ , ^. 117. 


[H 5»6] 

which they always testified for haman reason unii- 
iumined by revelation, have rendered vain all their 
efforts upon the infidels, among whom they have 
driven more people to fanaticism and to martyrdom 
than to civilisation. To listen to them one would 
believe that it is the Church, and not God, who dis- 
poses of human souls. One of them steals a baby 
from its mother and baptizes it in secret; at the close 
of the ceremony the baby dies, and the missionary 
weeps for joy at having saved a soul from hell, — 
as if by this formality God was prevented from a 
possible misapprehension as to the baby's inno- 
cence. It is during the seventeenth century that 
the greater part of the " Lettres Edifiantes " were 
written ; they reflect admirably the hard and in- 
tolerant, hierarchic, disciplined and obstinate spirit of 
the useful hand. But these missionaries were nearly 
all gifted with simple and charitable hearts ; their 
genuine modesty was in no respect " the pride that 
apes humility," nor their benevolence towards the 
humble and meek, of the kind which has been defined 
as " the hatred of the great and powerful." *•• These 
qualities have modified the defects of their type ; but, 
had their hearts been as exclusive as their minds, 
their small successes would have been smaller still. 

There is this difference between the love of con- ^ ItT. 
stituted authority as it is understood by spatulate ^[^5^^^ 
hands and by useful hands (free in either case from contrut«L 
the modifying influences of education), that the former 
attach themselves to the person of the despot, and the 

■• •• Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses concernant 
rAsie, FAfrique, et rAnUrique, etcr (Paris: 1838). 
publi^es sous la direction dc M. rAime-Martin. These 
letters, dated principallv from the sovrntet^nth century, 
constitute a lar^o collei^tion of records of missions 
undertaken by French and other priests in all parts of 
the known world. 


latter to the institution of despotism ; for the former 
the tyrant must be powerful, for the latter he need 
only be properly constituted. 

Artistic hands observe material order only in so far 
as it helps and contributes to beauty. Useful hands 
love it for itself, admitting freely to their lives every- 
thing resultant therefrom. Order as it is understood 
by the English and Americans chills our artistic taste, 
and is antipathetic to us. Excessive order reduces 
all principles to the level of methods, a proceeding 
which almost materialises them, and up to a certain 
point strikes them with sterility. It is thus, as 
Madame dc StaSl said, that analysis kills the spirit of 
a thing, that cht^mistry kills its life, and that reasoning 
kills its sentiment.*" 

™ " CEir.'res Cnm/ili-fes de Madame de Stail-Hol- 
stein" (Paris: i?i^h), passim. "La pr&ision ro^ta- 
physique, appliquSe aux affections morales de I'homme, 
est tout a fait incompatible avec sa nature. I,e Bonheur 
est dans le vague, et vouloir y porter un examen dont il 
n'est pas ausciiptible, c'est lantantir eomme ces imaees 
brilliantes fornixes par les vapeurs l^g^res qu'on fait 
disparaitre en les travcrsant." — " Essai sur les Fif- 
lions," op. cit., vol. i., p. bi. " T.'imagination a peur 
du revfil de la raison comme d'un ennemi Stranger qui 
pourrait venir troubler le bon accord de ses chimeres el 
de ses faiblesses. . . . I.e courage el la sensibility, deu:t 
IS morales, dont vous d^truirez 

Vempire en les analysani par I'intfir^t personnel, ( 
vous fietririez le charme de la beaute en la d^crivanl 
comme un anatomiste." — " De la Litttrature," vol. tit., 


USEFUL HANDS [conttHUed]. Continuation. 

Chinese Hands, 

Square-tipped hands must be in an immense majority f 5S9. 
in China, and for this reason : the masses defer will- china. "* 
ingly to the requirements of hierarchy and to the 
sovereign authority of a single man.^ They do not 
weigh reason against logic, but against usage ; they 
esteem good sense more than genius, things ordinary 
more than things extraordinary, the real more than 
the ideal, and the middle course rather than the 

They prefer social and practical to speculative f 530. 
philosophy, history and the other moral and political **"**" 


sciences to metaphysics and abstract sciences. 

The man who governs his family well, who has ^Wl. 
been a respectful and dutiful son, who has the proper 
deference for his elders, is judged worthy and capable 
of governing a province, a kingdom, or an empire.^ 

• Vide note ••', p. 267. 

*■ " We have a religion of the literary class which 
corresponds to the degree of culture of the most en- 
lightened body in the empire. This is the religion of 
Confucius, or rather his philosophy ; for his doctrine is 
that of the founder of a school who has enunciated 
moral maxims, but has not meddled ^nth speculative 
theories upon the destinies of man and the nature of the 
Divinity.— Tcheng-Ki-Tong, op, cit,, p. 10. 

^ "The family, says Colonel Tcheng-Ki-Tong« " U 



Ib^ have placed phdd politateff^ taet, and UK 
<d»ervance of convendonalitin and of titm, *t tte 
head of the sodol -virtues. In China diese thinp 
regulate Oie various ways in -wtuA each ma, 
according to his age, rank, or profewion, iBBat ■■!> 
about, sit down, enter, leave, listeui kx^ aaluti^ drcM^ 
and move. 

It was tile same thing in Fnmce in tbe aevemeeBtt 
" century, the epoch when passim obedieocec oiialHimd 
the first merit of a son or of a suliiiec^ and wfaen a 
knowledge of heraldry, of etiqaett^ lif ceremome^ of 
ftumulK, and of the ways ik tbe worid sofllced ta 
endow a maa with the epithet of an accomiriished 
gentleman. They could not write or spell properiy 
in the court of Louis XIV., but they saluted wth more 
grace than in any other place in the world. 

the institution upon which is based the whole social and 
political edifice ot China. . . . From the most remote 
period the influence of the family has predominated 
every order of idea ; and we say, quoting Confucius, 
that to govern a countiy one must first have learned to 
govern a family. The family is essentially a government 
m miniature ; it is the school in which governors are 
formed, and the sovereign is himself a disciple of it" 
[p. 7]. ' ' The chief authority is vested in the most aged 
member of the family, and in all the important con- 
junctions of life reference is made to his decision. He 
has the attributes of the head of a government ; all 
documents are signed by him in the name of the 
family" [p-Ol " The Chinese painted In Themselves" 
(London: 1885). It is thus that we mid in Chinese 
literature a continual recurrence of such passages as 
the following, taken from " The Shoo King, or the 
Historic Classic" [translated b^ W. H. Medhurst 
(Shanghai : 1846], p. 792], in the sixth book, called the 
Book of Chow, sect. 2: "The King said, as it were, 
' Oh, KQn Chin, you arc possessed of excellent virtue, 
being both filial and respectful. And as yon are 
dutiful and fraternal towards your elder and younger 
brethren, you can display the same qualities ia 
government, I therefore command you to regvlate 
our northern botdet," etc., etc. 


The moral portrait of Confucius, as it has been 1 *>*. 
transmitted to us by his disciples, affords the perfect confudiw. 
model of the superior man as he was understood by 
the Chinese. Here are some of its salient features : 
Kung FuTsu, when still resident in his native village, 
was extremely sincere and upright, but he had so 
much modesty that he seemed to be deprived of the 
faculty of speech. When, however, he found him- 
self in the temple of his ancestors, and in the court 
of his sovereign, he spoke clearly and distinctly, and 
all that he said bore the evidence of reflection, and of 
maturity. At court he spoke to the inferior officials 
with firmness and rectitude, to the superior officers 
with a polished frankness ; in the presence of the 
prince his attitude was respectful and dignified. 
When the prince ordered him to court and bade him 
receive the guests [the more important vassals], his 
attitude took a new aspect, and his gait was slow 
and measured, as if he had shackles attached to his 

In saluting persons who stood near him, either to ^ 5S5. 
the right or to the lcf\, his robes, both in front and "^^ 
behind, always tell straight and in well-arranged folds. 
Mis pace quickened when he introduced guests, and he 
held his arms extended like the wings of a bird. When 
he entered the gates of the palace he bent his body 
as if the gates had not been high enough to allow him 
to pass through erect ; he never paused as he entered, 
and never stood about upon the threshold. In passing 
before the throne his countenance changed suddenly : 
his tread was slow and measured, as if he had been 
fettered, and his speech seemed as shackled as his 
feet Holding his robe in his hands, he advanced 
thus up the hall of the palace, with his body bent, and 
holding his breath :is if he dared not breathe. In 
going out, after having taken a few steps, he relaxed 
hb grave and respectful countenance, and aa&xxnv^ % 

n 535] 


smiling expression, and when he reached the bottom 
of the stairs^ letting his robes &11, he extended onoe 
more his arms in the wing-like attitude. 

f 686. In receiving the distinctive marks of homage [as 

Hb nintatkms. ^^ ^^^y ^f j^jg prfnce] he incUned his body pro- 
foundly, as if he could not support it ; then he ndaed 
it up vnth both hands, as if to {Hiesent himself to 
some one, lowered it once more to the ground, as if 
to replace it : wearing on his countenance and in his 
attitudes the appearance of fear, and displaying in 
his gait, now slow, now rapid, all the di£ferent 
emotions of his soul. 

5^687. His costume for sleeping or repose was half as 

IS costume, j^^^ again as his body. In the house he wore thick 

garments of fox skins. On the first of every month 

he put on his court dress, and went to pay his respects 

to the prince. 

% 538. He never ate meat that was not cut straight and 

^^ mea°r^* neatly, nor of dishes which were not dressed with 
the sauce that suited him, nor if the colour was 
not right, or the smell did not please him, or if the 
meats were not of the right season. In drinking 
alone he restricted himself by no rule, but he never 
took enough to disturb his mind in the least degree : 
he always took a moderate quantity of ginger with 
his food, and whilst eating he never conversed. If 
the mat on which he was to sit was not carefully laid, 
he would not sit upon it ; when invited to a feast by 
the inhabitants of his village, he would never leave 
the table before the feeble and older men who were 

^539. His stables having caught fire, he said, when he 

im "babiit returned home, " Has the fire killed any one ? I do 
not mind about the horses." 

^ MO. If he was ill, and the prince came to see him, he 

w oya ty. gj^^yg j^^d himself placed with his head to the east, 
and dressed lu Y\\s comtI dt^ss^ and girded himself 



wiUi his richnt belt. When the prince summoned 
him lo his presence, he went immediately on foot, 
willioui waiting for his equipage, which followed 

If any of his friends died, having no one to super- 
intend his funcml rites, he used to ssy, " The cares of 
tlic funeral will be mine." 

When he went to sleep he never assumed the 
position ot a dead inan, and at home he used to lay 
aside his habitual gravity. If any one called on 
him whilst he was in mourning, even when it was 
for an Intimate friend, he never failed to change his 
countenance and to assume a conventional expression. 
If ever he met any unc in robes of state, or who 
was blind, though he himself wore nothing but his 
ordinary garments, he never failed to treat him with 
dcfcrence and respect When he met any one 
dressed in mourning, he saluted, alighting from his 
carriage ; and be acted in the same manner when he 
met people earryiiig memorial tablets bearing the 
names of citizens.*** 

When a thunder-storm broke out upon the town, or 
a atortn wind rose stiddenly, he always changed 
cuuntcnanoe, and looked with an air of terror towards 
heaven. When be rode in his chariot, he stood 
upri^l, holding the reins in his own hands: lie 
never Inuked behind him, spoke only with a grave 
accent, and never pointed with his finger.** 

■• Tablets upon which are inscribed alt the title* 
whkli the family has possritsed for several generations, 
are always in China carried in procession whether of 
nuuriaget or of tuoeraU. It is the custom for passers- 
by to salutr such processions when they meet them in 

^ lite above account of KuDg-lu-ini is taken front 
J. P. C. fanthicr's accounts of the Chinese law-givcr, 
contained in his wotlcs " VvH/ttita ti Jfemcnu" 
'?aria : la^b). and ■' J.e Ta Hio, au la Grande £tmdt' 


Here follow some of the maxims of Confudiu; 
they prove that genius, that lofly reason and wisdom 
are to be found in all countries and among all races; to 
love one's fellow-creatures is a virtue, to know them is 
a science, *" and to despise them is the ruin of virtue. 

Men who can make studied orations are not the 
right ones to decide in matters of crime ; they require 
only men who are gentle, sincere, and just ; who can 
always preserve the happy medium. If a state is 
not governed by reason, riches and honours are then 
only subjects of shame. If, on the other hand, it is 
governed by reason, poverty and misery then become 
subjects of shame."" 

The man of superior mind lives at peace with all 
men, without any fixed rule of invariable conduct 
The man of inferior intellect, on the other hand, acts 
always according to a given plan, without being able 
to suit himself to his fellow-men. The former is 
easily served, but is satisfied with difficulty ; the 
latter, on the contrary, is served with difficulty, but 
is easily satisfied. 

What heaven sees and hears is merely what the 

' people see and hear : what the people consider 

worthy of recompense or of punishment is what 

Heaven will reward and punish ; let those, therefore, 

who govern peoples be attentive and reserved. 

If in the morning you have heard the voice of 
Divine reason, in the evening you may be content to 
die.** Study yourself, perfect yourself, be simple in 
heart, and love your neighbour as yourself. If you 
do not know the value of men's words, you know 
not the men themselves. 

" Vr'de note ", p. 90. 

'*' Compare Giles' " Gems of Chinese Literature ' 
(London and Shanghai : 1884), p. 3. 
•■ Giles, loc. cit. 

SECTION vrir. 

Cbe Knottp Cppe. 




I Tut ftmiy of phi1o»oph«ri is, as wc know, divided 
1 jnio two principal camps, — that af the sensunllsts, and 
I that of (he idcalisU. Atnong the former we derive 
' oar ideas rrom external influences, whcrcai atnong 
iMtcr wc devolve thei:i fruin uur in 

Loeke and Cundillac have been the rr 
exponents of Ibe ductrinea of the wnsualist achuul, 
and DeacBTtes, Malcbranclie, and Lcibniti, the most 
vigorous iduunpiofls uf the idolisi achiHil. 

Kuti, siaoc then, adopting a medium courae, hns 
admitted both innate ideas, i.t,, ifaoae prc-cxislcnt 
Bod inherent in the soul, 4Uid iraiutnitted ideiu, ■>., 
llxMe wlui'b f'lfin themselves in our minds by tlic 
pramptinii ut Uie Mmsco.'" 

■ IraRMnad Kant, who ha* been jiutly deacribcd as 

' "le gTcaiett and most infliMKitial meta{>hyiiki«n« 

t,'°inu buin at Ktaiipiberi; in April 1714, and 


But quite recently Fichte has raised once more the 
standard of the exclusive idealists. He is a subtle 
and abstract metaphysician, very difficult to under- 
stand, without warmth, passion, or love ; who, 
isolating thought, or rather idea, from all kinds of 
covering, demonstrates and expounds it in terms as 
cold and severe as figures.*'"' 

The ideal philosophy reigns almost undisturbed in 
I^ Germany, a country without large towns, without 
social animation, flat, gloomy, silent, monotonous, 
where science is held in more esteem than art, con- 
templation than action, theory than practice ; where 
life manifests itself only by the intelligences of the 
people, and where for these reasons Inia^nattve men 
are led and authorised to believe that the real has no 

occupied the position of professor in the university of 
Konigsberg, which city he never left for thirty years. 
The opening sentences of his biography ia " Chamber^ 
Encyclopadia" are a sufficient commentary on the 
above paragraph : — " The investigations by which he 
achieved the reputation of a reformer in philosophy 
refer not so much to particular sections or problents of 
that science, as to its principles and limits. The central 
point of his system is found in the proposition, that 
before anything can he determined concerning the 
objects of cognition, the/acuiiy of cognition itself, and 
the sources of kntrailedge lying therem, must be sub- 
jected to a critical examination. Locke's psychology 
indeed, at an earlier period in European speculation, 
had shown a similar tendency ; hut before Kant, no 
thinker had definitely grasped the conception of a 
critical philosophy, and Kant himself was led to it not 
SO much by Locke as by Hume's acute scepticism in 
regard to the objective validity of our ideas, especially 
of the very important idea of causality. The Kantian 
criticism had a twofold aim : first, to separate- the 
necessary and universal in cognition from tne merely 
empirical (i.e., from the knowledge we derive throuffl 
the s»nses) ; and. second, to determine the limits of 
cognition. Kant died in Februajy 180^ 

"* Johann Gottlieb Fichte, bom in I'jSi, waa, as our 
author says, one of the purest idealists that ever lind. 



T sensations 

nifltcnrc save in the idcuil, and ttinl all i 

D9 rroii) our souls. 

But tliis is not the cose in Fnuitc, the land of inno- 

oatward niovemcDt of active aiiil (laAsionaic 

xialulity, where the senses [>cing more excited than 

J [which never raises its Vuicc save when llie 

arc completely silent] seem to us to be ihc 

me ftinirce of nil our ideas, and it is for this reason 

t 1 shall deal only witli the hand which is die born 

' Instrumcni of intelligences turned towards the scn- 

gualiu and ratiutiuliat philoaoi^hy. 

The palm rather large and well devclopi-d ; the 
jointa well marked in Ihc fingers. 1'he exterior i 
phalanx half square and half conic, a conibination 
producing with the upper joint a kind of cgg-shaiicd 
■{ntulc i the thumb large and indicating the presence 
■Toa tnudi Ingic as will, i.t., composed of two phalangCH 
if equal, iir pmctieally e(|ual, length. 
We have »ecn that ttic inclinatiuu uf the spatubtc 
T-tip« draws them irresistibly towards thai ^ 
rkich is materially useful; that tl>c inclination of 
; conic phalanx has as its aim, beauty of form, 
., art ; and that tint of the square futgcr-tips lends 
towards social utility, mediuii) and practicable ideas, 

A pupU of Kant, he published under his influence his6nt 
— nrtt with the ntartling title, " Kr$M aller Offen- 
'K*^" (KfinijpiberK: 179J). His whole lid- was ik- 
dto the exposition o( what hasberndc>icribcdas"a 

■ Qftran«-mifi-tH.Tl frlrnlism," ,t -iv^t.-mwhichmay 

-'- ■■ "- 'r.-<. -1- .',',/r*»r'' 



if aphil' " of a 

under •'\ ■• 1 .ill hia 

IPW beauty of a •.!-- :■ J. H. 

1 " Fkhtt'i Uhen -n-i ! ih'iiui-h.r BmJ. 


[1 556] 

and realisable combinations. As for the genius which 
accompanies phalanges which are quasi-square and 
quasi-conic, — it is characterised by the love of and 
constant desire for absolute truth. 
^667. By their joints philosophic hands have calculation, 

fwraSon^ more or less rigorous deductions, and method; by 
their quasi-conic tips they have the intuition of a rela- 
tive form of poetry ; and by the whole combination of 
formations, including, of course, the thumb, they have 
the instinct of metaphysics. They plunge into the 
outer as well as into the inner world, but they seek 
less after the form than after the essence of things, 
less after beauty than truth ; more than any of the 
other types they show themselves greedy of the 
severe enthusiasm, which is diffused by the inex- 
haustible reservoir of the higher moral,- experimental, 
and philosophical [sensually speaking], and aesthetic 
^ 558. You have a philosophic hand ? I conclude then that 

"character^ ^^ the philosophic Spirit centrcs in you with greater orless 
intensity. You feel a desire to analyse and account 
for your sensations ; the secret of your own existence 
occupies your thoughts, as also does that of the origin 
of all things. Your beliefs, your ideas, and your 
opinions, are not adopted on the faith of other people, 
but only after having examined them from every point 
of view. Reason seems to you to be a more reliable 
guide than instinct, than faith, even than love ; it is to 
the reasoning faculty, and not to custom, or education, 
or law, that according to you everything must be 
consecrated ; you think like Socrates, that that which 
wounds reason wounds humanity in all that it holds 
most holy and best. Above the priest, the interested 
propagandist of the dreams of imagination, you place 
the philosopher, the apostle of the morality which 
draws men together, and dictates to them the law of 
loving one another, when all religions separate them 



11 558 

and make them hate one another. You know that 
doubt is as inevitable to us as death, and neither 
doubt nor the idea of death can alter your serenity. 
You proceed by analysis, but you aim at synthesis 
thereby ; you occupy your thoughts at the same time 
with details and with the mass, with the individual 
and with mankind, with the atom and with the uni- 
verse, — in a word, with the exception and with the 
rule the order, which in the material world others 
have seen in symmetry, you find in affinities ; you 
claim a religious liberty because you feel that God 
has given you the intelligence of the just and of 
the unjust. You ignore vain scruples and super- 
stitious terrors, and make use of all the pleasures 
with moderation. If you do not recognise all these 
characteristics as applying to yourself, you will at 
least own to possessing most of them. 

Subjects of the square type reproach Louis XV. for 
having allowed himself to be despoiled of the absolute 
power with which they had armed him, as if the 
spirit of the times had not always a greater influence 
upon an isolated individual, than [whatever may be 
the temper of his disposition] that which that indi- 
vidual can exercise upon the times ; as if princes, 
were not like other men, subject to the irresistible 
empire of the circumstances among which they live. 

At the time of Louis XV.'s accession to the throne, 
a type of hands, sprung from the masses of the people 
during the time of the regency,*"* had just risen to the 
surface of society, with all knowledge of its strength, 
and the ardent egoism which drives every instinct to 


Effect of the 
type under 
LouU XV. 


Birth of the 



** Louis XV. was an infant at the date of the death of 
Louis XIV., and Philippe, Due d'Orleans, was elected 
r^ent l^ the Parliament in 1715, a post which he held 
tmtil 1 733, when upon his death the regency was 
entrusted to le Ducde Bourbon, and after him, in 1726, 
to die Cardinal de Fleury. 


IF 560] 

prefer itself openly and ostensibly to every other. 
They were hands of the philosophic type. 
f 561. Contrary to the useful hands, which for upwards of 

n France. ^^Y ycars had appealed to subordination, to authority, 
to usage, to custom, to conventionality, to faith, and 
to predestination, the philosophic hands appealed to 
reason, to examination, to proof, to liberty, and to free 
thought. At these words, France, which was being 
crushed beneath the heavy pall of formalities, raised 
her head and breathed again. One saw her, like a 
becalmed vessel warned at last of a coming wind by 
an unexpected breeze, spread her sails in haste, — her 
sails which had so long lain idle, — hoisting her joyous 
ensigns, and saluting with magnificent flourishes of 
trumpets, the blessed hands who restored her to 
wider spaces, to innovation, and to movement.^*^ 
^662. Attacking first of all the despotism of religion, 

^y^ ^ ^he philosophers said : — " What distinguishes us 
essentially from the animals is reason; it is, therefore, 
from reason that the idea of God comes to us, because 
the animals, who are without it, have no idea of the 
sort. If, therefore, our reason is our sole guarantee 
of the existence of God, it follows that it is reason 
aloge that should direct for us the studies which have 
Him for their object. He would not blame us for 
not holding a faith which is condemned by our reason, 
the faculty whereby He has been revealed to us, and 
without which He would be unknown to us." 
f 663. '^^^ intolerant Catholicism of this epoch, having 

ir influence been threatened by these arguments, and caused to 
totter at last upon its base, these philosophers then 

*'"^ A condition of things immediately resulting firom 
the weak and sensual character of Louis XV., a monarch 
who practically took no part whatever in the conduct of 
the national affairs, and who was in every way supremely 
unfitted to carry on the system of government which 
had for its basis, Louis XIV. *s celebrated phrase, 
"L'Etat, cestrc\o'\\" 



[1 563] 
turned the efforts of their aggressive dialectics against 
the despotism of politics. 

" Kings were made for the people, and not people ^ '^®*-^ ^ 

^ r r » *^ : SockltMn of the 

for kings." This maxim, hitherto regarded as im- ty-pe. 
pious, seemed just and sacred to a generation which, 
having arrived at the point of reasoning out its 
education, and making it conform to its intelligence, 
considered that it had so much the more the right to 
reason out its government. Liberty established her- 
self victoriously in men's minds, but it was in the 
sphere of ideas alone that for a long time she dared 
to soar with complete freedom. It was not until 
1 789, the epoch when she took her place in the laws 
of the land, that she made her way into the sphere 
of action. Since then art has opened to her her 
sanctuary; and to-day philosophers are trying to 
find her a way into morals ; they claim for all men 
electoral rights, divorce, and the freedom of women* 
and preach the doctrine of individual Protestantism. 

Literature in the seventeenth century, by reason of ^ •••• 
the im]x>sed and inflexible ideas which governed this type, 
epoch, had, and indeed could only have, itself as an 
object ; and all literature which is thus circumstanced 
must necessarily occupy itself more with style than 
with substance. For philosophic hands, devoted by 
their instinct to the search afler the absolutely true, 
literature was but an instrument, with the aid of 
which they explored the unlimited domains of 
thought*" Their writings are brilliant from their 

•• Madame de Stafil. in her treatise ** De /a Littira- 
ture" (Paris : 1800), ch. xx., has said in this connection : 
•• In the time of Louis XIV.. the perfection of literary 
art itself was the principal object of men of letters, but 
already in the eighteenth century literature assumes 
a diflferent character — // is no longer merely an art, it 
is an instrument, it becomes a weapon of the human 
mind which until then she had been content simply to 
ioatmct and amuse.'* 


[1 S«J] 

variety, utility, «nd extent, and from tbe pitrfbndity 
of their ideas, whilst dioae of tfae useful Qrpe ahine 
by form and literary style. 
fWe. The theatre, of which the ei^ttenth oenbuy [bolder 

Dnai. Jq j^ words and thoughts than the seventeendi, bat 
not freer in its actions} made a kind of roatrum for 
popular banuigues, did not lose less by this inaovft- 
tion than literature had lost from the artistic point of 
view, when it was reduced to die secondary cooditiaa 
of an instrument merely.. But history and philosqitiy, , 
set free by the phiI<»ophic hands from tbe AacMea 
of faith, of traditioD, and of reveladou, infiaitriy 
enlarged the radius of their investigations. In the 
impetus which they gave to the minds of men, new 
sciences were discovered, and forgotten arts were 
resuscitated. A monument more worthy of admira- 
tion, more gigantic even than the cathedrals of the 
thirteenth century, and which like them concentrates 
pp^ in itself all the genius and science of an epoch — the 

jKydffizdu. " Encyclopcedia " was, amid the plaudits of the most 

sagacious, the most sceptic, the most learned, and the 

most witly that the world has yet seen, commenced 

and finished in less than thirty years, 

\56T. Until now they had relied upon individuals, now 

iit^™s°' they believed in communities; the State was no 
longer .contained within the royal mantle. A power, 
until lately unknown, and high-handedly over-ridden, 
— " public opinion " — inspires at last a wholesome 
terror ; hke the chorus in a Greek tragedy, the 
democracy intermeddles with the actions of kings: 
in defiance of history and tradition, political innova- 
tions are guided by pure reason ; liberty, though not 
yet legally constituted, enlarges the minds of men, 
just as toleration enlarges their hearts ; man becomes 
for his fellow-man the object of a grand lov^ of 

iiicovtries. an enthusiastic admiration. Our fleets, directed by 
philosophers and meii o^ atwttfit, plough through the 




tcvnpestfi oJ' tvm Iicmisphcres In search of nations 
add of islands and of contiQcnts hitherto unknown, 
among which to pour out Ihc excess of our happiness 
and enlightenment ; even upon savages kindly glances 
arc bestowed. 

Tlic Gild of to-day is not the sullen, punctilious, 
jcMloua God of former days ; it is no longer necessary 
to ca«)3truct forniulns nnd perform penances; to be 
happy Is to adore Him ; and the nation, less pre- 
oecu[Hed than formerly concerning the ill-dcfincd 
beoelits of the otAtr life, scattering evcrj'where flowers 
vf grace, of lalcnl, and of wit, hearing manfully its 
load of alternated certitude and doubt, throws itself 
enthusiastically upon the pleasures of f/iis one, but 
■t the same time, neither arc the higher sciences nor 
philosiiphy losers thereby, '["he manners of society, 
whieh the end of the Kventeentb century had left 
harsh and cruel, softened down ; fanaticisin disap- 
pearc<l, eticjuelte relaxed itself; the barriers of the 
hienuthy were cleared away ; the lower orders in- 
creased in power, and very soon il will on longer 
be a i]uestion of levelling, but of equality. Our 
villagers, hitherto so despised, come foi'wnrd into the 
light, wlicrc the muses love to see them, with their 
virtues «iill somewhat tinselled uver by the golden 
age. Virtue, genius, and talent assume the forms of 
simplicity and good fdloK-ship ; such, for instance, 
■a H-c find them in Malcsherbcs, Franklin, Turgot, 
lyette, }'. J. Rousseau, Diderot, and others : 
\'t minds take a higher flight, lyricism etmies to 

a, and the nation, freed at last, mirrors itself in 
n iDlclIifencc and in its own beauty ; she re- 
in herself, in her mnral strcnsth, and in the 

ivetiAlity of her genius ; the other nations, struck 
, come to it ftir legislator*, and North 
; to the voices of our phitosuphers, 
hcnelf an era of solid havfineM aM 


unheard-of prosperity, realising in its midst tbe 

presence of their fruitful theories. 
KSea. The philosophic type alone, because to a certain 

[^"j^" point both worlds are known to it, can understand 

and appreciate the other types. 
■870. As in the case with na as, individuals do not 

"envion- ^t'o'"! excepting in ages of ^ ■eater or less advance- 
,.;ni for mcnt, thc perfect intelligence of their philosophical 

I" ' faculties, which, to come into being and develop 
themselves properly, i-cquire at least the light of 
cxperiaice. Philosophic hands, like those belongitig 
to the other types, exist in all classes of society; only 
the genius which they represent becomes abortive, 
or manifests itself but very imperfectly amoiig 
persons who are chained by their ill-fortune to gross 
^871. The philosophy of spatulate and useful hands 

^lT^^°' studies the problems of facts, of practical ideas, of 
realities, of politics, and so on. 
•[ 6TI«. That of conic and pointed hands tends towards 

lypcA. strange beliefs, speculative ideas, and so on. 
f 872. Hands of the quasi-square and quasi-conie forma- 

An»iy*B»nd ^^^^^ generally reveal eclecticism, and it is for this 
reason that 1 have given them, above all others, the 
name of philosophic hands. When they are large, 
they incline to analysis ; when they are small, they 
incline to synthesis; with a small thumb they are 
guided by heart, with a big thumb they are guided 
by head, 
^B7S. The same may be said of Churchmen, as of philo- 

ckrgymFn. gQp|,gpg ^^j of artists. The knowledge and direction 
of men is the task of the priests belonging to the 
types known as northern ; the knowledge and the 
direction of sou/s is that of the priests of the types 
known as southern. To the first belong sciences 
and doctrines, to the last, faith ; tbe forma- have most 
authority, thcUtteT^iaNtTOiaateve. 






are pre-occupied concerning this world and about 
their Church ; the conic, concerning heaven and their 
God. For the former the priesthood is merely a trade ; 
for the latter it is nearly always a ministry. The 
confessional [which in very truth exhibits none but 
the worst aspects of humanity] increases the severity 
of the former and the leniency of the latter ; I 
have before me a rough black silhouette of M. le 
Cardinal de Clermont-Tonncrre, late Archbishop of 
Toulouse; his disdain of the generation in which he 
lived, for its ideas and for its works, had surrounded 
him with an atmosphere of sanctity in the court of 
Charles X.** A priest, said he, debases himself by 
asking; he must insist. He was a very small man, 
with a proud, even an arrogant, walk ; the gaze of 
the mob, whatever its expression, did not embarrass 
him in the least. Haughty, pacing along in scarlet 
upon his horse, the ornaments of his caparisons 
glittering with ostentation, he seemed perfectly ready 
to recommence the old struggle between the spiritual 
and temporal authorities. He had a large nose, 
large eyes, and large lips, on a small face ; his iron- 
grey hair, flattened down and dressed like the bristles 
of the wild boar, and cut straight across his forehead 

•*• Anne Antoine Jules de Clermont-Tonncrre, bom in 
Paris 1749, died at Toulouse 1830. In 1782 he became 
Bishop of Chalons, and took a Icadinc^ part in the 
Frencn revolution. He was made Archbishop of 
Toulouse in 1820, and became Cardinal in 1822. He 
was renowned for his ultramontane views and for his 
rigidity in matters of etiquette and social observance. 
On one occasion, haNnng been engaged in a dispute with 
Feurtier, the Minister of Public Instruction, he made 
the following characteristic reply : — ** Monseigneur. la 
devise de ma famille, qui lui a et^ donnee ent 1 120 par 
Calixte II. est celle ci : ' Ktitimsi omNcs, e^t non : * 
c*e8t aussi celle de ma conscience/* After this he was 
forbidden the court until he should apologise, which he 
tubtequently did by order of Leo XII. 

[1 573] 


Jon above his eyebrows, gave him an air of harsh- | 
ncM, wbich the habitual expressiaD of his feature^ 
his brown complexioii, his great aga, and the depOi 
of his wrinkles accentuated rather than reliered. In 
the barracks we used to call him tMt mitrtd ontvmg^ 
otOimg/ his great spatulate hands gave (ireely it is 
true, but without grac^ without tme charity. 

Hildebrandt*** <snd La Rovisre*'* undoubtedly be- 
longed to the square or to the spatulate type. 

*" HOdebrandt, a Gennan priest, who, having 
achieved peat distinction for his activity and diplo- 
matic abiuty under all the popes from GrenTy VI. 
to Alexander II., was crowned Pope under uie name 
of Gregory VII, in 1073. His continual strife with 
Henry IV. of Germany only terminated with his death in 
1085. He was remarltable all his life for his austerity 
and inflexible detenni nation. A detailed account of his 
life and character may be found in Bowdcn's "Life 
of Gregory V//." (London: 1840). 

"• Julien de la Rovire reigned as Pope Julius 11. 
from 1503 — 1513, having been bom in 1441. He shines 
forth among the potentates of his day by reason of his 
vast political capacity and for the marvellous energy 
with which he was continually eng-aged in struggling to 
attain the objects of bis ambition and to advance the 
interests of the Church. The records of his sovereignty 
contain chronicles of wars which he waged successmlly 
against Caesar Borgia, Louis XII., and the Emperor 
Maximilian of Germany. He founded the Holy League 
of 1511, and his death, in 1513, left a state of things 
existent in the. affairs of the Holy See which was a fit 
basis on which to commence the reign of Leo X. All 
the accounts that we have of his pontiff tell us of his 
inordinate pride and of his continual political struggles; 
he also was a liberal patron of literature and of the 
arts, but this was entirely subordinated to the strife after 
his own political ambitions. 





PSYCHIC HANDS. [PlatC IX.] Thb Poikti 


The psychic hand is of all others, the most beautiful, mnh. 
and consequently the most scarce, for rarity is one of lu appcuun 
the conditions of beauty. It is sniall and fine by 
relation to the rest of the Ixxiy. A medium palm, 
smooth fingers [or fingers with the joints only just 
perceptible], the outer phalanx long, and drawn out 
to a point, the thumb small and elegant large and 
with joints it has force and combination, but it lacks 

Let common sense be the guide of the useful hands, 
— hands of which order, arrangement, and unity are ptydik' 
the aims and objects ; let reason be the solitary beacon </«•«««. 
of the philosophic hands, carried, as they are, ever 
towards liberty and truth ; these are axioms which I 
have just been stating. As to psychic hands they 
bear to those two types the same relation the artistic 
bears to the spatulate type : they attach, they add 
to the works of the thinker in the same way that 
the artist adds to the works ot the artizan, beauty 
and ideality ; they gild them with a sun-ray, they 



[1 SJ«] 

raise them upon a pedestal, and open men's hearts 
to them ; the soul, forgotten and left behind by 
philosophic hands, is their guide, truth in matters of 
love and sensibility is their end, and expansiveness 
of heart is their means. 
^677, You have seen the world under the sway of spatu- 

^^^^j late hands, and you have found movement, activity, 
nflmnceofiiK industry, war, tumult, and cultivation of power and 
^'™' material good. You have seen it ruled by artistic 
hands, and you have found romantic enterprises [that 
is to say, attainment of an ordinary object by extra- 
ordinary means], want of foresight, brilliant folly, 
splendid misery, and the fanaticism of form. You have 
seen it ruled by square fingers, and have found fana- 
ticism of method, and narrow-minded and universal 
despotism. You have seen it governed by philo- 
sophic hands, and you have found fanaticism of 
science, doubt, mobility, and liberty, without a base 
on which to steady itself 
f 678. In Europe, up to the present time, psychic hands 

'^'" "I'p'*^''"^ have never been able to attain to domination, — pcr- 
■lionjiifoiiunes. haps because they have never desired it, disdainful as 
they are of material interests in the lofty sphere in 
which they arc kept imprisoned by the genius which 
animates them. Nevertheless their intervention has 
never failed when the dramas of life, brought to their 
highest possible state of complication, have required 
a quasi-divine agency to unravel them. What 
insults would have been reserved for the intelli- 
gence and dignity of manhood, if, in electrifying the 
cities of Greece, these hands had not obtained for her 
the victories of Salamis and of Marathon. Spain, the 
religious and poetic, has never been violently con- 
vulsed save under their impulsion; without them 
she would have perished in 1812,*" just as Germany, 



whichy already vanqirished as regards her princes, 
her crowned fetiches, was only saved by a few young 
enthusiasts, long-haired idealists, whose hearts were 
resolute, though their faces were serene, who hymning 
their God, their country, and liberty, threw them- 
selves into the field of battle, to the strains of the 
heavenly lyre. 

Taken as a whole, these hands love grand struggles i^579. 
and despise little ones. When Greek sensualism was \i{*^^'^' 
at its height, they were represented by Plato ; when coantri«. 
Roman sensualism was at its height, they found their 
archetype in Christ. They do not struggle save with 
the grandest athletes ; to Bossuet, the biblical cham- 
pion of terrorism and of form, they oppose F6n6lon, 
the evangelical champion of the inner spirits of things 
and of love. Against Voltaire and Diderot, who 
appeal to the senses and to reason, they excite the 
psychological opposition of Vauvenargucs and of 
Rousseau. Finally, in our own day, you have seen 
them holding imperial materialism in check by the 
aid of Chateaubriand, of Benjamin Constant, and of 
Madame de Stael. 

The psychic hand is not, as writers of romances f MO. 
have pretended, the exclusive privilege of old families. Univ«rt»Uty of 
Always scarce, it exists nevertheless, everywhere, 
even among the most abject classes, where it vegetates 
ignorant of itself, misunderstood and disdained, on ac- 
count of its comparative inaptitude for manual labour.^ 
Apollo, alas I at one time was a cowherd .^'^ 

battle of Salamanca [22nd July, 181 2], at which the 
power of Napoleon was finaUv broken, — a constitution 
which was, however, abrogated by Ferdinand VI I . some 
jrears later. 

•• Vide % 284, and compare ** A Manual of Cheiro^ 
sophy:' f 76. 

•" When Apollo had been banished from heaven by 
Jupiter for slaying the Cyclops, he came to Admetus, 
King of Thessaly, and was employed by him as a 
shej^ierd for nine years. 


AvtlBtie hands wish to see imagination and art 
eveiywhere ; square hands look for rule and arrange- 
ment; {^ilosophic hands Ibr human reason. It is 
Divtne teason which, by virtue ol* the same law,— the 
law which is derived tVom natural and constitutional 
:U^>a8itiQiis, — ^psychie hands desire to see everywhere. 
The Mmk. i'rom which ideality is absent, in which love 
tmd rdlgiDn have no part, and in which the soul 
tatibot be interested, is for them a dead letter. They 
pay Bo attention to form, save in the domain of art, 
and besides they would not he able to pay attention 
ta 1^ coHvineed, as they arc, that civilisation is not 
the ftbaolute consequence of any particular form rf 
religion [as fbr instance of Christianity, which baa 
checked the races of the Aztecs from their birth, 
which has remained Impotent in Abyssinia against 
the Barbary States, and in Russia, and Poland, and 
America, against slavery];"* that liberty is not the 
absolute consequence of a democratic form of 
government ; and that slavery is not the attsolute 
consequence of an autocratic form of rule. In 
their eyes religious faith is a fact as real as rational 
certitude; so they excuse, even when they do not 
accept, the peculiarities of all religions,** thinking in 

** Our author seems to have lost sight of the abolition 
of the slave trade by the legislation Which extended from 
iSii to 1837. Serfdom was of course not suppressed' 
until after the publication of this work IvHt note "*. 


r all, man is so small as seen from on high, that 
t matters little in what manner he honours God. God 
understands all languages, and especially that which is 
expressed in silence by the movements of 'the spirit; 
and, as Whinfield has said in his edition of the " Qua- 
trains of Omar KhayyatH " (London : 1883), — 
" Pagodas, just as mosques, are homes of prejper ; 
'Tis prayer thui church belts chime into the air. 
Vea, Church and Kaaln, Romry ud Cron, 
Are all but dlvecs lotigues ol wond-wlde pnyer." ■ 



this matter even like the hatted angels which Sweden- 
horg, rapt in the spirit [according to his own account], 
heard lauding the purity of the doctrines of the 
Tartars ;^ and, like the oracle of Delphi, which when 
consulted as to the best manner in which to honour 
the gods, I.e., as to the religious form best suited 
for the morality of nations, answered, " Obey the laws 
of the country " ^ — in monarchy they see beauty, in 
republics they see good, and the East, dreamy, im- 
mobile, and silent as a desert, pre-occupied about 
its future state, and governed by a sole individual, 
seems to them to be as wise and as happy as the 
stormy West, regular and resounding like the ocean, 
pre-occupied about the things of the earth, and 
governed by its communities. 

The two ideas to which the human race owes the 
most noble part of its good fortune and dignity, — that of 
the beautiful in art, and that of right in politics, — had 
their birth, and died in the antique world with the 
anthropomorphic polytheism, as it was understood 






^ I do not quite follow M. d'Arpentigny's statement 
concerning the anc^els in hats [anges coiffis de 
cAa^auxj; he evidently alludes to Swedenborg's 
account of how certain spirits came to him in a 
trance, and told him about the worship and manners of 
the Tartars, an account of which may oe found minutelv 
given in " Eman. Swcdenborgii Diarii Spiritualis 
partis tertix volumen secundum (London : 1844), p. 186, 
no. 6o77.* 

• •• You need not pry into the future ; but assure 
yourselves it will be disastrous unless you attend to your 
duty, and are willing to act as becomes you.'* f 

• •• De Incolit Tartarian, propc Chinam, Tartaria Minor ** : — 
** EnuU aliqui inde apud me, vcnerunt cum <ionniebam. et domiie* 
bam timnqaille, [cum] evigilatus animadvcrtunt outMi non di>mi 
ctienl« Ma alibi, mirati ubinam, quia non agnoscehant talia qux 
pramui mundo spintualium similia essent," etc., etc 

t DbmosthENES, rata <NAinilUT. A. * Oi> >df> Arra 
wr ImrmA. 3cc (rxovelr. dXV ^1 ^auV h9 ii^ wpo^4x^Tt^ roTt 


by the Greeks ; and these ideas have revived in the 
modern world only at the time of the Renaissance, 
which was a sort of resurrection of this same 

We read in Joinville"' that during the siege of 
Damascus a woman having been met between the 
camp and the city by a priest of the army of the cru- 
saders, the latter asked her what she was supfwsed 

*" The author here appends a reference to Le- 
CONTE DeliSLE. He alludes, t presume, to the preface 
to Leconte Delisle's '* Fiicmes Antiques " (Paris : 
1852), in which the poet advances a theory which is 
quile on a par with that contained id the above 
paragraph. '■ Since Homer, jEschylus, and Sophocles," 
says he, " who represent poetry in all its vitality, 
plentttude, and harmoniou!; unity, decadence and bar- 
barism havy invaded tht human mind ; , . . the Christian 
era is wholly barbarous. Dante, Shakespeare, and 
Milton have g'iven proofs of their individual genius, but 
their language and ideas are barbarous. What have 
we remaining' of the centuries which have elapsed since 
the decline of the Greek constitution ?^a few powerful 
individualities, a few grand works without continuin or 
unity. And now science and art are reverting to their 
common origin." 

*" This narration may be found in M. Natalis de 
Wailly's " Hisioire de St. Louis par yean Sire de 
yoinville, etc." (Paris : 1868), chap, iiiiv., id the 
original French of de Joinville,* and an excellent trans- 
lation into English occurs in the Bohn libraiy " Chro- 
nicles of the CVKjarfw" (London: 1848), " Joinville's 
Memoirs of Louis IX.," pt, ii., p. 469. 

* " Avec les messaiges qui 1> alerenl, ala frires Yves li 
Bretons de I'ordetdes freres Bieescheours qui savoit le saraziiiois. 
Tandis que il aloient le leut hostel a I'osiel dou soudanc frires 
Yves vit une femme vicllc qui Iraveraoil panni la rue et portoit 
en sa main dextre une <!;cuell£e pleine de feu et en la senestre 
une phiole pleinne d'yaue. Frires Yves demanda, 'Que t«ii> 
tu de (e faire ? ' Elle li respond! qu'elle vouloil don feu ardoir 
paiadis que jamais n'en fust point et de I yaue esteindte enfci 
que jamais n'en fust point. Et il U demanda, ' Pourqnoy veus 
tu fe faire ? ' Pour ^e que je je ne veuit que null face jamaii 
bien pour 1« gueredon de paradis avoir, dc pom la poovr d enfei, 
mais proprement pour I'ainour de Dieu avoiT qni lant not d 
qui lout fc Wen wius ^eal (aire " [p. 1 58]. 




[1 583] 

to be doing with the water which she carried in a 
pitcher, and the fire that she carried in a brazier : ** It 
is," replied she, " to burn up paradise and extinguish 
hell-fire, in order that in the future men may worship 
God for love of Him as their sole motive." This 
reply is said to have enchanted St. Louis, who 
enthusiastically applauded the sublime piety which 
had dictated it. 

" The soul of God is truth, and His body is light." *» 1 5M. 
"Three things came into the world at the same in- pythMgon*. 
stant : man, liberty, and light." **^ — Sublime formulae ; 
ample and serene verification of the strength and of 
the beauty of human intelligence. 

Psychic hands are in an immense majority in i^6M. 
Southern Asia, whence comes the essentially religious, southenTAiSa. 
contemplative, and poetic spirit of the nations which 

*" This is the basis of a good deal of the Pythagorean 
philosophy, and sentiments practically expressin>)^ the 
axiom may be found by the scholar in Thomas Gale's 
•* Opuscula Mythologica ** (Amsterdam : 1688), " Sexti 
Pythagorii sentential a Ruffino versae," p. 646,* in 
Conrad Orelli's *' Opuscula Grcscorum Veterum Sen^ 
tentiosa et Moralia'* (Lipsix : 18 19), p. 49. " Alise 
Pythagorcorum Sententise. t We find a similar senti- 
ment expressed in the Ruba'y4t of Omar-i- Khayyam, in 
the 328th *• Ruba' " of Nicolas' text \^' Lfs Quatrains 
de Kheyam^* (Paris: 1867), p. 164], which may be trans- 
lated " God is the soul of the universe ; the universe is 
a body, the angels are its senses, heaven, the elements, 
and all creatures are its members '* : — 



- • 

♦*• yJ^ J* 

The first maxim of the Druidical dogma. 

* ** Deus sapiens lux est, non capax contrarii.** 
t " Deus quidem unus est ; non ille autem, ut quidam su%pican- 
tar, extra hunc mundi omatum, sed ipse totus in toto circulo 
omnes generationes inspicit ; .... in ccelo lumen, ct (viter 
omnittm, mens et animatio omnium, drculorum omnium motus 
ahre motor." 


ilso their respect for 
maxims [synthesis], and their disdain for methods 
[analysis]; whence comes the preference which they 
feel for virtue [source of repose] over science [source 
of activity]; whence comes the languishing condition 
of arts, trades, and agriculture, and their theocratic 
and despotic governments, which are necessary for 
nations to whom reason and action are a torment. 

It is from gloomy and somnolent Asia, the continent 
of huge empires, of opium, and of wild orgies of 
drunkenness, that all the grand religions have sprung ; 
and it is from mobile and laborious Europe, the land of 
little republics, of wine, and of moderate intoxications, 
that all the [^ilosophies which have itcxxl fiwe to &ce 
with religions, and have.contested thetn, have sprung 
in Asia society is formed by its worship, in Europe 
the worship is formed by society. 

The East, says Aristotle, has always taken a delight 

■ in metaphysics [which, applying themselves to logic, 

teach men to think with subtlety], and the West in 

morals [which, applying themselves to reason, teach 

men to live honestly].*" 

Asia is the land of " genii," as Europe is the land 
of "fairies." Well, the genii being individualities 
[or, perhaps, substantivities], gifted with an activity 
upon which no particular direction is, imposed, they 
can do whatever they please, like the princes of their 
country, where they have always rejected any divi- 
sion of power.** The powers of our fairies, on. the 

"• 1 am not acquainted with this passage, but I p[«- 
sume it occurs in the " Problems " of Aristotle, if any- 
where in his works. ' 

" On this word " genie " Sir iGchard Burton gives a 
most interesting note in his "Arabian Nights" [op. cit. 
{vide note '"*, p. 1 12), vol. i., p. 10], wherein he says : — 
" jinoi, the Arab singular (whence the French 'gteie'), 
fern. Jinniyah ; the Div and Rakshah of old Guebie- 
land and the ' Rakshasa,' or 'Yaksha' of Hindutsin. 



other hand [which are, after all, purely adjective], 
are restrained to some solitary attribute : one '„dn 
give beauty or courage, another strength or wealth ; 
whenever they dispose of one of these gifts the gift is 
unlimited. Enclosed between two parallels, they have 
only one direction, but that direction is unbounded. 
Gifted with every power, the genii are, as it were, 
hemmed in by a circle in which they can act in any 
manner whatsoever, but though their power is un- 
limited as to kind, it is limited as to quantity, their 
power being subject to that of a genie more powerful 
than them.** 

Thus nations are revealed by their fables just as 
they are by their laws and their religions. With us 
power has a particular direction and certain defined 

[1 58BI 


Oriental and 

It vvould be interesting to trace the evident connection 
— by no means accidental — of * Jinn * with the * genius * 
who came to the Romans through the Asiatic Etruscans, 
and whose name I cannot derive from ' yiyp6ftm,* or 
'genitus.' He was unknown to the Greeks, who had 
the dxmon {bmfi^p), a family which separated like the 
Jinn and the genius into two categories, the good 
fAgatho-d^emons) and the bad (Kako-dxmons). We 
Know nothing concerning the status of the Jinn amongst 
the pre-Moslemitic or pagan Arabs ; the Nioslems made 
him a supernatural anthropoid being, created of subtile 
fire [vuf€ Koran, chap, vi., xv., and Iv.], not of earth like 
man, . . . the last being Jan bin Jan, missionarised by 
prophets, and subject to death and judgment From 
the same root are ' Junun ' => madness [/>., possession 
or obsession by the Jinn], and ' Majnun ' s a mad- 
man.** Vide also vol. iii., p. 225. 

*" M. d'Arpentigny makes in this place a reference 
to "DE Flotte, but I cannot identify either the 
author or the work referred to. He cannot refer to 
Ely de Flotte* s work ** Les Sectes Prates tantes'* (Paris : 
1850) ; I conclude he refers either to J>e la Flotte's 
•• yosages en Orient*' (Paris: 1772), which was trans- 
lated from the I^)ndon edition ol " PmrnJ^s I'oyages,*' 
or else to the same author's •• Essais Historiaucs sur 
l*Imi€^ etc.** (Paris: 1769), but I cannot And any 
passage bearing upon the above paragraph. 

n S891 


limits^ it follows a given line of action; among 
Oriental nations it has no particular direction, and 
its only limit is that of a more powerful arbftntment 

^590. It has been said that there exists an affinity bie- 

^'^J^^!^ tween the German and the Sanskrit languages ; diere 

Smkrit. exists also an affinity between the dreamy spirit of 
the German nation and the contemplative minds of 
the children of Brahma^ Indeed, Germany is in 
Europe, as India is in Asia, the country where one 
sees the lai^gest number of psychic hands. 

f 091. Spiritualism being the special attribute of this 

^ iuown*' woble type, it has come among us, where well-being^ 

language, good laws, and liberty have helped it to multiply 
itself*" and become understood — it has come, I say, 
having to express sentiments and ideas of a peculiar 
temperament, to follow the examples of the artistic, 
the useful, and the philosophic types, all of which 
for the same cause, have used in turn a different lan- 
guage, created by each one of them for its particular 
use. The language of Rabelais and of Montaigne is 
not the language of Pascal, nor is the language of 
Pascal that of Rousseau. Whence, then, come the 
grammatical innovations of Chateaubriand and of 
Lamartine, those eagles of our psychological litera- 
ture ? have they not caused as much astonishment 
as scandalisation to our literature? I^t new ideas 

•^ It is in a great measure since the above was 
written that the labours of Max MuUer and other 
learned philologists have placed before the world the 
principal data concerning the Eastern ori^n of the 
Aryan or Indo-Germanic [? Indo-European languages]. 
The reader who feels interested in the subject will 
find all he wants in Prof. Max Muller's ** Comparative 
Mythology'' (Oxford: 1856), and ^^ Ttie Science of 
Language'' (London : 168 1-3). 

*' *'In 1722 France contained only 18,000,000 in- 
habitants. In the reign of Louis XIV. the death-rate 
among the better classes was 1 in 26, to-day [1843] it is 
I in 52.**— Author's Note. 



be expKxwd by new forms ; to extend the meaning 
or ■ ftw words is not to atlcr a language, it is to 
enrich >I, iind to condemn this theory is to rebuke 
the funins, which, for their glory as well as for our 
instruction and amusement, have bc«n used by the 
greatest writers nf all ages. 

y«u will not fully appreciate either the ideas or 
the language of psychological writers, O ye who ,j 
have tpatulatt.- or square hands I you will find 
among them neither the precision nor the method 
wltich are so dear to you ; their perpetual invoca- 
tia<u of glorious i»tellig«nccs, — splendid rivals of the 
star*,— will bnrc you. You luok towards war anil its 
resulting interests, Ihcy take their pleasure in the 
c»o(eric dreams of their souls, in the contemplation 
of tnhingihic rrnltlics; your Muse, occupied by the 
real world, sings of fl<>wcry pleasaunces, of the 
shuck of armies, and af armoured fleets; she relates 
the escapades of young sludenla and the fury of 
■ndcni pundits, the graces iif an ideal Liseltc, and 
the vulpr tribulations of a contemptible dinner ; 
she appreciates Bcaumarchais, the mvchanldan, the 
dncUiat, the pamphleteer, the man of spirit, of wit, 
oC action, of movement and of heart.* Thrfrs, im 
the other hand, plucks flowers only to scatter Ihem 
before (he saints in the churrh porch, she lakes hold 
sf women only to cast them iu ecstasy and palpitation 

* Pierre Augustin Caron do Bcaumarchais fbom 

luary fjji, died M.iy 17m] wiit a watchmaker, and 

Mwl of a vaichm.ikrr. He ber^imc an acromplubrd 

(ii-i.iii, ^r]iM;,i\:ni: i-ikfii !i' Iiirt;ifuriT. athicvcd (JTral 

:-,itiriM. Hi* tour 

• ri-t;]. -/^ 

11 of // HarbitVT 

■ ' 77 *J' i"*'! ^ 

.,^ -. ,-.^..,.v ■" -s'.'/TJ. IWeL,Je 

■ iu^umanh^i^ ^K<i Ais /iiHCf " (London ' 
[1856}, truriated by U. S. Edwards. 



at the feet of God ; lyricism is as natural to her as 
the song is to the bird, as perfume and attraction is 
to amber ; hers is the harp of David, and the holy 
enthusiasms which bear our souls aloft upon the 
wigs of the morning; the murmurs of the ocean, of 
the waterfall, of the forest, and of the mountain are 
for her but the echoes of het own sublime voice ; 
lover of the ideal and of the infinite, she soars with 
the angels, following the blading track of the im- 
petuous comet, and, of all the sounds of earth, 
listens only to the sighs of a simple and loving 
heart, which upraises itself to God. You of these 
practical types live pre-eminently by your heads 
and by your senses ; they live pre-eminently by the 
soul, by the heart ; you think, they feel ; you speak, 
they sing ; you are composed of flesh and blood, 
they are of flame and light. A great gulph is 
fixed between you, and two different languages are 
not too many for two natures so diainetrically 

59SS. Such is the intelligence attached to psychic hands; 

""""^d"*^' through the works of Milton, of Klopstock, of Schiller, 

media of of Goethe, of Swedenboi^, Chateaubriand, Lamartine 
inairucuon. ^^^ VictoF Hugo, of Georgcs Sand, C. Didier, and 
De Vigny, they hold sovereign sway, if not over 
the greatest minds, at least over the noblest hearts; 
they have given us the highest lyrics, psycholc^cal 
romance, intense poetry, and the inspired odes of the 
illumined wing and ardent flight. Their influence 
upon the masses has been enormous, restoring to 
them the enthusiasm which the analytical philosophy 
had killed, and rehabilitating for them the God who 
had been killed by the turpitudes of the sacerdotal 
sanctuary. Before they had been preached to aboat 
the necessity of self-abnegation, the psychic type spoke 
to them of its charms ; to draw them into the paths 
of their cultus they have garnished those paths with 


[1 593 1 

the flowers of a poetry which is almost Divine ; like 
the murmuring pines of the Alpine mountain tops, 
they have shed in abundance tender shadows and 
universal harmonies. To be appreciated by the 
intelligent, they have taken up the lyre ; to be 
understood by simple minds they have plied the 
abundant jet of their eloquence couched in the 
simplest forms of words. 

Civilisation in Spain and in Italy is born of poetry , .T*?** 
and liberty, i>., of artistic and psychic hands, which France and 
propose for themselves things that are grand, magni- %*»*»• 
ficent, and sublime. In France it is born of science 
and of authority, f>., of useful and philosophic 
hands, which propose for themselves things which 
are useful and true. Our history is more instruc- 
tive than interesting; the history of Spain is more 
interesting than instructive. 

Like the Greeks, who relegated manual labour to ^M6. 
the infernal gods, the Spaniards think that it degrades ^JS^JJ^S^^ 
the people and individuals in a direct ratio to the 
amount of love of it which they evince. The Italians 
have placed physical repose under the protection of 
a third of the saints of the calendar, not for the pur- 
pose of rendering it more respected by the people, 
but to arm it against the avaricious and worrying 
influences of political and fiscal regulations, — a state 
of things incomprehensible to the English or to the 
Americans, who, beneath their lustreless sun, can 
only escape from spleen by sheer hard work. 

The Spaniards of to-day do not understand in the 1^M6. 

PoaCrv t^ tile 

least degree the artistic expression and literary spwiianU. 
formulation of the poetry which is with them in- 
born, — a fact which makes them appear, intellectually, 
9o small, though they are really greater than they 

*■• Compare the openinfj words of Baron's essay, ** Of 
Seeming H'isr,** which read, *' It hath been an opinion 


% M7. In the South, where the climate itself is nomufhiqgt 

bittiiict in the ^"^ ^"® ^° ^^^^ ^" almost nothing, — ^where, indeed. 

Sooth and the one can live forty-five days without food,** man is 

not sufficiently necessary to man to prevent the social 

tie bcdng a weak one ; but in the North, ^n^ere tiie 

climate creates hunger, man, at war widi a hostile 

nature [especially since civilisation has tended towards 

the unhardening of his physique], feels too strong 

the need of help and support for society not to be 


f 596. In the towns of Norway, all the houses communi* 

'"nU^vT* ^^^ ^y means of inner doors or subterranean 

galleries. In the East Indies, on the other hand, 

families isolate themselves as much as possible 

from one another. 

f 699. Though poorly-gifted as regards the arts of war, 

^^''iTi^du'^ of the chase, of navigation, of locomotion, and the 

cares of real life as we understand these terms, the 

psychic type has none the less reigned sovereign in 

India up to the thirteenth century, the epoch when 

It was dispossessed of the temporal power by the 

Mahometan Tajtars, who drove it into the temples 

alone. Until that time no one arrived at power and 

high consideration save by piety, contemplation, and 

holiness, — qualities and virtues which in our latitudes 

open for us the gates of heaven, but open no other 

gates than those. Thus, among us are spatulate and 

hard useful hands in majority, whereas in India 

it is the pointed and soft hands which numerically 

are in the ascendant. 

f 600. And the same case probably exists in the heart of 

Character of ihe 

that the French are wiser than they seeme; and the 
Spaniards seeme wiser than they are. ' 

*° M. d'Arpentigny quotes the ** Lettres Edifi- 
antes'' [I'lde note ^, p 339] as his authority for mis 
statement, but does not give the exact reference. I 
have been unable to identify it. 



the old tribes of the Bcniouin Arabs nf the Red Sea, 
people who,— otcupying a country almost absolutely 
_jlcrilc, and where for lliis reason large gatherings of 
n arc imposiiiblc,— cannot be naturally apt at the 
i, the trades, and the sciences, which alont! the life 
r cities 1> able to induire. (>f whnC use Ut thrm 
rould be the implements of rural cultivatiuu and 
echamcal industry, in a country where rural cultiva- 
loo ia impracticable, and where a tent, a camel, and 
I courser suffice for the physical needs of man, — 
t winch mother nature has beneficently propor' 
loned to the resourtTCs of Uie soil But the foccuudity 
rhich she has refused to their soil, and to a cLTtaln 
Kient lo their Judgment, she has prodigally bestowed 
I shield them from the worries adherent tn 
i life K-ilhnut occupation] upon their imaginations ; 
ation they are poetic, romantic, religious, 
Ijhimlruus, hospitable, contemplative, and of dignified 
d sober maimers. Thelf cuuiitry, which is thai of 
physical mirages, is also that of moral ones : from 
■11 these faets 1 conclude tliat their bands are psychic, 
but wry hard. 

" Like Arabs in general," says le Due dc Raguse, 
^ the Bedouins uf the Red Sea have a high idea of the ^ 
bility of their blood ; ihcy intrrinarry only among 
msrives, and they would consider it beneath them 
D ally tlicmselves with a siraniter. Tliey sometimes 
■uy slaves, but these ne\'er have chiidtvn by them."'" 
"Thus llteir insunci tells them Oiai a country which 
on neither be ameliomted nor mndilied by human 
tnteUigcncc, caiiooi be inhabited with any chance of 
save by a special race ; and that any other 
, however slightly it might difler Inxn theirs, 
■aid ran a grave danger for want of an organiaatian 

,-_.j/[e du AtarAhai rfr A/armtri/, Ihu 
r Xagtii*. en H«ngrit. . . . . rm PaUittnt, ft tn 
•- '^" (Paris : I8j4-S. 4 vol*.), vol. IV., p. 174. 

in perfect sympathy with the climate and ihe c 

1 have, in another place,**' condemned this 

of foreign blood, but it is e\ndent that the Bedouins of 

the desert, if nil that we are told of their country is 

true, are quite beyond the pale of the motives which 

suggested this condemnation. 

Muhaminad, according to Arabian historians, had 
also very hard hands. His book teems with action, 
and has the burning, monotonous, and sterile grandeur 
of the desert. Empty of ideas and full of repetitions, 
presumptuous ignorance and a kind of gloomy and 
solemn poetry, /low through it in a continuous stream. 
The water contained in this fatal cup is by no means 
a fountain of life ; elaborated as it was among a people 
necessarily immobile, it has stricken with inunobiliqr 
all the nations among whom fanaticism and war have 
introduced it.*** But, if immobility is salutary and 
logical in the desert, elsewhere it engenders naught 
save corruption and death. 

Muhammad, throughout his life, took his pleasure 
in war, love, and activity ; his paradise, peopled by 
women, is spread out beneath the shadow of the 
sword ; *^ he sought relief from his intellectual 
labours in sweeping out his tent, in repairing his 
shoes, and in tending bis horses and herds. 

There is no Mussulman town, says the intrepid and 
judicious Badia-y-Leblic [surnamed AU Bey], where 
mechanical arts are as little known as in Mecca. 
There is not to be found there a workman capable of 
forging a lock or a key ; all the doors are closed by 
means of wooden pegs, trunks and cases by means of 
padlocks brought from Europe. The armourers can 
make nothing but inferior matchlock guns, curved 
knives, and the lances which are used in the country. 

*" ^'ifje ^365, and notes to the pantgiaph, 

- F«ae1!1l3i7— 324. 

■" Vide AL Qur'in, chapa. zlvii. and W. 


n «o3] 

As for the exact sciences, adds the traveller, they are 
in the same condition as the mechanical arts.*** 

Palmyra was built by Europeans, and if its ruins, I^Wl 
like those of Baal-Bee, are still standing, it is only k, sSldhy. 
because the Bedouins, who cannot themselves build 
anything which is solid, cannot even destroy anything 
which has been solidly built.*** 

The racial psychic hand, liberally endowed as it 1f^-.. 
is, has nevertheless only a mediocre comprehension "n£l*^pe.*^ 
of the things of the outer world and of real life ; she 
looks at them from too high a point to be able to see 
them well. Spiritualists have lyricism, mysticism, 
prophetic ecstasies, luminous, synthetic comprehension 
of all human knowledge; but the talent of applied 
sciences, including that of the government of men 
united in a common society, is wanting among them, 
unless, as in India, they only have to deal with 
people belonging to their own type. Again, it would 
be a great mistake to suppose that the psychic type is 
more guarded against the errors which are incidental 

♦• Condensed from ** Voyages eTAli Bey el A bass i 
en Afriqu€ et en Asie'' (Pans : 1814, 3 vols.), vol. iii., 
chap, xvii., pp. 389-90. An English edition has 
been published, entitled " Tr<xvels of Alt Bey in 
Morocco^ etc., between the years 1803-1807, written 
by Himself** (London: 1816), vol. ii., chap, vil, 
p. 09. 

•^ Tadmor or Palm)rra, the City of Palms, was, we are 
told, built by Solomon in the tenth centuiy B.C. [i Kings 
ix. 18, and 2 Chron. viii. 4] ; but it probably existed 
before his time. It was enormously enlarged and ren- 
dered of paramount importance as a city by the Emperor 
Trajan, and in the third century was the capital of Syria 
and Mesopotamia, under Odenathus and Zenobia. It 
was te-conquered in 275 by Aurelian, and rc-fortified by 
Justinian. It was destroyed in 7^ by the Saracens. 1 
presume it is in allusion to its position and structure as 
a Roman city that our author asserts it to have been 
built by Europeans. As good a description of the city 
ms a^y that exists is the one contained in Murray's 
" Handbook for Syria and Palestine** (I^ndon : 1858}. 


to the impeifections of our natures, dun othera ; the 
world of ideas is not less perilous and deceitful than 
that of things retd. In the Indies, blinded by religions 
fanaticism, the worahippen of Siva garland themselves 
with flowers, clothe themselves in brilliant g^umtaOa, 
and cast themselves as prey to the sacred sharks 
of the Island of Sangor; and mothers even mote 
exalted than they, cast their infants to these same 
beasts.*** But if in their enthusiasm siuritualists aie 
always ready to devote thtmathts, they require also 
for tbe triumfrfi of their ideas unlimited devotiott 
Atrtlo. Witb their synthetic manner of thou^^ no 
isolated sentiment, no idea of detail could ^ther toudi 
their hearts, alter their convictions, or turn them from 
their object ; it is in their eyes above all that the end 
justifies the means ; if occasion should arise they will 
shed blood — their own or other people's,— their own 
without regret, that of others without remorse. 

The horse being, be it said as concerning the Arab, 
of all animals the one which impresses us the most 
with its brute organisation, it follows that we should 
hold in contempt the understandings of peoples and 
individuals who love it exclusively. Nations of horse- 
men have never freed themselves from the rude and 
showy shackles of comparative barbarism. Apt at 
raids and invasions rather than at permanent con- 
quests, and convinced that the cultivation of the mind 
destroys the energy of the hear^ they have destroyed 

"" Siva (= Auspicious) is the name of the third god 
of the Hindu Trimdrti or triad, and is looked upon as 
one of the most awful and venerable of the gods ; and 
certainly the description given of him in works of 
Sanskrit theology is of the most terrible description. 
His worshippers are called Saivas, and are divided into 
several classes, of which the Aghorins are the Saivas 
most addicted to the sacrifices mentioned above. Vide 
H. H. Wilson's "A Sketch of the Rehgious Sects 0/ 
the Hindus " (London : 1662^ pp. 188, etc. [vol. i. of 
his complete works, edited by Dr. R. Rost], 


more eminres than they have founded ; such for in- 
stance were the Parthians, the Tartars, and the Arabs. 

The horse was the soul of feudalism,— that system tW^' 
of violence and ostentation which gave to the qualities 
of physical force, and to the suggestions of family pride 
that preference which nations who live as it were on 
foot, have always accorded to solidity of judgment and 
the enlightenment of the soul. In Che ancient world 
the life of the Centaurs was passed in intemperance, 
in the midst of quarrels, amid the screams of the 
women which they captured ; in the same way in 
the present day brawlers, drunkards, and bullies are 
more numerous among our cavalry then among our 

The special manceuvres in which the horse is a „!**■ . 

., _ ... C»v»lry ana 

necessary adjunct produce but few generals with in&niry. 
broad views ; great warriors have always come from 
the ranks of the infantry, /A« queen of battles, the 
intelligent and redoubtable foundress of empires and 
of durable glory.*" 

In course of time the ox renders the oxherd heavy 5/*?*^ 
and slow as he is himself; the hunter, on the other uociuion wiih 
hand, becomes restless, active, and ferreting, like his um^i. 
dog; man can only perfect himself by frequenting, by 
knowing and by loving his fellow-man ; and it is 
because in Greece, anthropomorphism was the basis 
of worship, that this country advanced so quickly 
and so ftr ahead of Egypt, a country brutalised by the 
n of animals. 

•• This seems rather hard upon the 1 
BellerophoD'a Pegasus, Alexander's Bucephalus, Orlando 
Furioso ■ Brilladore, Reynaud dc Montauban's Bay.irtf, 
Roderigo's Orelia, or any of the other celebrated hor&cs 
o( history ; but vide the next note. 

"• The reader will bear in mind thai, as M. Gourdon 
de Genonillac has told us in his preface, M. le Capiiaine 
d'Aipentigny was always attached to reKimcnts uf the 


Cbe a^ireD Cppe. 




' I GIVE this name lo the hand whose undcrided out- 
I lines appear to belong t<> two diilcnrnt typc».*" 

Thus, for iiistani-e, your Iiand is of the " mixed 
I type " if, being spalulntc, the fonnnlion it nu liltlr 
I wxeatuated that It might be mistaken fur a hand of 
the aqtiarc lyp*^- Again, a conJc ckmcnlary hand 
titii^l be taken for mi artistic hand, or an arttstk ha»d 
may be taken fur a (Mychic, anil so on and via iwraif. 
Or, in like manner, a philosophir hand nuy be mi*- 
rn fur a Uiieful hand, anil vice vtnd. 
Ite IntclIigeiMY which is revealed by m mixed hand 
tie which partakes of the nature of the inlellif;enccs ^J^!l 

' Itw 


% that Adflir 
I we find on p i;- 
|4i>/i« Miih: in 
I hariBK noiiiicd t 

[ dUraraidintf the importaiKe oj llieir •if.niiAt.-alian*. 
' W*- aUii . ' ' 

lintf the im 
1 oji. at., p. J 


Htu..., 1 to each of the fornis represented. Without 
these hands, that is to say, without the mixed intelli- 
gence peculiar to them, society, — deprived of its hghts 
and shades, and without moral alkalis to effect the 
combination of its aciiis, and to amalgamate and 
modify them, — would advance only by struggles and 

^ If Ae laws "f ' cruel even to atrocity 

'tipu. among the ea f whom history makes 

mention, it is I _. lose days, each nation 

having sprung from a «i ribe or from a family 

free of all admixture blood, differed radically 

from all others in temp. it and in instinct. In 

flooding their rivals with tlieir own blood, and in de- 
stroying their ci<i«, they obeyed the laws of antipathy 
which were continually urging against one another, 
classes destined by their organisations to a never- 
ending antagonism. 

5614. The Arab tribes, sprung from practically identical 

ih«'A™L™ '■oots, are not pitiless in the wars in which they 

Kaffin. engage Tletween themselves, but they are so in the 
wars which they wage against Europeans. It is the 
same with the KafRrs. "The way in which these 
nations fight with one another," says Lichtenstein, 
" bears the imprint of a generosity very different to 
the usages adopted by other peoples. As soon as 
war is declared, which is always done by an ambassa- 
dor bearing the tail of a lion or of a panther, the 
chiefs receive orders to join the king with their 
vassals; when the army approaches the enemy's 
territory, another ambassador b sent forward to 
warn them of the fact, and if the enemy says he is 
not ready, or that his forces are not yet properly 
assembled, the attacking force halts and waits until 
the others shall be ready to fight. Finally, to reDda* 
ambuscades impossible, — manoeuvres which would be 
looked upon as dishonourable, — they actcct as a battfe- 



Bcid an opeu spoi-e without rocks or bushes. Then 
ihey fight with as nmrh stubbornnrss a<> valour. 
\VIwn one uf (be armies is defeated, the same gene- 
rosity makes itertl apparent in the conduct of the 
(xioquerur, who d'ts not tail to send a portion of the 
spoD back to the vaiiqui>ilied, regard being had, as they 
»y, to the TaL-t that one must not let even one's enemy 
die of hun^r. But tliis moderation," adds [jchien- 
Mcin, "only obtiiina between one tribe ur Kaffirs and 
another: for if they arc at war with the Boers or tbc 
Hailentots, they eiidcavotir to exterminate them by 
every means in use among other nations, whether 
savage or dviliacil."*** 

As regards Eurupc, it ia evident llmt wars have 
been lc*» cruel in proportion 09 by the progress of 
navijiation and cummercc the people have become 
more mixed. These ideas, thus lightly touched upon, 
deserve a longer diiicuasion and a fuller dcvclop- 
tneni, but thia book, aa niay be seen, is merely an 

Ju9t as there arc abaoluU truths and abnttmlt bcau- 
llea, there are also rtlalitt ones. Between Apollo jj[^'™ 
and Vulcan, bctwrecn the Muses and the Cyrlo|» ~I 
take these ciirenie synibuls on account of their clear- 
ness — Mrratry, the god of practical clrniuence and 
induatrial arts, hovers upon his fitlasMS and tiUirio, 
and wtelda the rtnluerHs. Well, it is to mixed 
liandB that the intelligence of mixed works tif inter- 
mediary ideas belongs ; of bdenees which are not 
really sciences, such as administration and commerce ; 
of arta, which ore not the nutcome of poetry ; and uf 
tlic beauties and the reblivc nalitics of induairy. 

" M. H. C. I.ICHTEKSTKIW. " /tetim im StUli'ltrH 

Afrita in ^en JaJkrea 1806-1X07 (Hrdin t8ii, 
a vuU.V 'riw pa«!ia),'e refrnvd to may be found no 
p|i, tTJ't- "I vol i. »r Annv numirc't traiulatnm, en- 
titled " Trartli m Southern A/rtta *y Henry Lith- 
l»mstiim"(\j»tiAon; 1811. jtoU.). 


Industry raises [or lowers] eveiythiiig ta dw dead 
'evel of commonpUcc In rendering nuterial lifis 
lighter by the muItiplicAtion of uticlea of nftse 
utility, in rendering the cultivstion of the mind more 
easy by the multiplication of the means and tnstni- 
ments of study, industry dviHats — by interest indeed 
— but she destroys art and science, ^licfa civilise by 
the agency of love, by materialiring tfaem, and by 
substituting for creation and for intellectml effi>rt — 
imitation by mechanical process. 

One might define induatcy as the magical art «diich 
draws money, from everything. The man who is bom 
with the talent of industry, practises tbc arts, the 
sciences, eloquence, and even virtue, — with a very 
few exceptions — only to derive material benefits from 
them ; money is his aim, not glory, not perfection ; 
among the ancients Mercury the god of industry was 
also the god of liars and of thieves. 

Murder, by the charge at quick-step, is one of the 
industries of the Swiss ; murder, by rhetoric and by 
the careful combination of phrases, was the industry 
of the Attorney -General Marchangy.*" For some men 
the priesthood itself is only an industry. In our 

*" Louis Antoine Marchangy, a celebrated French 
magistrate and writer, bom at Clam£9y (Ni^vre) 1782, 
died at Paris 1826. He was in turn an enthusiastic 
Buonapartist and a bigoted Royalist [!]. It is not clear 
to my mind whether M. d'Arpentigny alludes to his 
magisterial or to his literary eloquence in the above 
paragraph. His great prose epic, " Za Gaule 
Poetique" (Paris : 1813, 9 vols.), is one of the heaviest 
compositions ever published, as Larousse justly rcmarics, 
" L'emphase, les banalitfs pompeuses, fa declamation 
monotone, sont les traits distinctifs de cette teuvre ; " 
the same author calls him " the purveyor to the political 
scaffold.'' Under Louis XVI. he became in turn Pro- 
cureur du Roi and Avocat G£n6ral k la Cour de Cassa- 
tion [i8zz]. and in these capacities became renowned 
for his diabolical ingenuity in twisting and tuning 
men's phrases so as to use them against themselves. 


rural districts liierc arc persons whose sole occupa- 
tion is to watch ihe grass growing, and to this labour, 
whtch they lighten with frequent potations, they give 
Itie title or an indMStry. There are professions in 
which this word industry would be a disgrace ; there 
are others again which it ennobles. 

Apt for many pursuits mixed hands nevtrlheless 
oRcn excel in none in particular ; a great moral in- 
dtflereocc Is ihdr endowment. The hand which 
belongs to a particular type, on the contrary, is the 
«cred shrine in which God has placed the imperish- 
able germ which is destined to renew or to reveal 
every art, rvcry science hitherto ignored, or for a 
I long time lust sight of. Its promptings, too imperious 
I to be disobeyed, too significant to be mistaken, give 
it Ihe clear kitowledgit of OmI}; it knows what it 
wants, and, like the animals which are guided by an 
infallible instinct, It desires nothing that it cannot 
possibly attain. 

Pascal, DcKcaries, Newton, Buffon, and the rest of 
them who have divined so many things, must have "^ 
had hands uf a pronounced and single type. From 
their inspired hrains aprang spontaneously sciences 
already perfected ; these great men, occupied by their 
labours alone, all of tlieni led a life which was studious 
■ad more or less esoteric— for solitude is liberty. 

Men whose lutnds present the forms of a particular 

9pe hafc minds which are more powerful in one 

I detection than versatile ; men whose hands arc of 

I types have minds which are more veraatjtc 

ftihan (wwerful. The oonvrrsation of ihc jarmer is 

ItBSinieiivc, tliat of Ihc latter is amusing: it is lor 

t bller above alt that a powerful educatiun, 

JtMlkiously adapted to the development of the must 

promtneni foculty of their minds, ts 1 

Ar, eh V hands, rte. 

^ esa. Thicker and less suppie tnan the true artistic hand, 
anenury hud. 

the artistico-eleinentary hand, whose nngnoeful out- 
lines indicate an intelligence turned towards things 
which are sordid, presents nevertheless neither the 
extreme hardness nor the rustic expansiveness of 
elementary hands. Its fingers are large, without 
prominent joints [or with one only developed] and 
as if swollen up, the thumb is large and the fingers 
are conic \vid* Plate X.]. 

^624. This hand is sufficiently numerous in Normandy 

" P™i^^ ■" to draw into the sphere of its moral action the genius 
of the other types sparsely distributed throughout 
the province. Richness, is in the present day, the 
only side of art which the Normans appreciate in 
their hearts and without restraint. They love it for 
its own sake, and sacrifice everything to it, even to 
their sensuality, to which they allow none but the 
cheaper sorts of pleasures ; they are always greedy, 
rather than avaricious. 

^026. I^c appearance of their towns is always some- 

Rujiiciiy of ^^fhat rustic, and to see the costumes of nine-ten^s 

rionnvn iown»- 

of their inhabitants you would say that the citizen 
element had been expelled by an invasion of pea- 
santry. Rouen, Saint-Lo,' Falaise, and the neat ot 



[1 6«5] 


Their morals. 

them, in the midst of the green champaign which 
is resplendent all around them, recall those hideous 
reptile carcases which the folly of the ancient 
Egyptians used to case in gold and porphyry. 

The Normans have a code of morals, if customs 
can constitute them, but they have none if they are 
constructed of pn'ndples. They are legal, but not cooirasted with 
just; they are devout, but not pious. Although p™**=*p 
naturally brave, war is antipathetic to them, not on 
account of the privations which it involves [which 
they could bear without complaint], but on account 
of the little profit which it gives. Glory without 
nK>ney seems to them as a vapour, vain and ridicu- 
lous ; it is reserved for the Bretons, a nation governed 
by obstinate and passionate instincts, to wage war 
for the maintenance of a principle ; the Normans have 
never drawn the sword save for a material interest. 

On his return from the Holy Land, whither he 
had been led by a pious and chivalrous idea, the 
brave Robert of Normandy found his throne occupied 
by Henry, his younger brother. He appealed to the 
people, but the latter turned a deaf ear to his appeal, 
finding it just and good that an adventurer, capable 
of preferring glory to actual material advantages, 
should pay the penalty of a so flagrant infraction of 
the laws of good sense, with not only a double crown, 
but his liberty. 

" A king in a state of poverty," says Euripides, " is 
nothing." *• Wealth is what is most revered among 

*• Our author, I presume, refers to the concluding lines 
of the Pkamissa^ where the tyrant CEdipus, deploring 
his Call, calls attention to the misery of his present state 
compared to his former magnificence.* 

Robert of 


• Euripides, ♦OINISSAI, 1. 1758, rf sy. aJ /Im. : - 
••*0 wArpat cXfcr^t roXTrcu, \ivo9tr, OiUwo^f 55(. 
At r& K\tU ajMyfULT\ tfpta gal /idyurrot V dri^ 

99if Artftm wur^ oUrfAt i^Xavpfuu x^h^^- 


men ; between Greek nnd Norman there exi 
the difl'erence of a hand. 
63B. The Normans have an intelligence which 

nciei, delicate, but cunning : they calculate rather than 
reason; their language, generally negative, nei 
becomes exalted, though there are times when 
becomes inflated, even to bombast [Halherbes, Brd- 
beuf, and even Corneille, often confound emphasiA 
witii subtlety}. They are a people of clear judgnien^ 
for whom the purse represents the man ; at the same 
time brutal and cunning, benignant and subtle ; 
without arl but full of artifice. Very well, then, 
the same way that art is [as I have said} a mean' 
causing the true to be appreciated, artifice is a means 
of causing ihe/aise to be cdte^aied. 
^ 680. Still, it is good — indispensable indeed — that a great 

Bofdid mintL number of men are devoted by their instincts to the 
cultivation of wealth for its own sake, and laying 
aside the pleasures of every kind of which it is or 
can be the soui'ce, it is by these men, insensible as 
they are to every happiness save only that of being 
rich, that the fortunes are made and remade without 
which science, art, and poetry, those Muses dis- 
dainful of mechanical occupations and manual labour, 
k. would languish, unhappy and discouraged, for want 

B of physical leisure. 

■ w^'"- "^^^ legislators of the western states of North 

f KonhAmericii. America, in proscribing domesticity, and by these 

w measures condemning their fellow -citizens to ignoble 

' and futile labours which are in Europe the natural 

occupations of weak understandings, have given a 

more unrefutable proof of their want of appreciation 

of the fine arts and of the higher sciences than any 

which have been furnished by barbarians or icoooclasta, 

L ^682. The aspect of the artislico-elementary hand pco- 

m tSm^'^'h. clainis its egoism and avidity ; large and short, dosing 

miybit i 



[1[ «3a] 

formed only for the purpose of grasping and holding ; 
it is probably from it that we derive this edifying 
axiom, What is good to take is good to keep.** Inapt 
at the professions which are governed by sciences, 
it excels at negotiation ; it is not industrious, but 

Normandy, full as she is of manufactories, has 
not invented, nor even perfected, a single machine. 
There come from its factories nothing — with the 
exception of cloths — but vulgar products ; in agri- 
culture she is not, intellectually, as highly developed 
as the fertility of her soil. 

It is in Normandy, in the verdant and cunning 
country of apples, of the Forbidden Fruit, that we 
find the lower limbs of the law, the sharp attorneys, 
and the loud-voiced counsellors, who will bark at 
anything for a crown-piece. 

Education, which ameliorates the Normans, a race 
born, aAer all, for the pleasures and transactions of 
society [a kind of reasonable, calm, and wise impos- 
ture entering largely into these things] corrupts the 
Bretons, on the contrary ; the character of the Breton 
is irreproachable in the country; the character of 
the Norman shows to best advantage in cities. 

Like the Normans, the Jews are distinguished by 
a great commercial capacity. These people, who for 
so many centuries have been separated from their 
fclJow-mcn by their love of the letter of the law, 
[a pursuit even less fruitful than that of form], and 
their hatred of foreign blood, are happy and flourish. 

If 638. 



Nonnan lawyers. 



among the 

Normans and 

the Bretons. 


The Jews. 

*• This reminds one of the remark of the i^ntty youn^ 
Frenchman of whom Bacon speaks in his **Insfaurafw 
Magna*' who ** was wont to inveig^h against the 
manners of old men, and would say that if their minds 
could be seen as their bodies are, they would appear 
no less deformed ... for the bending of their fingers, 
as It were to catch, he would bring in rapacity and 


pre-eminently in the places where ignorance, slavery,.? 
and fanaticism concur to degrade the masses. They.l 
are unimportant wherever order and good mannen 1 
reign hand in hand with liberty. When Europe wa» J 
in a Slate of barbarism they were as they are lo-day; [ 

The Jewti 


as they were then— ] 
m of the letter to the ' 
/ no longer exist 
lost their nationality ; J 
are citizens nowhere.** 
) they do not actually] 
Tely spectacles, and a 

now that 

so petrifying is the • i 

exclusion of the spir 

people, but they have m 

Jews, wherever they arc, 1 

The greatest calamities i 

touch them, are for then 

they attach themselves neitner 

: to political interests, but only 
ich are peculiarly their own, they flee 
before the storm to reappear with the conqueror^ 
and proceed calmly to the increase of their fortunes 
amid corpses and ruins. 

The Jews in Poland form nearly two-thirds of the 
population of the towns ; in summer they wear a 
tight cassock of smooth and shiny texture, in winter 
a velvet cap something like a thick turban, and a 
furred robe, which they gird about themselves with 

*" I find a veiy interesting commentary to this 
paragraph in a work to which 1 have referred moic 
than once in these pag'es — Colonel Tcheng-Ki -Tongas 
" TAe Chinese fainted by Themselves ." He cites an 
authentic record of a colony of Jews which emignted 
to China under the Han Oynas^, B.C. %oo, whicn is in 
precisely the same condition now as it was then. "Here 
then," says he, " is an authentic tradition 3,000 yean 
old. It is only in the Jewish people one finds such 
attachment to nationality. Take any people you please, 
at the end of four or five generations they wiU he com* 
pleiely naturalised ; the Jews never. They remain the 
same wherever they go, attached to their religion, 
their nature, their customs ; and this permanence m 





a bond of red worsted, whirli serves Ihem for a 
pocket. They let Ilicir liitir and bt-ards gruw and 
mraggtc as they please, they have aquiline nos«s, 
and pale, oval faees ; they hove almond-s)uipcd, blaelc 
eyea, which are brilliant with cupidity. Tliey arc 
ln»>nuating and pulitc ; very thin as a rule; one 
might mistake theni as they stand in the comers 
of the shops, where they remain ordinarily immo- 
bite and standing upright, fur shadowy cyprcwes or 
pear trees trimmed spindlc-fn^hion. They scntlcr 
around themselves an indeflnable idea t.f Capernaum 
and Jericho, which reminds one of the impression 
produced upon nnc by the prints in ancient Bibles. 
They do not indulge in any corporal exercise, or any 
agrceablr piuiimi;, making their trade their Kite 
occupation. Lying, si> as to buy in the cheapest 
marfcet; lying, so as tn sell in the deaircM, their in- 
glorious lives arc spent between these two lies. 
They also have a predileition for the pmfcMiona of 
Che faaor, the broker, the agent, the stock-jobber, 
the publican, the banker,— in a word, all the pursuits 
where sharpness of mind are of more ennsldenttiun 
than the gilU "f science, profound knowledge of art, 
or skill of liaiicl. They trade openly upon luxury 
and drunkenness, but one must dn them this justice, 
that they never loae their gravity, whether sheltered 
beneath the thyrsus nf Bncchiis or Hie cnduceus of 
Mcivury. 1'heff hands are the same as tbo*c n( the 
Normans, only with a weaker palm, and iftiax'-tfuarv 

Ilrillany contains a great number of individuals of 56) 
bii^i Intelligence who, within tiic closed cirele of ^^ 
malerial interests, would easily be overrroched by ■ 
Jewish or Niimian child. Humble and resigned, they 
ask iHidiing better than to be pnraencd frwn the 
ouv* uf business and of figure:* ; they tto not tneaiur* 
i{>^|l bj tiM volume of a man's bc:lons{ii|p ; they 


do not worship God in the image or a crown-pieoe ; 
and they do not bear resounding in their dreama the 
magic whinny of the tax-collector's mule. To wander 
over the flowery heath, to dream, lying in the high 
grass, to follow God in the woods and on the feet of 
the sun, to fill themselves with the poetry of old bookfl 
and old legends, to bear with pleasure the yoke of 
&ith, to prefer to luxury or even prosperity, not 
money [tike the Normans, who are temperate oaty by 
reason of their avarice] but meditation and repoae; 
it is along these blest paths that we track the white 
foot of the Hus^ that the incense of mystical rases 
perfumes the air, that the halo of the guardian angd 
illumines the way, and that the heart seeks for, 
and finds, happiness. These hands are psych ico- 
5639. But it is perhaps germane to our subject to remark 

here that if the Bretons have for a long time been too 
much despised, the reaction which has taken place in 
their favour, consequent upon the startling apparition 
of a few rare genii born among them, has led many 
of the writers of to-day to praise them beyond all 
reason. No doubt they are frank, courageous, and 
capable of a disinterested devotion, but the social man 
among them is too far behind the instinctive subject 
Whilst the whole of France is progressing in en- 
lightenment and prosperity, the sorcerer, the petty 
squire, and the parish priest remain amongst them 
the objects of their most tenacious fetich -worship ; 
they can anticipate nothing out of the ordinary run, 
they can appreciate nothing which is not customary. 
You may see them in their dirty villages wandering 
about with an air which is at the same time indolent 
and savage, clad in shapeless garments cut from the 
skins of heifers and of goats. Certainly, France would 
march in the rear of the nations, if, persuaded by the 
lovers of nature in whatever form she presents ber- 



n 639] 

self, she were to place them at her head instead of 
trailing them in tow behind her. 

The Vendeans are a people of a limited but clear ^WO. 
intelligence ; opinionated rather than fanatic, they are ^* Vendcam 
simple without being ingenuous ; they have not in 
their hearts the poetry which the Bretons have, nor in 
their minds the imagination of the Normans. Nor 
do their costumes present the striking singularity, or 
the quasi-Oriental elegance which we encounter here 
and there among these two nations ; robust rather 
than active, without being lazy, they arc slow, their 
humour is proud, irritable, and morose, only slightly 
sensual and limited in their desires, by reason of their 
want of imagination rather than by reason of their 
want of temperament, they manifest for their country 
a love which in their hearts is equal to none other. 

From La Vendde there come most estimable officers, ^Wl. 
honest accountants, and incorruptible cellarers, but j^ Vend^ 
never men of mark. Like those wines whose flavour 
is not appreciable excepting upon the ground where 
they grew, expatriation deprives the Vendeans of all 
their virtue. They arc very considerable as a nation, 
but quite inconsiderable as individuals; nature has 
decorated the ignorance of the Bretons with a few 
flowers of poetry ; theirs, on the other hand, is as arid 
as a sand desert. They cherish the empire of custom 
and usage, and are only remarkable for their charac- 
ters. Where they show themselves in all their 
startling originality is in the Bocage, a mysterious 
district bordered with the foliage of the oak [like 
the uniform of a marshal of France], where flow the 
fountains which have received from the Druids, their 
venerable godfathers, the not yet contested p>ower of 
miraculous cures. There arc so many high, quick-set 
hedges whence spring huge trees, so many cherry, 
pesr, and apple trees border the roads and cluster 
round the houses, that one could not venture into this 



part of the country without a guide. Almost inacces- 
sible to artillery, and even to cavalry, war can only be 
waged there on foot ; it is a theatre better suited for 
the development of the spirit of cunning and ruse, 
and to the personal prowess which belong to the 
soldier, than t>thc general's combinations in advanced 
strategy. The peasant lives there a free life, circum- 
spect and silent in these retreats, where all things 
are silent,— the air, the water all are still ; and where, 
were it not for the hammer of the farrier, one would 
hear nothing in the villages but the song of the birds. 
These are elementary bands with square fingers. 

Vendcan hospitality, much over-rated as it has been, 
is prescribed by custom ; in Normandy the practice 
of this virtue is facultative. Among the Vendcans it 
is an honour to the nation, among the Normans it is 
an honour to the individual ; in the latter caae gay as 
a pleasure, in the former solemn as a du^. 

Whence comes it that the universe constantly has 
its eyes turned in the direction of the ancient Greek 
world 7 It is that the peoples of whom it was formed 
had, not only great instincts and great virtues, but had 
also a profound knowledge of those instincts and of 
those virtues. The Vendeans and the Bretons have 
also great virtues, but it is a question whether they 
would preserve them if they had any intelligence of 
them. Our own species, however, can only give us 
credit for those virtues which have their guarantee in 
the single attribute which places us above other 
created beings^ intctligc nee. The more soundly 
does the somnambulist sleep, the more sure and 
certain is hb step as he walks upon roofs and on the 
edges of precipices ; but who thinks of applauding 
this skill of which he is unconscious ? In the same 
way must we only Very lightly esteem the virtues of 
a people plunged in the darkness of an evident in- 
tellectual somnantbulism. 






K nrw woKos V 


B leudencics of och lypc are, unong wompn. the 
aunc OS they nrc wnotig men, only, ihoK which are , 
peculiar lo (he ipalulaie and square types, are much 
leu imperious and intense nmong women, by reason 
of the suppleness uf their muscles, than they are 
among us" [i-i*& PtjiTi XI.]. 

Oiil of n hundred wumen in France, I inEculalR thai 
forty bclung to the eooic type, thirty to ilie squxe, 
and thirty to the spalulate type. These two fatter 
types, nf which tttc all-absorbing faculty is the mind, 
DUtwcigli the former, of which the ali-absorUng Inllu- 
s the iinagi nation. 

"He raurt br," 
» Vthrr Grund i<- 

Or. OtfB* \n hh work. 

Hun. I 

lat of niao ; it has a softrr palm, and Joints, oliicli are 
il sltghlly prominent," etc. 


5"- The man creates, the womui develops ; avhkve/rte- 

*''™"' e^, sMt has /mm/ we make bmm, she makes momb.^ 

StT^Itb). "1^ i&>i> >> nmn troe thaa the woman," aaid St 

Martin, "but ahe is better than he. The man is the 

mmt^ of the woman, but she is the sow/ of die man* 

jry*- To oompouate the woman fer her weakness aajs 

the Book of Genesis^ as iotsrpreted by Fabre-d'Olivet, 

God has clothed her in one of His envelop es ^ bea uty ; 

and strai^tway she becomes the IncanutiOTi of the 

&culty of volitioD on the part of the man.** 

T* * Then agun, we value thin|p witti our brainy diey 

,„^^^^^!!" with their hearts ; we are the more sensual, vriiflst 

they are the more sensitive ; thdr instincts deeehe 

-them less often than our reasoning powers ; we have 

the faculty of reflection and know irtiat can be learnt, 

they have intuition and know what can be divined. 

<^6M Europe, where they are free, and- which they fill 

Eumin uul wi'h brilliancy and movement, owes them these three 

AiU. beautiful things, — good morals, liberty, and opulence ; 

whereas Asia, where they live in a state of slavery, 

crouches metaphorically in a state of inertia, and loses 

itself in misery, despotism, and the lowest forms of 

passion. Light, truth, and liberty are one and the 

same thing. 

** This reference is to a most fascioatinff work, un- 
fortunately comparatively unknown to the general 
reader, " Za Langtte Heheraique rsstitttie et U Veri' 
table Sens des Mots Hibreux rStabli et prouvi," bf 
Fabre-d'Olivet (Paris: 1815-6). Part II. consists of 
a portion of Geoesis in Hebrew, English, and French, 
and the passage in question occurs in Gen. ii., 
21 and 23 [p. 315], which read ; — " Alors ShOah, 
t'^tre dea £tres, laissa tomber un sommeil ptofbnd 
et sympathi^ue sur cet bomme universel, qui s'en- 
dormit soudam : et rompant I'uait^ ^'m»«()J! res ettvt' 
loppts extirieures il prit I'un d'elles et r^vetit de forme 
et de beauti corporelU safaiblesseorigmeUe;'^—^. ij, 
— "Et il I'appela Aisha,/acK/tf voltiwe tfficiemU<M 
cause du principe volitif intellectuelle, Alsha, dont eUe 
avail iX-i tir^e en substance." 


Few women have knotty [i>., jointed] fingers; If 651. 
synonymously few women are gifted with the talent ^oig wo^. 
of combination. In the matter of intellectual labours, 
they generally choose those which require more tact 
than science, more quickness of conception than 
strength, more imagination than judgment. It would 
be otherwise if they had prominent-jointed fingers; 
then they would be less impressionable and less given 
to yield to the inspirations of fantasy, and like as the 
intoxicating qualities of wine are neutralised by the 
addition of water, so would theirs be by reason. 

It is convenient — setting aside the form of the , ^W*- 

Large uid tnudl- 

exterior phalanges — to range women under two thumbed women, 
principal categories : those with large thumbs, and 
those with small. The former, more intelligent than 
sensitive, extol history ; the latter, more sensitive 
than intelligent, are captivated by romance. For 
pleasure and consideration for others, recommend me 
to a large-thumbed woman ; love, under her clear- 
sighted guidance, attains its end without scandal, her 
passion, which she follows without consulting her 
head, has more root in her senses than in her heart. 
Leave her alone and trust to her skill, at the right 
moment she will come to the assistance of your 
timidity, not because she has much sympathy with 
your torments, but in the interest of her own plea- 
sures. Besides complete security, her many graces 
of mind will add to the joy of winning her. 

Women with a little thumb are not endowed with T •••• 


so high a degree of sagacity. To love is the whole of wooMn 
their science, but the charm attached to this powerful 
faculty is such, that there is no delight equal to it 

The cares of maternity being extremely difficult *|^^*Jjf ^ 
and complicated, their practice requires an instinct ckmencwy luad 
more intelligent than that which is revealed by ele- 
mentary hands ; these hands, therefore, are extremely 
rare among women. Women exercise an almost 


f1 6m1 

absolute empire among populations in which the 
elementary hand is in a majority ariong the men [as, 
for instance, in Lower Brittany and La Vendue] ; for 
there is no type which does not dominate over the 
elementary, morally speaking. 
1 6B5. The peasants i>f these countries marry willingly,, 

hMidedlmkln'i. ^""^ ^^""y commonly, with women who are older than 
themselves, The same heaviness of spirit whicb 
renders them insensible to the charms of youth and 
beauty, delivers them over, helpless, to the superior 
intelligence of the woman who has reached maturity. 
I B66. The Greeks of the heroic age were not more par- 

ticular; Helen was nearly forty, when, on her return 
from ArgoUs, (lying before Orestes who wanted to 
destroy her, "she went haphazard, tracing here and 
- there her footsteps, brilliant with the splendour of 
her golden sandals."** She must have been still 
beautiful for men to occupy themselves thus con- 
cerning her shoes ! 
Ciraj' e ^'^ ^^^ Caroline and Mariana Islands the political 
Mariana power belonged, until the conquest of these archipeUgt 
" '' by the Spaniards, to the women, who, contrary to the 
men, who have very large hands, have very small 

" Vide the exquisitely touching account whicb 
Euripides puts into the mouth of Fbryx of the terror 
of Helen and the agonised fury of Orestes." 

" Arago's accounts of these islands are full of indica- 
tions of this consideration in which women are held. 
Almost the greatest crime a man can commit against 
Heaven is to beat his wife [J. ArAgo, " Somtntri 
d'un Aveugle. Voyage autour du Monde" (Paris: 
1839), vol. iii., p. 26]; and in another place he says:— 

• Euripides, 0PE2THZ ;— 

"'A ttAyrr, lixtr Stitai, /Mt' 

^iiy4 a 'vtl Ti xp>wt«nt>IaX«* 
tf^rm tiptprr, l^ptr," etc, etc 




Asiatic women. 


ManO on 

Born for the dance, love, and festivals, the women ^ ^: 
of Otahiti have hands which arc small and conical, 
but fleshy and thick. 

English women have, as a rule, the finger-tips ^659. 
delicately square ; they are contented with love as ^"**'^*' '*''^*"* 
they find it in the married state, and devote them- 
selves even to manual labour. 

The institution of the Har^m being immemorial in 
Asia, I conclude that the women of these countries 
have delicate hands with little thumbs. They devote 
themselves even to death, 

Charlotte Corday, Sophie de Condorcet, and Lucile 
Desmoulins had very fine fingers. 

The legislators of the East Indies are not, like ours, 
pre-occupied solely by the real needs of women and 
her duties, but also concerning her caprices and 
the fancies inherent to her nature. " Brahma," says 
Manu, ''has endowed woman with love of rest, 
and of ornament, with passion, with fury, with 
evil instincts, and w^th perversity.*" He desires 
that her name shall be easy to pronounce, soft, dis- 
tinct, agreeable, and propitiously sounding ; that it 
shall end in long vowels, and shall resemble the 
words used in a benediction.*** She must be con- 

" What is quite clear, and what has been said before us 
by Spanish historians, is, that the women of those days 
had on all occasions the pre-eminence over the men, 
that they presided at all public dehberations, and that 
the code of laws had been drawn up for them alone. 
The Spanish rule, crushing with all its despotism this 
archipelago so brilliant and so variegated, has not been 
able to abolish this custom, which to my mind is most 
rational, established, as one might say, in the primitive 
manners.'* — Op. cit.^ vol. ii., ch. 21, p. 370. i7<f/r also 
the oflScial report of this same journey, entitled '* Voyage 
autuur du Afondv, entrepris pur Ordre dtt Roi\ par 
M, C. de Freycifiet'^ (Paris : 1839), vol. ii.. p. 2. 

•* " The Ordinances of Manu ** [i^ide note *. p. 202]. 
lect. IX., 19. 

•• Ibidem, lect. iL, 33. 


tinually in a griod humour; she must have the 
graceful gait of the swan or of the young elephant ; 
she must keep her body thin by living solely upon 
flowers, roots, or fruits,*" She must be brilliantly 
attired, regard being had to the fact that, when a 
young woman is brilliant in her ornaments, her family 
shines by her reflected light, whilst, if she is. not 
resplendent, her family are not honoured by her."*" 

Mercury, said the Greeks, overcame the viriue of 
Penelope under the form of a goat : what must bave 
been their ideas of women if they spoke thus of the 
moat chaste among them.'" 

The Chinese arc more just towards them, and in 
their eyes the death of the mother of *. fimiUy Is not 
regarded as so sli^t an evil as tlie deatii t^ 0)e 
father; at least so one would infer from the text 
of the Chou King,** who does not recommend 
widowers less urgently than widows to the care of 
the mandarins.*" 

*' Ibidem, lect. v., 150 and 157, 

*" Ibidem, lect. iii., 55-63. 

*" It was of this connection that the god Pan, the son 
of Penelope, is said to have been bom, according' to 
Lucian Hyginus, and other authors. Homer, who does 
all in his power to exalt Penelope to the position of 
a model of prudence and cKastity, declarea that this 
occurred before her marriage with Ulysses. Mercury, 
we are told, assumed the form of a beautiful white goat 
when Penelope was tending the flocks of her &.ther 
Icarius on Mount Taygetus. Later authors, however, 
discard Penelope's claims to virtue, and adduce a much 
more confused parentage to the birth of Pan, with a 
more esoteric signification to his name. 

•" '■ The Shoo King, or the Historical Classic of 
China" translated by W. H. Medhurst (Shanghae: 

"■ " The Chinese woman is usually imagined as a 
pitiful being, scarcely able to walk, and imprisoned in 
her household among the servants and concubines of 
her husband. This is another flight of inuginatioa, to 
be cut short, however much it may hntt tne feelingB 



In France, women of the spatulate hand and small ^665. 
thumb arc distinguishable by a great fund of affec- »n»ii-thuinbed 
tionate freedom, by an imperious desire of action and women. 
of movement, and by their intelligence of real life. 
Theirs, among the higher classes of society, is the 
proud and ancestral grace of such women as Clorinde 
and Bradamante,^ and of the belted patricians; 
theirs, as of Diana and the magnanimous Hippo- 
lyte, *^ are the swift horses and snowy hounds ; 
theirs, among the middle classes, are these house- 
holds full of noisy, laughing children, whose hands 
are ever active and whose voices are never still, 
where the Persian cat lives at peace vnth the spaniel 

of veracious travellers" [vide note *^, p. 149]. . . . "We 
consider the depths of science a useless burden to 
women ; not that we insult them by supposing they arc 
inferior to us in ability to study art and science, but 
because it would be leading them out of their true path. 
Woman has no need to perfect herself; she is bom 
perfect ; and science would teach her neither ^rsLce nor 
sweetness. . . . Family life is the education which forms 
the Chinese woman, and she only aspires to be learned 
in the art of govcmins^ her family." — ** The Chinese 
painted fy Themselves , ' op, cit,y p. 45, etc. 

^ Clonnde and Bradamante, the ideal amazons of 
French and Italian literature. The first, a fair Saracen, 
the beloved of Tancred, a heroine of Tasso's **^Gerusa- 
iemme Liber ata,** who clad herself in armour and fought 
among the Saracens, and in this disguise was killed by 
her unconscious lover in single coinbat. The secona 
the sister of Renaud de Montauban, one of the heroines 
of Ariosto's " Or/ando Furioso^** who in a similar 
manner distinguished herself among the Paladins. 
Both these names are constantly used as synonyms 
for beautiful and brave women ; as, for instance, by 
Th^ophilc Gautier in ** Mademoiselle de Maupin 
(Paris: 1869) : — **On concevra que ce n*est pas trop 
d un volume pour chanter les aventures de la dii*a^ 
Madeleine de Maupin, de cette belle Bradamante,** 

^ A queen of the Amazons, given in marria^ to 
Theseus oy Hercules. She was the mother of Hippo- 
fytttSi mentioned in note *", p. 222. 


and the tame dove. Theirs, in the larmstead, is the 
passionate love of horses, of the white-coated hetfrr, 
and of the other domestic animals, and the occupa- 
tion of transactions with the neighbours, and long 
nights of hard work. Theirs, finally, in the granary 
and in the barn, are the resources of an inde- 
fatigable physical activity, calm resignation under 
strokes of ill-luck, and some of the robust peculiari- 
ties of the women of the Don.*" 

Madame Roland had fine large hands with spatulate 
' finger-tips. With a head filled vwilh practical ideas 
aud a soul strongly inclined towards the ideal, she 
understood the beauty of passion, though she pre- 
fLTred t" it that of self-sacrifice. At the same time 
stoic and passionate, positive and enthuaiaatic, tender 
and austere, she loved three things with an intense 
devotion : her country, her liberty, and her duty. 
Careful always to think well, to speak well, and act 
well, she relieved her mind after the study of theo- 
retical mechanics by reading Plutarch and Rousseau. 
Gifted with the kind of beauty peculiar to active women 
she combined in herself an elegant carriage, a beauti- 
ful complexion, magnificent hair, and a splendidly 
developed figure. Her mouth, which was rather 
large, shone with freedom and serenity of mind. Her 
looks were soft and frank, her manner was open, calm, 
and resolute ; bom brave and strong like most women 
of her type, she was never untrue to herself, whether 
in {xiverty, in splendour, or on the scaffold.*" 

■* M. d'Arpentigny has on a previous page given a, 
short sketch of the wives of the Cossacks of the Don, 
with particulars of their sangfroid and laborious and 
housewifely occupations. I have omitted the passage, 
in common with a good many others in this sub-section, 
as being unnecessary as illustrations, and offensive to 
English taste as information. 

* Marie Jeanne, the wife of Jean Marie Roland de la 
Flatiire, known to history as " Madame Rolud," wu 



Order, arranf^ement, symmetry, and punctuality ^W7. 
reign without tyranny in the homes which are uSmi^d"womeu 
governed by these calm managers with square fingers 
and a small thumb. 

But what do I see I children silent and gloomy, ^ 1 ^ 
servants trembling and sulky ; who is it, then, who 
keeps them in this state of restraint and worry. It 
is the peevish voice and vigilant watchfulness of 
petticoat government, represented most surely by a 
large thumb. 

Do you lay siege to the heart of a beautiful woman f W9. 
whose fingers are square? Speak the language of ^"^^I^*** 
common sense and of solidity of mind, and do not con- 
found singularity with distinction ; remember that she 
has less imagination than mind, and that her mind is 
more just than original Amongst her axioms are these : 
— Silence is strength, and mystery is an ornament 
Do not forget that she has the social instinct strongly 

one of the most famous of the famous women of the 
revolution. Bom in 1754, she became at an early age 
remarkable for the power and extent of her intellect. 
Her husband, twenty vears her senior, was returned to 
the Convention as depute for Lyons, and became one 
of the leaders of the Girondins. His wife was arrested 
on her husband's flight in 1793, and was guillotined in 
the November of that year. Hers was the celebrated 
phrase, " O Libertv ! what crimes arc committed in thy 
name!*' She is known to posterity by *^ La Corrc' 
Sundance de Madame Roland avec Us Demoiselles 
tannet * * ( Paris : 1 84 1 ), and * * Lettres A uto^aphes 
de Madame Roland^ addressees d Bancal des Issarts " 
(Paris: 183O. "This woman, combining with the 
graces of a Frenchwoman/' says Thiers, '*the heroism 
of a Roman matron, had to suffer every species of 
misfortune. She loved and reverenced her husband 
as a father. She experienced for one of the proscribed 
Girondists a vehement passion, which she had always 
repressed. . . . she considered the cause of liberty, to 
which she was enthusiastically attached, and for wnich 
she had made such great sacrifices, as for ever lost" 
[** The National Convention ^^^ chap. xv.]. This bears 
out M. d'Arpentigny's opinion of this heroine. 

developed, and thai she combines with respect for 
what is reflated by good taste, a great love of in- 
fluence and of command. Her mind is as far removed 
from rarity as from vulgarity.*** 

The square type as far as women are concerned is 
perfectly represented by the prudish, clever, ambitious, 

and witty Madame de on. With the exception 

of Clementina, all iht . ines of Richardson— crea- 
tures, alljof them, moi igent than sensitive, who, 
like our Madame de OEn^n^, were more, sprightly 
than tender-hearted, belong to this type. 

Religious institutions governed by rigidly- severe 
and narrow rules, where nothing is left to the dia- m 
cretion, recruit nearly all their adherents from amoDCtl 
the subjects of tite aquare type. 

See these little sof^ supple hands, almost Qeshlcss, 
but rosy, and with little developed joints ; *" they love 
brilliant phrases, which like lightning cast a sudden 
bright flash of wit around them ; they live with their 
minds alone. The love whose fetters they bear was 
bom In a boudoir; it invented the madrigal, the 
amorous epigram, and never shows itself save in 
powder and ruffles. 

With women whose hands are hard, ^ose Angers 
are conic, whose thumbs' are small, tint your language 
with glowing colours, excusing, justifying, applauding 

"- The whole of this chapter is almost as good a 
"lesson in love" as the speeches of Truewit m the 
fourth act of Ben Jonson's SiUnt Woman. 

•" Otktlta. " Give me yonr hand. This hand mcriit, my Vt&j. 
DtsdtmeHa. ll r<* has rdt no age, nor knmrn ao mrow. 
OtkiHt. This arguei fmitfuliias, aod liberal ban : — 

Hot, hot and moist : ttui band of Toon rt q nin a 

A EcqucBter from iibeity, fiutiog, and pntycT, 

Much castigatioa, eierase devonl ; 

For here's n youne and swoUfng devU bere 

Thai common]; i^kUI 'Tls a ^ood band, 


You ma; indeed say lo ; 
For 'iwas thai hand Ihat gave ft«^ t^ haul * 




n 6731 

peccadilloes of the more tender description. They 
love all that is brilliant, and rhetoric has more empire 
over their minds than logic. They are governed by 
three things : indolence, fancy, and sensuality. The 
sparrows of Cupid nestle in their dimples, and they 
have in their hearts the prayer which the Corinthians 
raised every morning to Venus : — " O goddess ! grant 
that to>day I may do nothing that is displeasing, and 
that I may say nothing that is disagreeable ; " for to 
please is their highest need, and they like to be loved 
and admired as much as they like to be esteemed. 

Such were without doubt the hands of the beautiful ^ 874. 
and triumphant Amazons, who composed the " flying *' ^^^^uhSj^Tde***^ 
squadron of Catherine de Medicis.*** Medids 

Fingers which are delicate, smooth, and pointed in ^ e76. 
a woman's hand, when they arc supported by a palm P»ycH»c.|»«Hi«i 
which is narrow and elastic without softness, indicate 
tastes in which the heart and soul have more voice 
than the mind or senses, — a charming mixture of 
exaltation and of indolence, a secret distaste for the 
realities of life, and for recognised duties, more piety 
than devotion. These characters, which are at the 
same time calm and radiant, expend their sovereign 
influence upon inspiration and grace. Good sense, 
which of all kinds of faculty is the most prolific, but 
not the most exalted, pleases them far less than true 
genius. It is for the purpose of exposing themselves 

*■ After the " Peace of St. Ambrose " [12th March, 
1563], Catherine de Medicis gave a series of the most 
maLmihceni/'i^/eSt at which the honours were performed 
by tne band of one hundred and fihy young ladies of 
the highest families, known as '* les hlles de la reine,** 
of whom she made such telling use in the struggles 

P .„ 

Crincipal moyen, s'il faut le dire, c'^taient ' les filles de 
i reioe,' cent cinquante nobles demoiselles, ce galant 
mooastto qu'elle menait et ^talait partout." 



to the heavenly rays at a. pure love, that they hawtt* 
been sown, like spotless lilies, upon the bright plai 
of the day. 

t have in my mind a writer whose mind is carriedfl 
onward by her heart, and whose idens are always J 
intermingled with her sentiments ; she has lyrici. 
and observation, measure and spontaneity ; expansivw^ 
and passionate, she has been able to interest all hearts fl 
in the throbbing of her own. She has shown hers 
upon the mountain lops, and the earth has sparicledll 
with rays of light, and towards her have risen r 
elevated by love and by a great ideal ; the intoxication " 
of distracted hearts, the calm of hearts that have 
become appeased, one understands them all as one 
reads, and one feels better afler having read; above 
all religions [by reason of an idea of God which is 
superior to those which they have evolved], she has 
beauty for a worship, and liberty for a code of morals ; 
still simple in her life, she is happy only when among 
simple people. What shall we regard as happy if 
not this master-mind with the resplendent brow and 
magnificent presence so dear to her surroundings, so 
dear to all whom fhe sibyl has endowed with the 
golden wand, and the fairy, with the magic ring which 
gives universal knowledge, and to whom these two 
sburces of our best pleasures, labour and admiration, 
are so easy of practice and acquisition. The hand 
of Madame Georges Sand — for it is of her that I 
speak — -realises ail that I have just said, but with 
developed joints which modify it sufficiently appre- 

The delicate sentiments which education alone can 
give to the greater number of us men, women possess 
naturally. They spring up in their tender souls, 
like the fine grass upon a light soil ; women have an 
innate knowledge of things appertaining to the heart, 
but the perfecl itvteUigence of the real and positive 



world is wanting in them. It is less to their physical 
weakness than to the nature of the ideas attached to 
their organisation that they owe the fact that they 
see us reigning over them as masters. In vain 
should we have the strength to subdue horses, to 
exercise the more laborious trades, and to brave the 
elements of sea and sky, if our hearts, like theirs, 
greedy of emotions, and always ready to flee to 
something new, were to vacillate at the least breeze 
like the foliage of the aspen; if this were so the 
empire which we hold would speedily slip from our 

n «77] 

If these notes, all incomplete though they be, shall 
help you, O reader, to escape the rocks which lie 
hidden beneath the deceitful waves of the River of 
Life, you will glorify the professor who has laid them 
before you. 


The End. 

" Et CM c<Nn|»letus per / 
EdvafdiMi Hcroa* 
Allen. Die xxiv. 




flTfirf un Btulvtfur. niou»f rn pUtrr, 

Pur fiaamrnl n'un rfirWoEulirf fiuinain ; 

iovi [f baisfi* nriscui: saisir, 
CTDiiimc iinr lis pnr I'aubr argmli. 
Contmr uiir tiancfic po^flic 


flEt^rlU tout I>Bn> In bonilH 
8ln rficliciu ImMt be ban Jnan? 
®n BUI U caftan O'taiartiDiicIni 
Vrignj la iarit tru Bultan ? 

Ct trnu, courtiMnt ou rrinc, 
Cnlrt >ra DaiglB it bicn Bcnliplfa 
l.r Keptrr trt I< aaubcrainf, 
Ou U arrptrt bn boluptfi? 

iro^lrialn fanUtain, 
3010111 b(« igni|itnMilf« : 
VtXnytanaa txlttitta, 
KibM b'tntpoBstAilitlR. 

®n bail tout ctla bans In It|nn 
9c cctte pauott, librc blanc. 
tlH t^fnofl a Icaef Tm tienn. 
<&\it ramour ne lit qn'tn tcrmbUnt ! 





On page i8i of the 15th edition of the late Adrien 
Desbanrolles* work ^^ Les Mysiens de la Main** a 
description of the hand of M. d'Arpentigny occurs. I 
reproduce it in this place, as I think it can hardly fail 
to be of interest to my readers. It runs as follows : — 

We give here a description of the hand of M. d'Arpen- 
tigny, drawn up by means of his system : we will 
explain his tastes and aptitudes by applying the pre- 
cepts of his own science to its inventor. 

We might have carried it a step farther by consult- 
ing cheiromancy, but everything must come in its 
proper order. 

Our only chance of clearness in so abstract a science 
lies in keeping even step with it, going from |x>int to 
point ; and giving a condensation thereof af^er having 
studied separately every branch of the art« 

The hand of M. d'Arpentigny is, in the first place, 
remarkable for its rare beauty : its long and pointed 
fingers give it an extreme elegance, and thanks to a 
phalanx of logic [in the thumb], and a joint of philo- 
sophy [in the fingers], he is gifted with all the useAil 
qualities of his type. We need not call attention to 
the inspirations of the professor, the discovery of his 
system of chcirognomy aifords proof enough of their 
existence. Drawn by his pointed fingers towards a 
love of form, he encourages a love of the beautiful in 

art, poetry, and works of imagination ; 
keen and delicate, but drawn by his attraction for all 
that pleases the eye and the ear, he sometimes attains 
to research. Though continually held in check by his 
great logic, which gives him a love of truth and sim- 
plicity, the nature of his pointed fingers regains from 
time to time the upper hand. He speaks well, writes 
charmingly and wittily, his style is never heavy, and 
is sometimes even characterised by brilliant inspira- 
tions which are sadly out of harmony with the 
material century in which we live. 

He pays but little attention to the circumstance that 
he is noble, he is simple, but at the same time he 
moves in the highest society, of which he has the easy 
manners. His whole personality is fraught with a 
natural aristocracy, and he has a horror of people who 
are vulgar. His conversation is charxoing, and always 
very instructive^ sprinkled here and there with 
brilliant, though quietly expressed epigrams. 

His pointed (ingers would lead him towards religion, 
but his joint of philosophy renders him essentiBUy a 
sceptic; he has aspirations with which he strug^es 
continually and savagely, one would say that he 
reproaches himself for secret enthusiasms of which 
he will not seek the causes. 

With fingers merely pointed he wrauld have had 
only inspirations of his system ; vague and fugitive, 
he would certainly not have made use of them ; the 
philosophic joint, however, which leads him to the 
research of causes, has explained to him what his 
imagination merely hinted at, and logic has come to 
encourage him and to make his convictions profound. 

Notwithstanding his pointed fingers, his modesty is 
charming, and he seems almost astonished when 
people congratulate him on a great discovery. 

But the philosophic joint, useful though it un- 
doubtedly is, has also some grave inconvoiiatces. tt 




nnden « man independent, and the I'lvr of indepea- 
denoe which it inspires, not at all appreciated in a 
miUtary rmrrer, preventMl him from rising to ihv 
gnde for whirh his superior intelligence fitted hiitl- 

Hi* fingers, smooth by rcuson of the absence of the 
joint of material oixlcr, in giving him, to a marked 
degrve, all the qualities of the artist, naturally have not 
recommeuded to him the arrangement and (economy 
of which they have so wholesome a horror. But 
being targe at the bases, Dicy give him a taste for 
mwiial pleasures ; they have by this means made life 
■a be«t«bk aa possible lor him, tauaiiig him to sloop 
and gather one by one, without too particular a choice, 
nil tli« flowers which arc to be found on the road of 
life. To tlib the softness of Ills hands has added the 
charms of an intelligent laziness, 

M. d'Arpcntigny appreciates the cluirms of indulirnee, 
and thence perhaps ii is that comes his indillerencc 
for VUCCCS9 in the world, for Ibe great reputation 
which ought to have accrued to him ; thence comes 
■lao his distaste fur the discussions, the controversies. 
Mid the academic struggles which fall to the lot nf 
every inventor. 

His road lay aihwarl the brilliant sunshine, he has 
preCnTed to walk m the shade ; and without the 
ralher large upper phalanx to his thumb, which gives 
him a certain nbatinacy, probably he would have left 
his system in tlie same shadow, as much by reftson of 
his horror af worry and intrigue, as un aecuunt of 
hb disdain of his fclluw-incn. 

M. d'Arpentigny wa« endowed with all the qualities 
of the Inventor,— the painted fingers which receive io- 
•pirations from on High ; [causality, the great scepuc 
which discusses and examines Ihcin ; and the logic 
which finally adopts them, ratmly ileciding what there 
s of truth in itic uituttiuna of hia pointed Bngcra, and 
a the duubta af hta inherent catUftUty. Hu lom 


fingers, by the love of minutiae which they give him, 
have led him to his studies, making him pursue hi.^ 
system with care, even to its minutest details. 

But what is a good quaiity in discovering a 
system, may berome a fault, a defect in expounding 
and teaching it. H. d'Arpentigny, being without the 
order and arrangement of square fingers, and without 
the material order found in b development of the 
second joint of the fingers, has allowed himself to 
wander away amid the charms of description of cita- 
tion and of science. Carried away by his philosophic 
instinct, he has discovered at every step subjects for 
admirable reflections, highly interesting to the reader, 
and doubtless equally so to himself, for he often loses 
sight of the point whence he started, returning to 
it regretfully as a thing too positive, only to lose 
himself once more amid the mazes of his high 

His pointed thumb also, — a very rare form, — which 
augments the power of his intuitions, is long enough 
to give him a certain amount of strength of re^stance, 
but not enough to make him triumph over the philo- 
sophic indifference, by which he allows himself in 
other respects to be domipated very willingly. This 
alone prevented our inventor from becoming the high 
priest of a sect ; he forged for himself out of the 
science a sparkling ring, but it never occurred to him 
to make thereof a crown. With a logic which inter- 
feres seriously with the promptings of his will, with 
a philosophic joint which strips of their embroidered 
vestments all the splendours of the world, he came 
naturally to the conclusion that the science was too 
noble, too grand, and too proud to become a mere 
crutch for his ambition. 

It will reach posterity clad in all the greater glory. 
[From tht Fmuk o/\ 

AsRiSN Desbarkolijes. 


The following Bibliography cannot, of course, in any 
way aim at completeness ; it pretends to be no more 
than a transcript of the catalogue of my cheirosophical 
library, to which I have added the titles of a few 
works to which I have had on various occasions to 
refer. I have adopted the alphabetical in preference 
to the chronological arrangement, as the latter necessi- 
tates a separate index for purposes of reference ; and 
also it is difficult, when that plan is adopted, to gain 
any idea of the collective works of a particular writer. 
I have drawn up this list of books in odd moments 
for my own use ; I publish it now in the hope that it 
may prove as useful to other students of chcirosophy 
as it has proved to me. I shall, of course, be very 
grateful to any reader who will call my attention to 
any works at present omitted from this catalogue, in 
order that by completing it, I may enhance its value 
to the cbeirosophist in subsequent editions of my 


St. John's, 
PiTTHEY Hitx, London, S.W. 


I. AcHiLUms, ^., and Cocles, B. (in one vol.) — "Alexander 

Achillinus Bononiensia de ChyroraantiK Principiis et Phy- 
sionomia:,"' ] i leaves ; and " Bartholoman Coclitis Chyro- 
msntia;: ac Phyaiognomiie Anastasis cum Approbatione 
Magistri Alcaandri d'Achillinia." (Bononite : 1503-) FoL. 
andEdition{BonoiiiK;i523.) FoL, 178 leaves. yid,Ko.3f,. 

I. AcHlixiNus, AUxandtr. — "De Inlelligenliis, dc Orbibus,(Ic 
Univcrsaiibus, de Elementia, de Principiis Chyromanlic 
et PhyaiODOmie," etc. (Vunice : 1508,) FoL 

;. Albertus Magnus '"Geheime Chitomant. Belustigtmg'cn, 

Kimst «us der Hand wahTTUsagcn." (Leipsic : 1807.) 

^ Andrieu, y.— " Chirorooticie. Etudes sur la Main, le 
Crane, la FaciT," (Paria : i860, 1875, and l8Sa.> I2nnj. 

|. AKDHHtVi/HilM.— "ChiromBiwia, Fisiologia sulla Mano, sul 
Cranio, e sul Volto." (Milan: iSSa) 12010. 

i. Anianus. — "CoDipotus cum Commento. Liber qui Com- 
poliis inscribitnr una 1711m fiEiiria c[ nianibus tmeSEariia 

Um in suis lods qui in fine llbri positus inciplt feliciter." 

(Rome: 1493.) 4to, 4B leaves. 

OOitr EdUinai [Paria: tsix>7]4ti)t 40 leaves; (Basle: 

1500?] 4to, 39 leaves. 
'. Anianus. — "Compotui Hanualia Magistri Aniani Uctncua 

cum Commento, et Algorismus." (Argu : 1488.) 4to. 
Olhtr Editions: (Rothon^) [iS^^?] Svo; (Paria: 

I. AHOityHOUB. — " La Coenoissuice de la Bonne et Hauvmise 

Fortune, tirM de la Main." (Rouen: n.o.) 
I. Anonviious.— "Wahrsagekunst aua den Linien der Hand. 

Nach riner alten Zigeuncrbandacbrifl beaibeitd" 



I. Ahonyhous. — "Opus Pulchenimum Chiromanticam Bialtls 
Hdditionibus noviter impresaum." (Venice: 1499.) 410, 

. Anonvhous. — Die Kunst der Chiromantzey oat Besehung 
der Hend ; Phyaioenomey uaz Andbllk des Kenschens,'' 
etc. (Straaburg: 1533.) FoL 

I. AHaNVHous.-^" La Science Curieuse, ou TraiU de la 
Chy romance." ( 1 667. ) 4(0. 

|. Anomvmous.— " La Chiromantie Universelle rfiprtscnl^en 
Plusieurs Centainea de Figures, coDtcnne en tsKxVlii Ta- 
bleaux : avec leur Explicatioo geneimle et partleulibx, et 
une Instruction eXKCte de la Hcthode pour s'en pouvoir 
servir." (Paris: 168*,) 410. 


14. Anonymous. — "Wegweiser, Gatiz neuer und accu rater, 
Chironumtiacher/' (Hannover: 1707.) 8vo. 

15. Anonymous — "Die Chiromantie, nach Astronomiachen 

Lehrsitzen Lehitnide, nebst der Geomantie,'* etc. 
(Frankfort: 1742.) 8vo. 

16. Anonymous. — ** Die Chiromantie der Alten, oder die Kunst 

aus den Liniamenten der Hand wahrzusagen/* etc. 
(Coloe:ne: 1752.) 8va 

17. Anonymous. — *' Schauplatz, NeuerOfiheter, geheimcr 
philosophischer Wissenschaften : Chiromantia, Metopo- 
scopia," etc. (Regensburg: 1770.) 8vo. y 

18. Anonymous. — "The Hand Phrenologically Considered: X 

being a Glimpse at the Relation of the Mind with the 
Organisation of the Body." (London: 1848.) 8vo. 

19. Anonymous. — "Les Petits Myst^res dc la Destine. La 
Chiromancie, ou la Science de la Main ; la Physiognomie, 
ou la Science du Corps de rHomme/' etc. (Paris : 1 861.) 

2a Anonymous. — ** Dick's Mysteries of the Hand ; or, 

Palmistry Made Easy, etc., etc., based upon the Works / 
of Desbarrolles, D'Arpentigny, and Para d'Hermes." '^ 
Translated, etc, by A. G. and N. G. (New York : 1884.) 
l2mo. Vidt Nos. 24 and 54. 

2t. Antiochus Tibertus. — "Ad Illustrem Principcm Octavi- 
anum Ubaldinum Merchatelli Comitem a Tyberti 
Epistola.** (Bononie: 1494.) 

22. Antiochus Tibertus.— "Antiochi Tiberti de CheiromantiA 

Libri III. denuo recogniti. Ejus idem argumcnti de Cheiro- 
mantii,** etc. (Moguntie: 1541.) 

23. Aristotle. — "Chyromantia Aristotelis cum Figuris.** 

(Ulme: 149a) 22 leaves. 

24. Arpentigny, Caaimir Stanislas d\ — " La Chirognomonic ; 
oa TArt de reconnaltrc les Tcndenccs de rintelligencc 
d'aprte les Formes dc la Main.** (Paris : 1845.) 8vo. 

25. Arpentigny, C. 5. d\ — " Die Chirognomie, oder Anldtung 
die Richtungen des Geistes aus den Formen der Hand zu 
erkennen.'* Bearbcitet von Schraishuon. (Stuttgart: 
1846.) 8va 

26. Artentigny, C. S. </*.—" U Science de la Main, ou TArt," 

etc (Paris : 1865.) Third Edition, 8vo. 

27. Baughan, R.— "The Handbook of Palmistry." (London : 
N.D.) 8Ya 

A Bauoman, J?. — ** Chirognomancy ; or. Indications of Tem- 
perament and Aptitudes manifested by the Form and 



41. CocLESy B, — *'£in Kurtzer Bericht der gantzen Phisio- 
nomey unnd (sic) Ciromancy gezogen aus . . . B. 
Cocliti von Bononia,"* etc. [(Strasburg :) 1537.] 8vo. 

42. CocLXS, B. — " Enseignemens de Physionomie et Chiro- 
mancie," etc (Paris: 1638.) 8vo. 

43. CocLES, B. — " La PhysiognomieNaturelle et la Chiromance 
de B. Codes." (Rouen : 1698.) i2mo. 

44. CoRVUS, Andrtas.^ — " Excellentissimi et Singularis Viri in 
Cbiromantia exercitatissimi Magistri Andrea Corvi Miran- 
dulensis."* (Venice: 150a) 8vo. 

45. CoRVus, A, — " L'Art de Chyromancc de Maistrc Andrieu 
Conim .... Translatce de Latin en Francis par 
Jehan de Verdcllay.** (Paris: 1 5 10.) 8vo. 

Reprinted sub tit. ''Les Indiscretions de la Main." 
(Paris: 1878.) 

46. CoRvus, A, — "Excellentissimi A. Corvi Mirandulensis 

opus . . . de Chiromantiae Facultate Destinatum.** 
(Venice: 1513.) 8vo. 

47. CoRvus, A, — "Opera Nova dc Maestro A. Corvo da 

Carpi, habitata a la Mirandola, trattata de la Chiromantiae/* 
etc. (Marzania : 1519.) 8vo. 

48. CoRVUs, A. — ** Excellcnte Chiromancie monstrant par les 

Lignes de la Main les Mceurs et Complexions des Gens.** 
(Lyon : 161 1.) i2mo. 

49. Craig, A, R. — "The Book of the Hand ; or, the Science 

of Modem Palmistry, chiefly according t« the S>*stems of y 
D*Arpentigny and Desbarrollcs.** (London : 1867.; 8vo. 
Vide Nos. 24 and 54. 

50. Craig, A, R. — " Your Luck*s in your Hand ; or, the 
Science of Modem Palmistry." (London and New York : 
N.D. [1884]) Third Edition, 8va 

51. Cringle, Tow [pseudonym of William Walker]. — "The 

Hand and Physiognomy of the Human Form. (Mel- 
bourne: 1868.) 8vo. 

52. CuREAU DE LA Chambre, M. — " Discours sur les Principes 

de la Chiromancie." (Paris: 1653.) 8vo. 

53. CuRFj^u DE LA Chambre, Martin, — "A Discourse on the 

Principles of Chiromancy." Englished by a Person of / 
Quality. (London : 1658.) 8vo. 

54., Adrien. — "Chiromancie Nouvelle. Les 

* Some doubt exists whether or no " Andreas Corvus ** 
was a pseudonym of Bartbolomjeus Codca. 



69. Ha&tubb, Jakann, — ''Die Kunst CironuuiUa, 1448." 

(Augsbourg: 1745.) FoL 
7a HASiuSy Joami€9, — '* Prelatio Laudatoria in Artem Chiro- 

mantkam : in laudem Joannis Hasii Mcmmingensis artis 

Jurium et Mcdionanim Doctoris, Chyromantie Principis/' 

(15191) Sm. 4to, pp. 6a 
71. HxBRA, H, — " Untersucbung Qber den NageL" (Vienna: 

i88a) 8va 
71. Huion-Allen, Edward.--** Codtx Chiromantiae."— CX/i/ 

Volmmis Opusculum, JVo. VIL (London : 1883.) lamo. 

73. HcRON-AujENf Edward. — " A Manual of Cheirosopby : 

being a Complete Practical Handbook to the Twin 
Sciences of Cheirognoniy and Cheiromancy,'* etc (London : 
18SS5.) Sq. 8vo. 

74. Hkron-Alxxn, Edward. — "The Science of the Hand ; or, 
the Art of Recognising the Tendencies of the Human Mind 
by the Observation of the Formations of the Hand.'* Trans- 
lated from the French of . . . D'Arpentigny. With 
an Introduction, Appendices, and a Commentary on the 
Text. (London : 1886.) Sq. 8va 

75. HomiG, JohoHM Abraham Adolph» — ** Chiromantia Har- 
monica, das ist Ubereinstiromung der Chiromantia,** etc. 
(Jena: 1681.) 8va 

76. Hoping^ /. A* J. — " Institutiones Chiromanticc** Mit 
Fleiss verfertiget durch J. A J. Hoping. 2 vols., lamo. 

77. Humphrey, Gtorgt M,— **On the Human Foot and Human 
Hand.'* (Cambridge: 1861.) 8va 

78. Indagins, Jtmmmt ak. — 'Mntroductiones Apotclesmatic« 
Elegantes in Chyromantiam, Physiognomiam, Astrologiam 
Naturalem, Complexiones Hominum, Nataras Planctarum," 
etc, etc. [(Strasburg :) 1522.] Fol. (in two paru). 

Other Editkms: (Frankfort: [1522]) i2mo; (Argento- 
raU: 1531 and 1541) fol.; (Paris: 1543 and 1547) 8\*o; 
(UraeUis : 1603) 8vo; (Augusu Trebocorum : 1663) 

79. Imoagimi, J. — " Die Kunst der Chiromantscy uss Beschung 
der Hend, Physiognomey uai AnbUck des Menschcns," 
etc (Strasburg: 1523.) FoL 

8a Idagini, J. — ''Chiromantia, Ph^'siognomia, Periaxiomata 
de Fadebus Signonmi,** etc. (Argentorati : 1534.) FoL 

81. IwDAGiMC, J. — " Fcltbuch der Wund Artxncy sumpt vilen 
Instnimenten der Chirurgcn uss dem Abucasi contrala>t 
Chiroaiantia J. Indagine, * etc (Strasburg : 1S40>) FoL 

8a. iMnAMMS, /.—"QunMBcsioe et Phyaiofooiiiie par le regard 


95. Philosophi [Br^] ** Ex Divina Philoaophonim Academia 
nature vires ad extra Chyromantico Diligentissime Col> 
lectum." \End] **Ex Divina Philosophonim Academia 
Collecta Chyromantica scientia naturalis ad Dei laudem 
finit** [** Per Magistrum Erhardum Ratodolt de Augusta 
Vcnetiis.'*] [1480?] 410, 25 lea vesy without title, pagina- 
tion , or catchwords. 

Otfur Editions: [1484] 26 leaves; [1490?] 32 leaves; 
[Venice : 1493] ^ leaves ; [Oppenbeim : 1499] 32 leaves. 

96. TnmsUUioH: "Incomentia I'Arte Divina de la Chyro- 
mantia recolta da la Schola de Philosophi.'* (Venice : 
[1480?]) 28 leaves. 

97. Phinella or Fimeula, PhiUfipo. — ** De Quatuor Signis quae 
apparent in Unguibus Manuum." Auctore P. P. (Naples: 
1649.) i2mo. 

98. PoMPEius, Niiolaus,^ ** Fi^rm Chiromantice ad systema 
Nicolai Pompeii" (Hamburg : 1682.) 8\'o. 

99. PoMPEius, ^.— "Precepta Chiromantica . . . praelec- 
ta olim ab ipso jam vero recognita.** (Hamburg : 1682.) 

100. Prjetorius, Johann, — " Cheiroscopia et Metoposcopia.'* 
(Jena: 1659.) 4ta 

101. pRjrroRius, y. ** Ludicrum Chiromanticum Pretorii, seu 
Thesaurus Chiromantise,'* etc. (Jena: 1 66 1.) Sm. 4to, 

PP- 340. 

102. pRjrroRius, J. — "Philologcmata Abstrusa de Pollice; 

in quibus Singularia Animadversa vom Diebes-Daume, ct 
Manu,*" etc. (Leipzig : 1677.) 4ta 

103. PRJiTORius,y. -"Collegium Curiosum . . . odcr ein 
sehr NOtzliches Werck darinnen curieus . . . abge> 
handelt wird, was zur Physiognomie, Chiroroantie, etc., 
gehOret** (Frankfort a/m : 1704.) 8va 

104. Rkqueno, VtMctHMo, — "Scoperta della Chironomia, dell' 
Arte di Gestire con le mani." (Parma : I797.) 8va 

105. RoNPifiLE [psnulomym of Rampalle].~''La Chyromantic 
Naturclle de Ronphile." (Lyon : 1653) 8vo ; (Paris : 1671) 

106. RoNPHiLE. " Die in der Natur best-gcgrtkndete. . . . 
Chyromantie odcr Hand-Wahrsagung.** (NOmberg: 
1695.) 8vo. 

107. RoTHMANN, Joannts, •* Chiromantiae Theorica Practica. 
Concordantia Grncthliaca Vestustis Noviute addiU.** 
Autore Joanne Rotbmanno Med. et Philos. (Erphordiie : 
1595.) Sm. 4to. 



loS. RoTiiHAilN,y. — Ktipvurria, or the Art of Divining by the 
Lines and Slgnalures engnven in the Hand of Han by 
the Hand of Nature," etc. Written oriEinally in Latine 
by lo. Rothmanne, Dlv. Phiaiqiie, and now faithfully eng- 
lithed by Geo. Wharton, Esq. (London i 1653.) 8vo. 

. 109. Sanders, Richard. — " Phy^ognomie and Chiromancie, 

Hetoposcopic, Etc., handled) with their natural predictive 

lij^ificBllonB,* etc. (London ; 1653.) Fol. 

no. SAHDeas, A,—" Palmistry, the Secrets thereof diacloaed. 

~' ... With aome choice Observatiana of PhyMi«noniy 

and the Moles of the Body," etc, (London; 1664.) i2nio. 

111. ScHALiTZ, Chrialian. — "Die von Aberglauben, VanitStcn 
und Teuscherel gereinigte Chiromantia und Phyaic^no- 
mia." (Leipiic : 1703.) 2nd edition. (Franchfort : 1729.) 

112. ScHEELEH, Kari von. — "Abimelech, der wunderbahrc 
Prophet, Oder die Chiromantie und Physiogmonik ivomil 
man ^ch und andercn bus den Liniramentcn wahrzusa^tix 
im Standc isl." (Rculltr : N.c.) 

113. ScHOTT, Gas/of,— " Th Hum a lurg US PhysicuB, sivo Magia; 
Universalis Nature ct Attis Pars IV. «l ultima.- 
(Herbipoli: 1659.) 4to. 

1 14. SoHN, Fr.—" Kunst aus dor Handhohlc, den Fingcrn unit 
den Nflgein wahriusagcn, odor die Chiromanlic dor Altc.i." 
(Berlin : 1856.) Second edition. 

115. SpAOONi, N. — "Studio di Curiosila, nel quale I ml ta die 
Fisionomia, Chiromanlia, e Mctoposcopia. ' (Vciiicci 
1 67 5.) l6n]o. 

116. Spadoni, JV.— ■■ Stiidium Curiosiim, darinncn von der 
Physio{;naiiiia. Chiromanlia, und Mctoposcopia . . . 
gehandelt wird." Vide No. 1 15. 

117. T ,/. G. a— " Hochslfilrtrellichslcs Chiromantisch- 

und-Phyaognomisches Klee-Blat, beslchcnd aus drcv 
herrlichen Tracuten," etc. (Nflrnberg : 1695.) 8vo. 

118. Taisnier, /«iHi»s.— " Opus Mathcmaticum Octo Libras 
compleclens innumeris propemodum figiiris idealibus 
manuutn et physiognomice abisque adoratum quorum sex 
priores libri absolutiasimte Cheironiantiee Theoricam 
Ptaxim, Doctrinam, Arlcm, ct eipcrienliam verissimam 
continent, etc., etc. Aulhore Joanne Taisnierio Hannoriio 
Mathematico expert! ssi mo." (Colonial Ag ripping : 1561.) 

119. TKtCASSO, y.— "Tricasso da Cesari, Mant. ; Epiloma 


chirooumtico mllo illustre e magnifico SigDor Conte Joan 
BaptiaU di aflaiuti Cremoneae,** etc. (n.d.) l3mo. 
13a TucAsao^ /. — " Chyromantia de Tricaaao da Cesari 
Mantuano al Magnifico et Veneto Patritio Dominico di 
Aloiaio Georgio novamente revista e con somma diligentia 
corretu e stampata." (1534.) Sm. 8va 

131. Tmcasso, /.— "Epitoma Chyromantico di Patritio 
Tricaaao da CcraiMui Mantovana** (Venice: 1538.) 8va 

132. TucAaao^ /. — '' Tricasai Cerasariensis Mantuani enarratio 
pulclierrima principiorum Chyromanti« ex qua fadllime 
patere poaaunt omnet significationes quonimcunq : signo- 
nim Chyromantkorum. Ejuadem Tricassi Ifantuani opus 
Chyromanticum absolutissimum nunc primum in lucem 
editum. Item Chyromantie inccrti autboris Opera Bal- 
duini Ronflei Gandavenais in lucem edita cum ejuadem in 
Cbyromanticen brevi'Iaagoge." (Noriberge: 1560) 1 2mo, 
am. 4to, not paged, pp. 312, ng, M. M. ii. 

133. TucAaao^ /. — ''La Chiromence de Patrice Tricasae des 
Cereaartf Mantouan de la derniere reveue et correction de 
TAutbeur et nagueres fidelement traduicte de lltalien en 
langage Francaiab** (Paria, 1553 and 1561.) i3mo. 

VuU Noa. 36, 37. 
VERDKLLAY,ycAaM «U {^ttdtmym of Andrttu Corvus]. 

134. Warrxn, CAitM^.— ''Tbe Life-size OuUines of the Hands 
of Twenty-two Celebrated Persons.** (London : 1882.) 

135. Wharton, Stir Gwrgt, — ''Tbc Works of tbat most / 
excellent Philosopher . . . including a translation of / 
Rotbmann*8 ' Chiromancy/ ** etc (London: 1683.) 8vo. 

Vuig Na 108. 


)pDUr ronirastr. la main mupfr 
19c 1L<ifin>iirf rjMJSsiii. 
Sans ttr« taunt rs vuissanlt tr cm ftt 
pOMil aupr». EUr un rouHin. 

MliiDiifte ii tQuti paniir, 
UTamme la oiaiii n'un tftaTaon, 
SFUt allonge ars troigts Or fauiir 
CciiVn 9aT la ttntatun, 

K«vi In bitra >brc Unn griSn 
Onl. Baiif IM flit Iri cettr ym. 
Start B'affcm (trnglsii^n. 
ft« foBTtnmnit ipir It tsntTMV. 

0« ntnf toBf* «alU tt ttrott. 
^ fotnt a p»r I'sbirrtetcir 
J( IK tai* tttflU grdct attocf.— 
ft< grltt lr« flatiatrvt. 

CciaifiirlEc utotociatu I 
Vbt U barlof t on It lurtcau 
^ yftipe b'mI pat mlnnu. 
e«t «■!■ mil (It M roattan ! 

TKeOPHIU Gadtibk. 


Tks foOoviof IimIck, iifciiing at the nmt time to the text and to the notes of thk mlumt, 

, hat neocaarily beoMae oonpUcatod in character, amd requires a foreword of eKpUnation. 
AH muabets preceded hf ^ rder to the paragraphs numbered in the margins ; all numbers 

not so preceded refer to pages, and all smaU numbers refer to notes. Tnus :— 
Co wp o siti o o of the Hand, ^ 60 ■" that the matter is to be found at paragraph No. 60. 
Cos—tiwry of Hands, i<3 a that this subject is treated 00 page 153. 
CoMumprion in the HjumI, 49" ss that this is discussed in note 53, page 49. 
Oftsai, hoerever, these references are combined thus : — 
I>i«sa fuhaoB in 307*** ^ 474 ; or again :— Fatalism, Y 601*, so6**', which refers to Avv 

•06, note S4s, ana/«nBfnB/il 601*. 
Fff—rii I., ^^ 469, 473, 486, rders to those three paragrujbs ; but when only mw % precedes 

the figures, any ngures after the first refer to pages. Thus :— 
V ariat ion of Hands, iTSd, 93***, refers Xopmragn^ 86 and pmgt 93, note 103. 
So also:— Sand, Georges, \ 983, 138'**, ^ 676, refers to/an%fnyA« st3 and 676 : and pmgt 

158, note fTs. 

Albe, Dnc d', \ 513. 
Abd-cl-Kjuier's Umner, ^ 265. 

Abelard, \\yi\, 454- 

Abemethx, Dr., and phrenology, 89 **. 

Abrainian cnstomi, \ 462. 

Acfamet Fcvxi, Jo8*« V 

Acquirement of the science, ^ 59. 

Aimculture, Love of, \ 21 j. 

Aloemis Magnos on cheiromancy, 
170 ••. 

Alcmene, ^ 163. 

Alexander and cheiromancy, 17a'". 

Alexander the Great and Qcsar com- 
pared, 1 151. 

All religions are good, ^ 581. 

America. Immigration, ^ 349. 

American (North) hands, 2&. 

American savage art, % 439. 

Ampatatioo of the hand, 131 

1 257- 
Analysis and synthesis, % 572. 

Anatomy of the hand, ^ 55. 

Anaaagoras, 94, 139 •«. 

Animals, association with, ^ 609. 

Anne. Qticen, 1[ 15. 

Anthropomorphism, ^ 582. 

Antilles, Colonists of the. ^341. 

Anttoch, The dragon of, ^ 14. 


Antiochus Tibertus, on cheiromancy, 

AnviUe, J. a B. d\ ^ 227. 
Apollo as a cowherd, i[s8a 
Appollonius of Tjrana, 1 26. 
Application of cheirognomy, f 175. 
Appreciation of talent in youth, 1 248. 
Arab exdusiveness, ^ 601. 
Arab horses, 159 ***. 
Arab posture of respect^ 179 **. 
Arago, D.,^427. 
Ar^ments, biassed, ^^ 45, 46. 
Anosto, 116 "•. 
Aristotle, %^ I, 21. 
Aristotle, Anaxagoras, and Gmlen, 94. 
Aristotle, his reg^olarky, f 125. 
Aristotle, on cheiromancTt 169 *". 
Aristotle, on a long hand, loi 
Aristotle's treatise 


Ti 235- 
d'Arpentigny, Biographical details, 13- 


d*Arpentigny's hand, ^17. 
d'Arpentigny, his discovery 

science, v!l 7t 8, IS- 
Art in sixteenth centuryt ? 467. 
Art of square hands, ^ $12. 
, Artaxerxes Longimanns, ^ 14a 

of the 

Arleriea of the hand, 1) 71. 

Ailicular bone, K 6z. 

Articulation proportioned to i nielli- 

eence. 1 99- 
Artists ivriur a.rtiiBiis, % 356. 
Artistic energy, 1[ 163. 
Artistic hands, %% 104, 5, aio. 
Ailislic hands. Varieties of, 3S7. 
Artistic and material order, ^ 52S. 
.Artistic type, iilustralion, *!, 169. 
Artistico-elemenlary hand, 390. 
Asiatic hands, IFsBS- 
Asiatic women, %Ci6a. 
Atbeism, indiscfimuuite use of the 

Athenian laws, 1 363. 
Athenian lo»c of oratory, 333 ™. 
Athenian foulhs. Education of, 188 ™. 
Altila, King of the Huns, 113 "'. 
Aure, Vicomte, 1 164. 
Averroes. on cheiromancy, 170 '". 
Avicenna. on cheiromancy, 170 '". 
Babylon denied by Voltaire, 4[ 456. 
Bacon, R., % ix. 
Baliac. Honors, 1% 371, 281. 
Barlary, Ignorance in, 1[ 315. 
Bas-de-Cuir, 1 338. 
Baville, t 513. 
Beaumarcbais, % 59a. 
Bedouins, The, 1 345. 
Bedouin characteristics, ^ 600. 
Belgian character, % 438. 
Bell, Sir Chai. •![ z. 
Klot, J,, on cheiromancy, 171 "*. 
Belshazzar, If ix. 
Bible cheirosophy, W\ 150. 
Bit^rnpl^ is a branch of natural his- 
tory, if 12. 
Biting (he hand or thumb, ^ 16. 
Blessing with the hand, ^ 13. 
Blow for blow, "[154, 
Body formed by the mind, 1 50. 
Brebme. }., *\ 404. 
Bccotian genii, ^ 429, 37S ". 
Bon Gaulticr, J 17. 
Bone, Composition of, ■[ 5l. 
Bone^ of the hojid, 1j 63. 
Books on the science, U 41. 
Bossuet, U SII. 
Bradamante, % 605. 
Breton diaracierislics, ^Ij 364, 63S. 
. BnioD bands, % 294. 

Breton hand owners, iy 371. 

Breton obstinacy, •[ joa. 

Buddhism. 149 '•=. 213 ■*, 231 *". 

Bolwer Lylton, 1 397. 

Burton, R. F., on genii, 370 *", 

liyron, Lord, 1" 3^, 

Byron, Lord, small hands, % 10, 

Caen, University of, If 287. 

Ciesar's love of mechanics, ^ 4*7. 

Casarism, ^ 445. 

Calltisity in hands, ^ 330. 

Calummalors of great men. ^ 371. 

CaluiDpJes of conqueror s. ^ 327, 

'■ CflBUi-A " [Voltaire], ITt 38. 39- 

Cordmal sins. Ihdr indications, 9. 

Caroline Islands (women], If 657. 

Carpus, The, "f 69. 

Cnrpocras [of Alexandria], ^ 461. 

Catherine de Meiticis, ^ 674. 

Catholicism, 345- 

Cerliinty of the science, % 159. 

Cervantes* injured hand, * 6. 

Chaos o( knowledge, "f 36. 

Characteristic hands, If 270. 

Characteristics of mixei) bands, ^ 6u. 

Characterisliis of philosophic lype^ 

Cbaracteristics of pointed type, ^ 581. 

Characteristics of square hands, ^ 457. 

Charlemagne's doctrine, % 437. 

Charles V. of Germany and I. of Spain. 

Charles X,, Guards of, ^ 533. 

Cheiromancy, If 24, 70 ", 169. 

Cheirosophy and Physic^nomy cm- 
pared, \ 169. 

Cheiroslemon, The, 1 25. 

Chevalier 00 America, ^ 409. 

Chimneys, Invention of, ^ 430. 

China, Classes in, ^ 418. 

Chinese hands, 1 314, 341. 

Cbinrae honouis, ^ 518. 

Chinese laws, Antiquity of, "f 362, 

Chinese philosophy, "flf 229-33. 

Chinese women, 1; 664. 

Chirolc^a, % 9. 

Chopin, If 431. 

Chrislianily, Effects on Rome, • 423. 

Christianity and Islam, "f 333. 

'"" Murder of. * 9. 

Civil s( 



Claasificadon of hands, % 88. 
Ckrormcn, f 573. 
Oennont-Toimerre, Cardinal, % 573. 
Qock-making invented, % 374. 
Clorinde, ^66$. 
Close-fitting fingers, % 239. 
Cobenxl family, The, 280 ***. 
Cocker, Acooniing to, ^23. 
Colbert, Administration of, % 377. 
OJonists, ^ 41a 

Colonists of the spatulate type, ^ 348. 
Cdoasal monuments of small hands, 

Couiedists, ^ 407. 

Concdy, German and French, % 406. 
Commincs, P. de, % 509. 
Communism, Ideal, 1 365. 
Composition of the hand, ^ 60. 
Coofudus, % 32, 162 "•, 320 "•. 
Coofiicius, his manners, ^ 534, etc. 
Confucius, Maxims of, ^ 544, etc. 
Conic fingers, if 131. 
Conic-handed women, % 673. 
Conic military hands, % 447. 
Conic and pointed hands, i| 154. 
Connection of mind and bcxly, ^51. 
Conscription, Unnaturalness of, *, 289. 
Conservatism in the country, % 509. 
Consistency of hands, 1 53. 
Constantinople, 207 '**. 
Consumption in the hand, 49 ". 
Contradictions in the science, ^,% 43, 

Comeille, % 429. 

Corsican obstinacy, ^, 2Q2. 

Coisack hands, ^ 347. 

Costumes in sixteenth century, *[ 472. 

Country life. Love of, ^ 394. 

Co|prseyox the sculptor, •[512. 

Cntidsm, ^ 145. 

Croesus, 87 •». 

Cross, Sign of the, •; 13. 

Customs and superstitions, ^ I . 

Cutis vera, •j'^ 76, 77. 

Cutting off the hand, f 257. 

Cutting the nails, ^ 20. 

Daxlalus, *^ 427. 

Damascus, Siege of, ^ 583. 

Dante Alighieri. 296 *^. 

Danton the magnanimous, *[ 198. 

Daisaod, J. M., 19 *. 

DarK-skinned races, 83 ". 

: Death-rate in France, 372 •'. 

Defects of artistic type, % 440. 

Defects of square type, ^ 507. 

De Flotte, 371 *". 

Delphi, Temple at, 87 •*. 
' Democritus, love of knowledge, % 27. 

DesbaroUes, on d'Arpentigny, 385 *", 

Descartes, R^nc, 1[ 401. 

Details of domestic life, ^ 4^9. 
I Development of the hand, ^j 58, 63-67. 

Diana, goddess of chastity, ^ 339. 

Diderot, D., •[ 427. 

Differences from a common base, % 209. 

Differentiation of hands, *[ 59. 

Diogenes and Christ contrasted, *[ 254. 
! Dioscuri, Group of, % 487. 
' Discovery of true nature, ^f 53. 
' Disease in the hand. 49 **, ^ 24. 

Divination, Universal love of, Ij 27. 

Divine veracity of nature, % 4a 

Division of fingers, •! 103. 

Dnieper, Villagers of the, ^212. 

Dogs in Constantinople, 207 ***. 

Dominant classes. Principles of, ^ 374. 

Dominic, St., ^513' 

I>on Quijotc, %^S, 10, 14. 

l>ore, Gustave, his enthusiasm, 108 *". 

*• Dragonnades,'* 247 •*. 

Drama of philosophers, ^ 566. 

Dress, Fasnion in, 307 •", •" 474. 

Druidical philosophy, ^ 584. 

Duelling, K^ulations of, *| 8. 

Dumas, A., *; 451. 

Dupin Atne, •" 354. 

Diirer, A., ^ 195. 

Dutch hands, •'^351. 

Karly recognition of genius, f 249. 

East and West contrasted, f 587. 

Ecclesiastical hands, f 215. 

Eddas, 5 389. 

Education of Greek youths, ^ 273. 

Education of wumen, f 677. 

Effeminate soldiers, f 521. 

Egoism of mixed hands, ^ 632. 

Egotism of types. ^ 373. 
! Elgyptian coloi»si, ^ 279. 

Eighteenth centur)*, ^ 504. 

Elementary handis 199. 

Elementary hand scarce among women, 

' ^6S4. 
Elementary type. lUust n akm, ^ I' 

43^ i>'i 

ElemcDtaiy lype, IncanutionB of, 

Elizabelh, Queen, ^ to. 
" Ebiirt" LamBrtine's, iti origin, l8 '. 
Embryonic hand, f 58. 
EmigretioD fiom France, ^ 349. 
Emigration from Spain. 5 349- 
Emmxus and Ulysses, ^ 395. 
Energetic (ype. lUiistralioB, 5 170. 
EngiiiecTs, Y '^i- 
English anny, IT 443. 

Entertaiaeis' hands, ija. 
Enlhusiosm of smooth (ineers, ^ 114. 
Environment, Effect of, S SV>- 
Environment, Foimalion by, ^^49, %^. 
Environmeni, Nece»ily of proper, 

Epidennis, 1 76. 
Epilepsy and ihe thumb, ^ 1S5. 
Epiphysis, ff 65, 66. 
Erasmus on monks, S 215. 
Esoteric Buddhism, 301 ™. 
Etruscans and their slaves. ^ 45a. 
European wars. *{ 615. 
Excess of formatiuns, 110'". 
Excessive palm, 5 ^. 
Exclusivcnc^i of race, \ 359. 
Experiment, Necessity of personal, ^ 42. 
Explanation. Al)sencc of. H 34. 
Exposure of Greek infants, 188 ™. 
Expressions conccniing llie hanil, ^ 12. 
ExprcEisions concerning the Ihumb. 

"43 '"■ 
Extremities, Nature indicated by, ^ 49. 
Kyes of tlie hand. The lips, 11 155. 
Fabre de Olivet on woman, ^ 64!!l. 

Facts. Tabulation iil 

Failures of ihc science, \ 43. 

False arininienls from curreci ua! 

Farina, J. M., H 225. 
Fasle licy, 1 312. 
Fatalism of Mohammedans, 206 

Female hands, 401. 
Fichle, 1 552. 

Field of the Cloth of Ciold. 1 4»6. 
Filial affection in China. » 531, 
Fine hands and nulilc birth, \ 370. 

Fmgil, I4. 
Fingers, The, 1Q4. 
Fingc-s, The bones of, ^ 66. 
Finger-nail superstititKis, ^ 19. 
Fingers turning beck, f 237. 
Finger tips, 'A 106, I js. 
Finger tips, Touch in, *| aio. 
First impressions, 1 54. 
Flat Gneen, ^ 242. 
Flute puiyer, Aatomalon, 109 "*. 
Flemish bands, ^ 377. 
"Fliuvedt Tendn" ^ 512. 
Fonlanier, on the East, 4 319. 
Force, Thumb emblem <h, ^ 1 7S. 
France under the Empire, <| 379. 
Franchise, Electoral, ^^ s86, ^ 
Francis I., ^tnm of art, ^ 376. 
Francis I., « 469. 473. 4». 
Francis II., of Austria, f 140. 
Frederick 1., of Prussia, ^ 14O1 
"ought. % 69. 
army, 1 441. 

thought, ' 

French and English characters, ', 491. 
Frencli and English providence, ^4IJ. 
French hands, % 117. 
French literature, Modern. ^ 148. 
French perfection, ^ 493. 
French royal arms, H 260. 
Frendi society, ninth 10 twelfth cen- 
turies, ^ 3(36. 
French aiul Spanish civilisation.^ 59J. 
French women's hands, «j 645. 
Frtre Jean. ^ 348. 

rre dc h 


Full develo[>menl of the hand, ^ 5S. 

Fulton, 1 427. 

Fusion of types, 1 151. 

Cl.nldesilen, John of, 49 ". 

Ci.ilen on cheiromancy, 169'", 55 '. S- 

Gallant, Abb^, ^ 271. 

Gail, F.J., 88". 

Gardens of elementary typi-, J 315. 

Gaul, Elementary hands m, 5 3ll- 

Genesis, Book of, 40a '", 

Genii, 1i S88. 

Getlierl, f 374. 

German army, 5 442- 

German character, 5 405. 

(.ierman language, ^ 590. 

Gesticulation in speech, 5\ 246, 395. 

(.iirondms. The, S 484. 

lATTON, ^1 84, 83. 

uul th* ifcua)), ^ 190, 
rntton i>C. ^ 4J0. 
rril. NccOBllir of, 5 44- 

of kuigdam^ ^ 401. 
Valentine, ^ 1^ 
MMid mniic^449. 

urn, 181 ■■. 
Jin, l>«criiM> nt Iht, ^ Ud. 
I of lar|;(> hanils. ^ *7J' 
^pl« manncn of Ihc, 5 tji. 

A 5 1I& 


I of MWitiUlc iy[>c> 1 
rwUtkx. of. in 8. »■. 

5 *37 

n French Koytl Aimi. 

i">. 1 4SS- 

Atartu*. IJJ'". 

npoDT, n 114. 

jU, 1 .s«- 


Horse iniincr^ ^1 163. I64. 
Horticullurc, Love uT, 5 1I7> 
HoiteDtDis (LevttilUtnl], ^ 115. 
Huns, The, 1 310. 

Idi uay ncr a aies of ln>ea> 1 ja4> 

Idioti withoul thumln, ^ i8j. 

Idlence, Respect fm, 1*1 4*°> S9i' 

Igniitance of wlf, 5^ >7'- 4>7- 

Ignonnt profcsaon of tlic art. 5 39- 

Imoiulabte formi. 89, 156, ajl. 

Iinpressiopbl ultsu, 5 437. 

India and Ntirway conttultil. ^ $98. 

Imllsii niHlir lain, 5 299. 

liKliaii cliFirowiihjr, i 164. 

IikIIsi. .■oi.wii-ali.ii.. 5 360. 

Indian laws. 5 ^S- 

Induitiv and in effecU, 5 617. 

Infallibdity of the ««»« of twudi. «3*. 

InfariEs- ihumU. ^ 184. 

Iiiollnctivv kiKiwIcdt;* ^ <■■■''* "ym 

IKiweii. 5 >^ 
Inlmtinlialc miiMb. ^ 61S. 
tnlcT-racial wan, 1 6(4. 
In>ettif,-aiii>n. Valnr of, ^ 37. 
loni.. ni■nI.lein.183- 
^I.h,On^;>l.,.fthe,l MS. 

iLllilllj fhJIKlCt, 1 4*5. 

f.N...« [.aim, 1 3. 31 '•. 
liri»i«m-.(lla«>nj. 113"*. 

iack-or-AlI'lmJo, ^ bMX 
jct|uaid. J.. tU9 "'. 
■nin, Jule*. hia Wtt«i lu O'Aqioiliipij, 

Icwiih handi. 55 >l*'3- 

Juh.i-«, I>r.. ^ IS- 

Jomte(l-linj;«nd women. 5 t>5l' 

JoiiitH uf Ihi fingen, 51 loS- loS^ 

foinvitir, 5 583. 

Jniiot, A.. 5 449- 

KahWa. jpl *■- 

K»lgrl«. The, 5 ny 

KalKt Htn. 5 Oia. 

Kalniuli |uit)'et whceti, 5 3*. 

K.M,J.5 5S., 

K«ts 49 * 

Kinciir nainn', 5 14a 

Ktnc'i e*il, Tuaduag lut, 5 ■ 

Knouy Cingen, flji- 

Know Ihyself, Jf 82-3. 548, 643. 

Labourer of diFrerent oalions, ^41 

language, Innovations in, ^ 591. 
Language of square type, ^ 508. 
Lape, Hands of the, 5^ 397. 
ttitff hanclb. Greek love a(, ^ 175. 
Lai^c hands and miniitia:, f 140. 
Large palm. ^ 9;. 
Large thuralK, % 197. 
L^e-lhumbed women, 11 65*, 668. 
L» Rovere, 1 S74- 
'Latilude. influence on hand.i, 1 342. 
jBtitude and religion, 1 .183, 
:*v«ier. I, C, 11.90"- 
.A Vendee, Hftiids in, 1 294. 
> Vend^ supcTsli lions, U Z03. 
Livoisier Ilie chemisl, 1 sij. 
* DeBnillon of, 1 363. 
, Evolution uf, 1 92. 
of elementary type, U 314- 
1*ws, Unnatural, lT 184-5. 
Lcconte, Delisle, 1 581. 
Leda. 1 163. 
\jm] oaths, 1 3j8. 
-f-i- "■mi on Ix>rd Byron, 117 '". 

enblematic of superiority, 
5 419- 

eo X., fine hands, 1 10. 36. 

.jOi^rgy of the Turks, 1 310. 
'LiUrti EdiJiaHlfi" The, 1 516, 
" ' and monilily, 1 If 

^^_ttl, AbW,"l 144. i 

ihenitttrc, f 5. 
^^' -cofphilowi 

nlluiCofsi|ulrc I 

Ulerature, Ttstes for. H ■4%^ 
Ljihuaniuis, The, 1 311. 

Long thin finnrs. 
Lord Bjfron's nan , , 
LoES of the handa, 1 6. 

, iV 140, 196- 

Louis XV., 

Louis XVI,. 

Louvois, Adi 

Lore of hard and soA hands, 1 119, 

Lustralis saliva, 1 7. 

Luxury of Sybaris, 1 327. 

Lyric poets, 1 166. 

Lysander at /Ism Potuni, 1 157. 

MacchiavelU, 1 427- 

Mahmoud \\., \ 10, a 

Mahmoud II., his bloody haiul, 18) 

Maibtre, J. de, 51 140. 171, 

Mnn and woman contruiod, 1 646, 

Manu, The laws of, 1 3IS4, 131 

, 166», 


Manij, <jD w< 

Mariana Island 
Massipger, \ 1 

Medium consistency in 
Medium-sized hands, 1 I41. 
Medium -sized palm. 1 96. 
Mimno». 1 93, 96 -. 
Memphis and Thebes, 1 4J}. 
Menmcant friars, ag? *■- 
Mercenary soldiers, 1 445. 
Metacarpus, The, \ 65. 
Methodical art, 1 20;. 
Methodical hands, 1 167. 
Metopuscopy, 1 I4. 
Middle class hands in France, 1 S; 
Military scribes, 1 S'7- 
"Military" and "warlike" zea 

Mind formed by the Ixidy. 1 SO, 
Mirabeau on Pot^ac. 1 15 '*. 
Mistalces in early education, 1 14},. 

I Mobility of the hand, 174 " 1 



vl niimic huiill, 5 »5I. 
..>lili," La, .IIO"". 
oi. hca>li, •( 118. 
. '1 9- 196- 

I Nuimetio, Ilaedi in, ^ 671. 
I fEillpm Tit - - — 


-. Hill 

"f. 1 45S- 
.[*«i."^ 114- 
: DtOLli, S 154- 
ihe thumb, '( tS 

Muide. Compoaition i)f. 5 69, 
Muicki of Ihe hand, ^ 70. 
MuKulu- []«em, 5 ^• 
^''""-'""' "J"*"'"??. 1 33'- 

- :",!,, 1 (4 J, 

■n<:», Km. 3S. <)«■"■ 

' 71- 

\ . ! Ht-roiilc UiuniBlrt" Ji;** 

N ,. :...., . !,i».U, 143.V 
S .^: ^^ :i. Liiik-d ignaniucc, ^ 3& 

Nalitnaliwi, 5 S09. 

NaliaMuluin of Jiwii. ^ tifi. 

Nunre, l''ii«l liw> of, 1 4a 

N imre of iii»B is oflcn hidden, ^ 53, 

'. -ipoliuui h*nd chinni, iSj ■*. 

k>oo, Nokaincit of. ^ 476. 
■ ■ ■ i,iO«S lovntlbiliij of, yit ■*. 

' If nonaiDiiicatlonis ^ 73. 
rvf icnniusliuu, \ 74, 
:iau^it<aiorth«lim>h,51 7>> 7S 
-uignonthelhiiiiib, 1 177, 
-l.rluotrnliBl.n J89- 

, .ibitil) of. 83". 
■ nlicuiD, 1 38. 

'■'!">. 1 5<H'- . 
<f, It t'liucDce, 5 >7>- 
!•■ 11 *35. 6*4 0*7, rtc, 
l-irrton* ninliulcl. 1 635. 

.n hxB-it, 1 no. 

Tnanniu, ^ 63S 
IS ia new guitit, 8 

r, *«. Sb 

bmafUKIiiyrim, ^i 1 . 

Oratory, Msndu in, 1 9. 

OitlMf, Trill by. SOf^. 

Onntniulioni confonnablc 


Oriental oryili of Ihe idcDcc, 1 96. 
Ori|>ln ol civiliullont. ^ 90. 
(Hwili!, lluiil of K.'itifl, 47 **. 
Ouhliian women, 1 MS. 
, Paciniin carDU«cta, 1 77. 
Palm of thehuid, lot. 

firi,, 5 483. 

['mhian honemamJiiii, 1 317. 
(■ucl.^ Sll- 
Twl L. of Kuifla, 1 140. 
I'dhun, 1 397, 
recului niuuli, 1 171. 
r«(linu, ^ 165. 
fcnchii*. 1 tA}. 
fcnhwutu war, ^ 4S>< 
Pfrfedion uf the haud, ^ 1. 
Pefftction (if man, 5 j6. 
Peniwi oiHom.. 178* 
I'cniui boncnunthip, 1 317. 
Perhinal cipencnre ncceuuy, 1 tfo 
I'cnplnrion porta, ^ 7S. 
rcmchio, on chdrMoancy, 171 ". 
P(t« 111* Ureal '> hrwalily, ^ 4*7, 
I'halaii)^ of Uic ibumti, 1 1^ 
, rhili|.|>«ll.,1 soi- 
Ph.l.w.iAcrv 1 S49. «tt. 
l>hiluH.i<bk (Mgm, 5^ 1}^ 555, Mri 

P- 3^. 
Ptulinopliic tempo' 
PhiIoHn)li)r m ok) ■_ 
' fbrcnMocy Mnl f^ 

Pbreaoia^ tad npU^guomj, 
Phpkigaoaj ioJenor M dM 

>$• V 134. !»■ 



Platonism, ^f 463, 422. 

Plautos, ^ 3. 

Poets, ^ 166. 

Pointed fingers, Love of, 267. 

Pointed-handed women, f 675. 

Pointed hands, ^f 136, 579, and p. 362. 

Polar hands, ^ 309. 

PoUgnac, Prince Jules de, ^ 121. 

Polish Jews, ^ 637. 

PoUice truncatus, f 181. 

Politeness and simplicity, f 130. 

"Poltroon," If If 6, 181. 

Pompeii, ^ 458. 

Poor, among, Spatulate hands, If 411. 

Poverty, Feelings about, ^ 403. 

Practical hand, ff 119, 161. 

Practice of cheirognomy, Desbarrolles\ 

Practice is necessary, ^ 42. 

Prayer, Clasping the hands, % 256. 

Prayer wheels and posts, ^ 326. 

Preault the sculptor, % 280. 

Pricking thumb, ^ 4. 

Progressive and un progressive nations, 

Prometheus. % 427. 

Prf)})agation of a type, ^ 358. 

Property franchise, i[ 286. 

r!'>l>ortioii of palm to fingers, ^ 139. 

iV(>lL's»aiuisin, 245. 

Psychic haii'ls. ^^ 136,363. 

Ptolemies. 'i'hc, and cheiromancy, 170"*'. 

Pythagorean philosophy, % 584. 

•• (^ue sais-je?" % 196. 

Quintilian. •[ 9. 

Qur'an, The, ill "', 206 '''^ 

Rabelais, fif 17, 113. 

Rabelais, on monks, % 215. 

Rapp. Cieneral, % 330. 

Reason 7'ersiis instinct, % 179. 

Recognition of types, ^ 93. 

Red hand in the East, 183 -'^ 

Red handed, ^11. 

Redoute. the flower painter, ^ 278. 

Religion of philosophers, ^^ 562, 568. 

Religion of types, 245. 

Religious ceremonies, ^13. 

Renaissance, The, ^ 645. 

Repulsive hands, % 270. 

Revolution, The FiencVv, ^\^\ t>19, <v84- 
Kibera, Murillo, and 'Aubataw, ^ ^:»\^. 
Kicardus, Scriptor \ug\\c\xs, ^ i.\ 

Richelieu, ^ 513'. 

Ridicule of cheiromaiu^, 49 *t ^ j8> 
Robert of Normandy, f 627. 
Robespierre, M., ^^ 5li 
Rochester Castle, 278 "*. 
Roland, Mme., ^ 666. 
Roman hands, 269. 
Romance writers, % 166. 
Rosary, The, 296 "". 
Ros^'-nngered mora, ^ I It 
Runk, Invasion of, f 41 1. 
Russia, Seignorial rights in, ^ 369^ 
Russian ch^cter, ^ 428. 
Russian customs, Jf 13. 
Russian hands, fY^l^i 347* 

St. Bernard, ^^ 375, 454. 
St. John of Malta, Relic of, f 14. 
St. Martin, on women, f 647. 
St. Simon on Louis XIV., % 502. 
Sand, Georges, f 283, 158 '", 1 676. 
Sanskrit, ^ 590. 
Sca'vola, C. M., ^ 6. 
Scandinavian colonies, ^391- 
Scepticism of youth, ^ 39. 
Scholarly hands. ^ 165. 
Science in China, % 530. 
Scolding wife, 144 . 
Scotch hands, If 342. 
Self-deception, % 32. 
Sensory apparatus of the skin, ^ 77. 
Sensualist artists, ^ 438. 
Sentiments of women, % 677. 
Serfdom in Russia, %^ 360, 581. 
Sesamoid bones, ^ 67. 
Seventeenth century, ^^ 500, 508. 
* * Sganarelle, " % 225. 
Shakespeare, % 3. 
Shakespeare's thumbs, ^196. 
*' Shoo-King," The, J 664. 
Short, thick fingers, i 24a 


Sire de Brantome, ^512. 

Siva worship, ^ 605. 

Sixteenth century, 303. 

Skeleton of the hand, % 63. 

Skin, The, % 76. 

Slavery. ^ 581. 

Small hand, ^1| 10, 147, 275. 

Small- handed women, % 672. 

Vntcv^J^ ^wwJos^ %^ 193*4* 



h finjjers, ^^ i lo, 243. 
qualities under lAmis XIV.. 

sm (Xenophon), ^ 423. 

^m in North America, ^631. 

sm of PhiloNophers. ^ 84. 

es and ChriAt. ^ 43a. 

w at Delphi, 87 ^ 

' hard handi, IS3- 

rly attributes of to-day, ^ 274. 

rs of different tyj^s, ^ 519, etc. 

U The, ^^ 300-3. 

;rn and northern characterN, 

Sea Islands, Sava(;c art, 5 439- 

roff, his strong will. ^ 198. 

h army, ^ 452. 

h character, ^^ 595, 596. 

h hands, ^ 351. 

h labourers, ^ 344. 

h tortures, ^ 6. 

n exclusiveness, ^ 365. 

.n laws, % 363. 

ate hands, 221. 

ate and jointeil hands, * 1 22. 

ate-handeil women, % 665. 

ate and useful hamls, ^ 527. 

ale tips, ^^ 117, 119. 

1, the hand of the spirit, •" 85. 

,1 training neccssar)*, ^31. 

on the nails, ^ 19. 

jeim. J. ('., 89 ". 

; hands, %^ 123-6, ami (t. 319. 

;-handed women, ^,^ 667. 669. 

: military hands, ^ 446. 

: spatulate hands, ^ 162. 

Mmc. de, ^* 528, 565. 

Mme.. on the Pariah, 203 •*. 

;th, E^ptian symlxd of. ^ 12. 

ands,^ 138. 

I fingers 1 245. 

ises. Recording only, ^ 48. 

n sensations. ^ 3. 

lility of instrument>. % 288. 

«iti<ms of elementary hands. ^ 332. 

e ]>alm, ^ 96. 

ll*ors, ^161. 

ing by the hantK. 179 *•'. 5 258. 

glamls. ^ 75. 

rnlxirg antl PartarN * 5S1. 
chararicristic«.. ' 346. 
ites 5 327- 

Sydney, Sir Philip, ^ la 

Sylvester II., ^ 374. 

.Syml)olical expressions, ^^ 252, 261. 

SymlK)l of fxiwer, % 263. 

Syml)olism of the thumb. ^183. 

.Synthesis and analysis, ^141. 

Tactile a)rpu.scles, 126 *". 

"Ta-Hio,''The. 162 »'•. 

Talsnier, on cheiromancy, 171 ••. 

Taking a sight, K 17. 

Tartar and Sclav hands. ^ 309. 

Taste, ^ III. 

T.xstc in sixteenth century, ^ 47a 

Tcherkesses, The, ^ 372. 

Tchobanlxichi, ^318. 

Testaments, Old and New, ^ 39a 

Teutons The, ^ 127. 

ThclK-s, Statue of .Memnon at, 96 '■■. 

Thessalian horsemanship, ^ 327. 

Thiljetan customs * 20a 

Thinl finger, ^ 7. 

Thumb. The, 138. 

Thuml), Amputation of, ^ 8. 

Thumb, the emblem of man, 5^ >8o» 

Thumb in gladiatorial shows. 5 >9^ 
Thumbs, Mutilation of, ^ 6. 
Toleration, Necessity of, % 29a 
Touch corpuscles, % 77. 
Touch, Sense of, in the fingeni|>s ^ 15^ 
Tourgueneff, Ivan. 49 **. 
Traveller's tales, 149 '". 
Trica-sso. P., on cheiromancy, 171 •*. 
Tripoli, The hami charms of, ^ 266. 
Truth unnatural to man, ^ 54. 
Tuileries Gardens. 5 487. 
Turkish character, n 317. etc. 
Turkish hand syinlM)lisms, % 267. 
Turkish salutation. 209 **. 
Uncertainty of exact science, 91 '■". 
Unitetl .States, ^ 289. 
United Suies, l^ws of the. ^ 362. 
Universal im)H>rtance of the hand, ^ I. 
Useful iyi)e. Illustration, ^ 173. 
Uses of ine haml. ^ 5, 319. 
Value of the science. 5* 30i» 32, 54. 
Variation of hands, ^ 86. 93 "". 
Variations of iyi»es, •^ 157, 95 *". 
Vaucanson, J. ile, 109 '". 
Vemlcan ch.iract eristics. ^^ (140-2. 
Venous system of the hami, € 71. 
VtraiWcs. ^^ ^\^ 

Vetmtile talents, ^ aab. 

Vespasian, Emperor, ^ 15, 
Vill«gcsofeleinemiiry hands, % 316 
Villiers of Buckingham. 1 ir 

Voltaire, Cosinme of, ^ 473. 
Voltaire, his scepticism, j 456. 
Vollnire's la^ thumbs, 4 I99> 
Wiir brlwecn different races, 1 613. 

Waiir, ^ lai. 

Weak Ihumbs, ^ igi. 

White hands in Persia, 5 II. 

Wickedness of the science. ^ 39. 

Will stated in the thumb, ^\ iSS, ^ 

WItaid's haods, 5 26g. 

Women in Europe and Asia, ^ 650, 

Writers on the hand, l6. 

Xenophon on locialisni, ^ 423. 

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